Articles | Volume 2, issue 2
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean
Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA
School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
S. Van Heuven
Department of Ocean Ecosystems, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at Kiel University, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA
R. M. Key
Princeton University, Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Forrestal Campus/Sayre Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Related subject area
Chemical oceanographySpatial reconstruction of long-term (2003–2020) sea surface pCO2 in the South China Sea using a machine-learning-based regression method aided by empirical orthogonal function analysisOceanSODA-MDB: a standardised surface ocean carbonate system dataset for model–data intercomparisonsHyperspectral reflectance dataset of pristine, weathered, and biofouled plasticsA database of marine macronutrient, temperature and salinity measurements made around the highly productive island of South Georgia, the Scotia Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula between 1980 and 2009GLODAPv2.2022: the latest version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data productEvaluating the transport of surface seawater from 1956 to 2021 using 137Cs deposited in the global ocean as a chemical tracerOil slicks in the Gulf of Guinea – 10 years of Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar observationsOceanSODA-UNEXE: A multi-year gridded Amazon and Congo River outflow surface ocean carbonate system datasetThird revision of the global surface seawater dimethyl sulfide climatology (DMS-Rev3)The CISE-LOCEAN seawater isotopic database (1998–2021)Revisiting five decades of 234Th data: a comprehensive global oceanic compilationA monthly surface pCO2 product for the California Current Large Marine EcosystemClimatological distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the western Mediterranean Sea (1981–2017)An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021Coastal Ocean Data Analysis Product in North America (CODAP-NA) – an internally consistent data product for discrete inorganic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients on the North American ocean marginsFeasibility of reconstructing the summer basin-scale sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide from sparse in situ observations over the South China SeaOceanSODA-ETHZ: a global gridded data set of the surface ocean carbonate system for seasonal to decadal studies of ocean acidificationAn updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2020ARIOS: a database for ocean acidification assessment in the Iberian upwelling system (1976–2018)A uniform pCO2 climatology combining open and coastal oceansDissolved inorganic nutrients in the western Mediterranean Sea (2004–2017)A global monthly climatology of oceanic total dissolved inorganic carbon: a neural network approachA 17-year dataset of surface water fugacity of CO2 along with calculated pH, aragonite saturation state and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the northern Caribbean SeaGlobal database of ratios of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 in the ocean: improving estimates of the biological carbon pumpGlobal certified-reference-material- or reference-material-scaled nutrient gridded dataset GND13GLODAPv2.2019 – an update of GLODAPv2A global monthly climatology of total alkalinity: a neural network approachEnvironmental parameters of shallow water habitats in the SW Baltic SeaA comprehensive global oceanic dataset of helium isotope and tritium measurementsAutonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trendsA rare intercomparison of nutrient analysis at sea: lessons learned and recommendations to enhance comparability of open-ocean nutrient dataSURATLANT: a 1993–2017 surface sampling in the central part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyreFerryBox data in the North Sea from 2002 to 2005Seasonal carbonate chemistry variability in marine surface waters of the US Pacific NorthwestThe Ocean Carbon States Database: a proof-of-concept application of cluster analysis in the ocean carbon cycleAn internally consistent dataset of δ13C-DIC in the North Atlantic Ocean – NAC13v1A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) – an internally consistent data product for the world oceanA new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the 1° × 1° GLODAP version 2Stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon for a zonal transect across the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean in summer 2014In situ measurement of the biogeochemical properties of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies in the Southwest Indian Ocean, April 2014A high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data set from 14 open-ocean sites using a moored autonomous systemMeasurements of total alkalinity and inorganic dissolved carbon in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Southern Ocean between 2008 and 2010Measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters in the Canadian Arctic, 1974–2009An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2)Winter measurements of oceanic biogeochemical parameters in the Rockall Trough (2009–2012)Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data productsAssessing the internal consistency of the CARINA data base in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean
Zhixuan Wang, Guizhi Wang, Xianghui Guo, Yan Bai, Yi Xu, and Minhan Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1711–1731,Short summary
We reconstructed monthly sea surface pCO2 data with a high spatial resolution in the South China Sea (SCS) from 2003 to 2020. We validate our reconstruction with three independent testing datasets and present a new method to assess the uncertainty of the data. The results strongly suggest that our reconstruction effectively captures the main features of the spatiotemporal patterns of pCO2 in the SCS. Using this dataset, we found that the SCS is overall a weak source of atmospheric CO2.
Peter Edward Land, Helen S. Findlay, Jamie D. Shutler, Jean-Francois Piolle, Richard Sims, Hannah Green, Vassilis Kitidis, Alexander Polukhin, and Irina I. Pipko
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 921–947,Short summary
Measurements of the ocean’s carbonate system (e.g. CO2 and pH) have increased greatly in recent years, resulting in a need to combine these data with satellite measurements and model results, so they can be used to test predictions of how the ocean reacts to changes such as absorption of the CO2 emitted by humans. We show a method of combining data into regions of interest (100 km circles over a 10 d period) and apply it globally to produce a harmonised and easy-to-use data archive.
Giulia Leone, Ana I. Catarino, Liesbeth De Keukelaere, Mattias Bossaer, Els Knaeps, and Gert Everaert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 745–752,Short summary
This paper illustrates a dataset of hyperspectral reflectance measurements of macroplastics. Plastic samples consisted of pristine, artificially weathered, and biofouled plastic items and field plastic debris. Samples were measured in dry conditions and a subset of plastics in wet and submerged conditions. This dataset can be used to better understand plastic optical features when exposed to natural agents and to support the development of algorithms for monitoring environmental plastics.
Michael J. Whitehouse, Katharine R. Hendry, Geraint A. Tarling, Sally E. Thorpe, and Petra ten Hoopen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 211–224,Short summary
We present a database of Southern Ocean macronutrient, temperature and salinity measurements collected on 20 oceanographic cruises between 1980 and 2009. Vertical profiles and underway surface measurements were collected year-round as part of an integrated ecosystem study. Our data provide a novel view of biogeochemical cycling in biologically productive regions across a critical period in recent climate history and will contribute to a better understanding of the drivers of primary production.
Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Simone Alin, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Leticia Barbero, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Li-Qing Jiang, Steve D. Jones, Claire Lo Monaco, Akihiko Murata, Jens Daniel Müller, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Adam Ulfsbo, Anton Velo, Ryan J. Woosley, and Robert M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5543–5572,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by the chemical analysis of water bottle samples from scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2022 is the fourth update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality controlling, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 1085 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2021.
Yayoi Inomata and Michio Aoyama
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Behavior of 137Cs in surface seawater in the global ocean was analyzed by using the Historical Artificial radioactivity database in Marine environment. Approximately 32 % of 137Cs existed in the surface seawater in 1970. The 137Cs released into the North Pacific Ocean by large scale nuclear weapons tests transported to the Indian Ocean and then Atlantic Ocean with 4-5 decadal, whereas 137Cs released from nuclear reprocessing plants transported northward in the Arctic Ocean with decadal scale.
Zhour Najoui, Nellya Amoussou, Serge Riazanoff, Guillaume Aurel, and Frédéric Frappart
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4569–4588,Short summary
Oil spills could have serious repercussions for both the marine environment and ecosystem. The Gulf of Guinea is a very active area with respect to maritime traffic as well as oil and gas exploitation (platforms). As a result, the region is subject to a large number of oil pollution events. This study aims to detect oil slicks in the Gulf of Guinea and analyse their spatial and temporal distribution using satellite data.
Richard Peter Sims, Thomas Mitchell Holding, Peter E. Land, Jean-Francois Piolle, Hannah Louise Green, and Jamie D. Shutler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The flow of carbon between the land and ocean is poorly quantified with existing measurements. It is not clear how seasonality and long term variability impact this flow of carbon. Here we demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to create decadal timeseries of the inorganic carbonate system in the Amazon and Congo River outflows.
Shrivardhan Hulswar, Rafel Simó, Martí Galí, Thomas G. Bell, Arancha Lana, Swaleha Inamdar, Paul R. Halloran, George Manville, and Anoop Sharad Mahajan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2963–2987,Short summary
The third climatological estimation of sea surface dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations based on in situ measurements was created (DMS-Rev3). The update includes a much larger input dataset and includes improvements in the data unification, filtering, and smoothing algorithm. The DMS-Rev3 climatology provides more realistic monthly estimates of DMS, and shows significant regional differences compared to past climatologies.
Gilles Reverdin, Claire Waelbroeck, Catherine Pierre, Camille Akhoudas, Giovanni Aloisi, Marion Benetti, Bernard Bourlès, Magnus Danielsen, Jérôme Demange, Denis Diverrès, Jean-Claude Gascard, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Hervé Le Goff, Pascale Lherminier, Claire Lo Monaco, Herlé Mercier, Nicolas Metzl, Simon Morisset, Aïcha Naamar, Thierry Reynaud, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Virginie Thierry, Susan E. Hartman, Edward W. Mawji, Solveig Olafsdottir, Torsten Kanzow, Anton Velo, Antje Voelker, Igor Yashayaev, F. Alexander Haumann, Melanie J. Leng, Carol Arrowsmith, and Michael Meredith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2721–2735,Short summary
The CISE-LOCEAN seawater stable isotope dataset has close to 8000 data entries. The δ18O and δD isotopic data measured at LOCEAN have uncertainties of at most 0.05 ‰ and 0.25 ‰, respectively. Some data were adjusted to correct for evaporation. The internal consistency indicates that the data can be used to investigate time and space variability to within 0.03 ‰ and 0.15 ‰ in δ18O–δD17; comparisons with data analyzed in other institutions suggest larger differences with other datasets.
Elena Ceballos-Romero, Ken O. Buesseler, and María Villa-Alfageme
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2639–2679,Short summary
Thorium-234 is widely used for studying the removal rate of material on sinking particles from the upper ocean and for determining the downward flux of carbon. In this study, we present a compilation of the 50 years of 234Th measurements in the ocean and provide a broad overview of the character of the datasets. This provides a valuable resource useful to better understand and quantify how the contemporary oceanic carbon uptake functions and how it will change in future.
Jonathan D. Sharp, Andrea J. Fassbender, Brendan R. Carter, Paige D. Lavin, and Adrienne J. Sutton
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2081–2108,Short summary
Oceanographers calculate the exchange of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere by comparing partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Because seawater pCO2 is not measured everywhere at all times, interpolation schemes are required to fill observational gaps. We describe a monthly gap-filled dataset of pCO2 in the northeast Pacific Ocean off the west coast of North America created by machine-learning interpolation. This dataset is unique in its robust representation of coastal seasonality.
Malek Belgacem, Katrin Schroeder, Alexander Barth, Charles Troupin, Bruno Pavoni, Patrick Raimbault, Nicole Garcia, Mireno Borghini, and Jacopo Chiggiato
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5915–5949,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea exhibits an anti-estuarine circulation, responsible for its low productivity. Understanding this peculiar character is still a challenge since there is no exact quantification of nutrient sinks and sources. Because nutrient in situ observations are generally infrequent and scattered in space and time, climatological mapping is often applied to sparse data in order to understand the biogeochemical state of the ocean. The dataset presented here partly addresses these issues.
Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Steve D. Jones, Maren K. Karlsen, Claire Lo Monaco, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, Ryan J. Woosley, and Robert M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5565–5589,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by the chemical analysis of water bottle samples from scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2021 is the third update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 989 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2020.
Li-Qing Jiang, Richard A. Feely, Rik Wanninkhof, Dana Greeley, Leticia Barbero, Simone Alin, Brendan R. Carter, Denis Pierrot, Charles Featherstone, James Hooper, Chris Melrose, Natalie Monacci, Jonathan D. Sharp, Shawn Shellito, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Alex Kozyr, Robert H. Byrne, Wei-Jun Cai, Jessica Cross, Gregory C. Johnson, Burke Hales, Chris Langdon, Jeremy Mathis, Joe Salisbury, and David W. Townsend
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2777–2799,Short summary
Coastal ecosystems account for most of the economic activities related to commercial and recreational fisheries and aquaculture industries, supporting about 90 % of the global fisheries yield and 80 % of known species of marine fish. Despite the large potential risks from ocean acidification (OA), internally consistent water column OA data products in the coastal ocean still do not exist. This paper is the first time we report a high quality OA data product in North America's coastal waters.
Guizhi Wang, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yao Chen, Yan Bai, Huan Qin, Zhixuan Wang, Baoshan Chen, Xianghui Guo, and Minhan Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1403–1417,Short summary
This study reconstructs a complete field of summer sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) over the South China Sea (SCS) with a 0.5° resolution in the period of 2000–2017 using the scattered underway pCO2 observations. The spectral optimal gridding method was used in this reconstruction with empirical orthogonal functions computed from remote sensing data. Our reconstructed data show that the rate of sea surface pCO2 increase in the SCS is 2.4 ± 0.8 µatm yr-1 during 2000–2017.
Luke Gregor and Nicolas Gruber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 777–808,Short summary
Ocean acidification (OA) has altered the ocean's carbonate chemistry, with consequences for marine life. Yet, no observation-based data set exists that permits us to study changes in OA. We fill this gap with a global data set of relevant surface ocean parameters over the period 1985–2018. This data set, OceanSODA-ETHZ, was created by using satellite and other data to extrapolate ship-based measurements of carbon dioxide and total alkalinity from which parameters for OA were computed.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Camilla S. Landa, Siv K. Lauvset, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, and Ryan J. Woosley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3653–3678,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2020 is the second update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 946 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2019.
Xosé Antonio Padin, Antón Velo, and Fiz F. Pérez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2647–2663,Short summary
The ARIOS (Acidification in the Rias and the Iberian Continental Shelf) database holds biogeochemical information from 3357 oceanographic stations, giving 17 653 discrete samples. This unique collection is a starting point for evaluating ocean acidification in the Iberian upwelling system, characterized by intense biogeochemical interactions as an observation-based analysis, or for use as inputs in a coupled physical–biogeochemical model to disentangle these interactions at the ecosystem level.
Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Alizee Roobaert, and Pierre Regnier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2537–2553,Short summary
In recent years, multiple estimates of the global air–sea CO2 flux emerged from upscaling shipboard pCO2 measurements. They are however limited to the open-ocean domain and do not consider the coastal ocean, i.e. a significant marine sink for CO2. We build towards an integrated pCO2 product that combines both the open-ocean and coastal-ocean domain and focus on the evaluation of the common overlap area of these products and how well the aquatic continuum is represented in the new climatology.
Malek Belgacem, Jacopo Chiggiato, Mireno Borghini, Bruno Pavoni, Gabriella Cerrati, Francesco Acri, Stefano Cozzi, Alberto Ribotti, Marta Álvarez, Siv K. Lauvset, and Katrin Schroeder
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1985–2011,Short summary
Long-term time series are a fundamental prerequisite to understanding and detecting climate shifts and trends. In marginal seas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, there are still monitoring gaps. An extensive dataset of dissolved inorganic nutrient profiles were collected between 2004 and 2017 in the western Mediterranean Sea to provide to the scientific community a publicly available, long-term, quality-controlled, internally consistent new database.
Daniel Broullón, Fiz F. Pérez, Antón Velo, Mario Hoppema, Are Olsen, Taro Takahashi, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano, and Alex Kozyr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1725–1743,Short summary
This work offers a vision of the global ocean regarding the carbon cycle and the implications of ocean acidification through a climatology of a changing variable in the context of climate change: total dissolved inorganic carbon. The climatology was designed through artificial intelligence techniques to represent the mean state of the present ocean. It is very useful to introduce in models to evaluate the state of the ocean from different perspectives.
Rik Wanninkhof, Denis Pierrot, Kevin Sullivan, Leticia Barbero, and Joaquin Triñanes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1489–1509,Short summary
This paper describes a 17-year dataset of over a million data points of automated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) measurements on large luxury cruise ships of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines (RCCL). These data are used to provide trends of ocean acidification and air–sea CO2 fluxes. The effort was possible through a unique continuing industry (RCCL), academic (University of Miami) and governmental (NOAA) partnership.
Viena Puigcorbé, Pere Masqué, and Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1267–1285,Short summary
The biological carbon pump is a mechanism by which the oceans capture atmospheric carbon dioxide thanks to microscopic marine algae. Quantifying its strength and efficiency is crucial to understand the global carbon budget and be able to forecast its trends. The radioactive pair 234Th : 238U has been extensively used for that purpose. This is a global compilation of carbon-to-234Th ratios (needed to convert the 234Th fluxes to carbon fluxes) that will contribute to improve our modeling efforts.
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 487–499,Short summary
A global nutrient gridded dataset that might be the basis for studies of more accurate spatial distributions of nutrients and their changes in the global ocean was created. This is an SI-traceable dataset of nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations based on certified reference materials or reference materials (CRMs/RMs) of seawater nutrient concentration measurements used during many cruises by the author.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Henry C. Bittig, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Steve D. Jones, Sara Jutterström, Maren K. Karlsen, Alex Kozyr, Siv K. Lauvset, Claire Lo Monaco, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Maciej Telszewski, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, and Rik Wanninkhof
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1437–1461,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2019 is the first update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 840 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2017.
Daniel Broullón, Fiz F. Pérez, Antón Velo, Mario Hoppema, Are Olsen, Taro Takahashi, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Melchor González-Dávila, Emil Jeansson, Alex Kozyr, and Steven M. A. C. van Heuven
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1109–1127,Short summary
In this work, we are contributing to the knowledge of the consequences of climate change in the ocean. We have focused on a variable related to this process: total alkalinity. We have designed a monthly climatology of total alkalinity using artificial intelligence techniques, that is, a representation of the average capacity of the ocean in the last decades to decelerate the consequences of climate change. The climatology is especially useful to infer the evolution of the ocean through models.
Markus Franz, Christian Lieberum, Gesche Bock, and Rolf Karez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 947–957,Short summary
The water parameters in coastal zones are highly variable, making predictions about its dynamics difficult. However, in situ measurements performed in these habitats are still scarce. Therefore we designed a monitoring study to record the environmental conditions in shallow waters by using data loggers and the collection of water samples. The data reveal great variabilities of water parameters and could be used to support experimental and modeling approaches.
William J. Jenkins, Scott C. Doney, Michaela Fendrock, Rana Fine, Toshitaka Gamo, Philippe Jean-Baptiste, Robert Key, Birgit Klein, John E. Lupton, Robert Newton, Monika Rhein, Wolfgang Roether, Yuji Sano, Reiner Schlitzer, Peter Schlosser, and Jim Swift
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 441–454,Short summary
This paper describes an assembled dataset containing measurements of certain trace substances in the ocean, their distributions, and evolution with time. These substances, called tracers, result from a combination of natural and artificial processes, and their distribution and evolution provide important clues about ocean circulation, mixing, and ventilation. In addition, they give information about the global hydrologic cycle and volcanic and hydrothermal processes.
Adrienne J. Sutton, Richard A. Feely, Stacy Maenner-Jones, Sylvia Musielwicz, John Osborne, Colin Dietrich, Natalie Monacci, Jessica Cross, Randy Bott, Alex Kozyr, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Wei-Jun Cai, Meghan F. Cronin, Eric H. De Carlo, Burke Hales, Stephan D. Howden, Charity M. Lee, Derek P. Manzello, Michael J. McPhaden, Melissa Meléndez, John B. Mickett, Jan A. Newton, Scott E. Noakes, Jae Hoon Noh, Solveig R. Olafsdottir, Joseph E. Salisbury, Uwe Send, Thomas W. Trull, Douglas C. Vandemark, and Robert A. Weller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 421–439,Short summary
Long-term observations are critical records for distinguishing natural cycles from climate change. We present a data set of 40 surface ocean CO2 and pH time series that suggests the time length necessary to detect a trend in seawater CO2 due to uptake of atmospheric CO2 varies from 8 years in the least variable ocean regions to 41 years in the most variable coastal regions. This data set provides a tool to evaluate natural cycles of ocean CO2, with long-term trends emerging as records lengthen.
Triona McGrath, Margot Cronin, Elizabeth Kerrigan, Douglas Wallace, Clynton Gregory, Claire Normandeau, and Evin McGovern
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 355–374,Short summary
We report results from an intercomparison exercise on the analysis of nutrients at sea. Two independent teams (Marine Institute, Ireland and Dalhousie University Canada) carried out an analysis of a GO-SHIP hydrographic section. The cruise provided a unique opportunity to assess the likely comparability of nutrient data collected following GO-SHIP protocols. Datasets were high quality and compared well but highlighted a number of issues relevant to the comparability of global nutrient data.
Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Solveig Olafsdottir, Virginie Racapé, Taro Takahashi, Marion Benetti, Hedinn Valdimarsson, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Magnus Danielsen, Jonathan Fin, Aicha Naamar, Denis Pierrot, Kevin Sullivan, Francis Bringas, and Gustavo Goni
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1901–1924,Short summary
This paper presents the SURATLANT data set (SURveillance ATLANTique), consisting of individual data of temperature, salinity, parameters of the carbonate system, nutrients, and water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) collected mostly from ships of opportunity since 1993 along transects between Iceland and Newfoundland. These data are used to quantify the seasonal cycle and can be used to investigate long-term tendencies in the surface ocean, including of pCO2 and pH.
Wilhelm Petersen, Susanne Reinke, Gisbert Breitbach, Michail Petschatnikov, Henning Wehde, and Henrike Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1729–1734,Short summary
From 2002 to 2005 a FerryBox system was installed aboard two different ferries traveling between Cuxhaven (Germany) and Harwich (UK) on a daily basis. The FerryBox system is an automated flow-through monitoring system for measuring oceanographic and biogeochemical parameters installed on ships of opportunity. The data set provides the parameters water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a fluorescence.
Andrea J. Fassbender, Simone R. Alin, Richard A. Feely, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jan A. Newton, Christopher Krembs, Julia Bos, Mya Keyzers, Allan Devol, Wendi Ruef, and Greg Pelletier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1367–1401,Short summary
Ocean acidification (OA) is difficult to identify in coastal marine waters due to the magnitude of natural variability and lack of historical baseline information. To provide regional context for ongoing research, adaptation, and management efforts, we have collated high-quality publicly available data to characterize seasonal cycles of OA-relevant parameters in the Pacific Northwest marine surface waters. Large nonstationary chemical gradients from the open ocean into the Salish Sea are found.
Rebecca Latto and Anastasia Romanou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 609–626,Short summary
It is crucial to study the ocean’s role in the global carbon cycle in order to understand and predict the increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere, which is regarded as one of the main drivers of global warming. By analyzing the relationship between surface ocean CO2 and temperature, we seek to understand the pathways by which the ocean controls carbon fluctuations in the atmosphere. We employ cluster analysis as a tool for revealing patterns in where and when this relationship occurs.
Meike Becker, Nils Andersen, Helmut Erlenkeuser, Matthew P. Humphreys, Toste Tanhua, and Arne Körtzinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 559–570,Short summary
The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) can be used to quantify fluxes within the marine carbon system such as the exchange between ocean and atmosphere or the amount of anthropogenic carbon in the water column. In this study, an internally consistent δ13C-DIC dataset for the North Atlantic is presented. The data have undergone a secondary quality control during which systematic biases between the respective cruises have been quantified and adjusted.
Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Benjamin Pfeil, Camilla S. Landa, Nicolas Metzl, Kevin M. O'Brien, Are Olsen, Karl Smith, Cathy Cosca, Sumiko Harasawa, Stephen D. Jones, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, Ute Schuster, Tobias Steinhoff, Colm Sweeney, Taro Takahashi, Bronte Tilbrook, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Simone R. Alin, Carlos F. Balestrini, Leticia Barbero, Nicholas R. Bates, Alejandro A. Bianchi, Frédéric Bonou, Jacqueline Boutin, Yann Bozec, Eugene F. Burger, Wei-Jun Cai, Robert D. Castle, Liqi Chen, Melissa Chierici, Kim Currie, Wiley Evans, Charles Featherstone, Richard A. Feely, Agneta Fransson, Catherine Goyet, Naomi Greenwood, Luke Gregor, Steven Hankin, Nick J. Hardman-Mountford, Jérôme Harlay, Judith Hauck, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Christopher W. Hunt, Betty Huss, J. Severino P. Ibánhez, Truls Johannessen, Ralph Keeling, Vassilis Kitidis, Arne Körtzinger, Alex Kozyr, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Akira Kuwata, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Claire Lo Monaco, Ansley Manke, Jeremy T. Mathis, Liliane Merlivat, Frank J. Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Akihiko Murata, Timothy Newberger, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Kristina Paterson, David Pearce, Denis Pierrot, Lisa L. Robbins, Shu Saito, Joe Salisbury, Reiner Schlitzer, Bernd Schneider, Roland Schweitzer, Rainer Sieger, Ingunn Skjelvan, Kevin F. Sullivan, Stewart C. Sutherland, Adrienne J. Sutton, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Maciej Telszewski, Matthias Tuma, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Doug Vandemark, Brian Ward, Andrew J. Watson, and Suqing Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 383–413,Short summary
Version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (www.socat.info) has 14.5 million CO2 (carbon dioxide) values for the years 1957 to 2014 covering the global oceans and coastal seas. Version 3 is an update to version 2 with a longer record and 44 % more CO2 values. The CO2 measurements have been made on ships, fixed moorings and drifting buoys. SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification, as well as model evaluation, thus informing climate negotiations.
Are Olsen, Robert M. Key, Steven van Heuven, Siv K. Lauvset, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Pérez, and Toru Suzuki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 297–323,Short summary
The GLODAPv2 data product collects data from more than 700 hydrographic cruises into a global and internally calibrated product. It provides access to the data from almost all ocean carbon cruises carried out since the 1970s and is a unique resource for marine science, in particular regarding the ocean carbon cycle. GLODAPv2 will form the foundation for future routine synthesis of hydrographic data of the same sort.
Siv K. Lauvset, Robert M. Key, Are Olsen, Steven van Heuven, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Perez, Toru Suzuki, and Sylvain Watelet
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 325–340,Short summary
This paper describes the mapped climatologies that are part of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project Version 2 (GLODAPv2). GLODAPv2 is a uniformly calibrated open ocean data product on inorganic carbon and carbon-relevant variables. Global mapped climatologies of the total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, saturation state of calcite and aragonite, anthropogenic carbon, preindustrial carbon content, inorganic macronutrients, oxygen, salinity, and temperature have been created.
Matthew P. Humphreys, Florence M. Greatrix, Eithne Tynan, Eric P. Achterberg, Alex M. Griffiths, Claudia H. Fry, Rebecca Garley, Alison McDonald, and Adrian J. Boyce
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 221–233,Short summary
This paper reports the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater for a transect from west to east across the North Atlantic Ocean. The results can be used to study oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, and also to investigate the natural biological carbon pump. We also provide stable DIC isotope results for two batches of Dickson seawater CRMs to enable intercomparisons with other studies.
S. de Villiers, K. Siswana, and K. Vena
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 415–422,Short summary
A "young" warm-core eddy and an "older" warm-core eddy further south were surveyed in the Southern Ocean to study differences in their heat, salt and nutrient characteristics. Results show that warm eddies that migrate from the polar front further south lose heat but gain dissolved silicate and exhibit much higher levels of chlorophyll-a. This demonstrates important heat and nutrient exchange processes associated with eddy transport in the ocean.
A. J. Sutton, C. L. Sabine, S. Maenner-Jones, N. Lawrence-Slavas, C. Meinig, R. A. Feely, J. T. Mathis, S. Musielewicz, R. Bott, P. D. McLain, H. J. Fought, and A. Kozyr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 353–366,Short summary
In an effort to track ocean change, sustained ocean observations are becoming increasingly important. Advancements in the ocean carbon observation network over the last decade have dramatically improved our ability to understand how rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change affect the chemistry of the oceans and their marine ecosystems. Here we describe one of those advancements, the MAPCO2 system, and the climate-quality data produced from 14 ocean CO2 observatories.
U. Schuster, A. J. Watson, D. C. E. Bakker, A. M. de Boer, E. M. Jones, G. A. Lee, O. Legge, A. Louwerse, J. Riley, and S. Scally
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 175–183,
K. E. Giesbrecht, L. A. Miller, M. Davelaar, S. Zimmermann, E. Carmack, W. K. Johnson, R. W. Macdonald, F. McLaughlin, A. Mucci, W. J. Williams, C. S. Wong, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 91–104,
D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, K. Smith, S. Hankin, A. Olsen, S. R. Alin, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, A. Kozyr, Y. Nojiri, K. M. O'Brien, U. Schuster, M. Telszewski, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, J. Akl, L. Barbero, N. R. Bates, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, W.-J. Cai, R. D. Castle, F. P. Chavez, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, H. J. W. de Baar, W. Evans, R. A. Feely, A. Fransson, Z. Gao, B. Hales, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Hoppema, W.-J. Huang, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, T. Ichikawa, T. Johannessen, E. M. Jones, S. D. Jones, S. Jutterström, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. B. Manke, J. T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, N. Metzl, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A. M. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, D. Pierrot, A. F. Ríos, C. L. Sabine, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, K. F. Sullivan, H. Sun, A. J. Sutton, T. Suzuki, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, J. Tjiputra, N. Tsurushima, S. M. A. C. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, P. Vlahos, D. W. R. Wallace, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90,
T. McGrath, C. Kivimäe, E. McGovern, R. R. Cave, and E. Joyce
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 375–383,
T. Tanhua, D. Hainbucher, V. Cardin, M. Álvarez, G. Civitarese, A. P. McNichol, and R. M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 289–294,
B. Pfeil, A. Olsen, D. C. E. Bakker, S. Hankin, H. Koyuk, A. Kozyr, J. Malczyk, A. Manke, N. Metzl, C. L. Sabine, J. Akl, S. R. Alin, N. Bates, R. G. J. Bellerby, A. Borges, J. Boutin, P. J. Brown, W.-J. Cai, F. P. Chavez, A. Chen, C. Cosca, A. J. Fassbender, R. A. Feely, M. González-Dávila, C. Goyet, B. Hales, N. Hardman-Mountford, C. Heinze, M. Hood, M. Hoppema, C. W. Hunt, D. Hydes, M. Ishii, T. Johannessen, S. D. Jones, R. M. Key, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, A. Lourantou, L. Merlivat, T. Midorikawa, L. Mintrop, C. Miyazaki, A. Murata, A. Nakadate, Y. Nakano, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, A. M. Omar, X. A. Padin, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, F. F. Perez, D. Pierrot, A. Poisson, A. F. Ríos, J. M. Santana-Casiano, J. Salisbury, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, U. Schuster, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, T. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, K. Tedesco, M. Telszewski, H. Thomas, B. Tilbrook, J. Tjiputra, D. Vandemark, T. Veness, R. Wanninkhof, A. J. Watson, R. Weiss, C. S. Wong, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 125–143,
C. L. Sabine, S. Hankin, H. Koyuk, D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, A. Olsen, N. Metzl, A. Kozyr, A. Fassbender, A. Manke, J. Malczyk, J. Akl, S. R. Alin, R. G. J. Bellerby, A. Borges, J. Boutin, P. J. Brown, W.-J. Cai, F. P. Chavez, A. Chen, C. Cosca, R. A. Feely, M. González-Dávila, C. Goyet, N. Hardman-Mountford, C. Heinze, M. Hoppema, C. W. Hunt, D. Hydes, M. Ishii, T. Johannessen, R. M. Key, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, A. Lourantou, L. Merlivat, T. Midorikawa, L. Mintrop, C. Miyazaki, A. Murata, A. Nakadate, Y. Nakano, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, A. M. Omar, X. A. Padin, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, F. F. Perez, D. Pierrot, A. Poisson, A. F. Ríos, J. Salisbury, J. M. Santana-Casiano, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, U. Schuster, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, T. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, K. Tedesco, M. Telszewski, H. Thomas, B. Tilbrook, D. Vandemark, T. Veness, A. J. Watson, R. Weiss, C. S. Wong, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145–153,
C. L. Sabine, M. Hoppema, R. M. Key, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, C. Lo Monaco, N. Metzl, M. Ishii, A. Murata, and S. Musielewicz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 195–204,
Bradshaw, A. L., Brewer, P. G., Shafer, D. K., and Williams, R. T.: Measurements of total carbon dioxide and alkalinity by potentiometric titration in the GEOSECS program, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 55, 99–115, 1981.
Dickson, A. G.: Standard potential of the (AgCl(s) + 1/2H2 (g) = Ag(s) + HCl(aq)) cell and the dissociation constant of bisulfate ion in synthetic sea water from 273.15 to 318.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 22, 113–127, 1990.
Dickson, A. G., Afgan, J. D., and Anderson, G. C.: Reference materials for oceanic CO2 analysis: a method for certification of total alkalinity, Mar. Chem., 80, 185–197, 2003.
Dickson, A. G. and Millero, F. J.: A comparison of the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater media, Deep-Sea Res., 34, 1733–1743, 1987.
Dickson, A. G. and Riley, J. P.: The estimation of acid dissociation constants in seawater from potentiometric titrations with strong base. I. The ion product of water – Kw, Mar. Chem., 7, 89–99, 1979.
Dickson, B., Yashayaev, I., Meincke, J., Turrell, B., Dye, S., and Holfort, J.: Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades, Nature, 416, 832–837, 2002.
DOE: Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water, Version 2, ORNL/CDIAC-74, 1994.
van Heuven, S., Pierrot, D., Lewis, E., and Wallace, D. W. R.: MATLAB Program Developed for CO2 System Calculations, ORNL/CDIAC-105b, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2009.
Johnson, K. M., Wills, K. D., Butler, D. B., Johnson, W. K., and Wong, C. S.: Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: maximizing the performance of an automated continuous gas extraction system and coulometric detector, Mar. Chem., 44, 167–189, 1993.
Johnson, G. C., Robbins, P. E., and Hufford, G. E.: Systematic adjustments of hydrographic sections for internal consistency, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 18(7), 1234–1244, 2001.
Key, R. M., Kozyr, A., Sabine, C. L., Lee, K., Wanninkhof, R., Bullister, J., Feely, R. A., Millero, F., Mordy, C., and Peng, T.-H.: Results from the Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB4031, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002247, 2004.
Key, R. M., Tanhua, T., Olsen, A., Hoppema, M., Jutterström, S., Schirnick, C., van Heuven, S., Kozyr, A., Lin, X., Velo, A., Wallace, D. W. R., and Mintrop, L.: The CARINA data synthesis project: introduction and overview, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 105–121, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2-105-2010, 2010.
Mehrbach, C., Culberson, C. H., Hawley, J. E., and Pytkowicz, R. M.: Measurement of the apparent dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at atmospheric pressure, Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 897–907, 1973.
Olsen, A.: Nordic Seas total dissolved inorganic carbon data in CARINA, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 35–43, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-1-35-2009, 2009.
Takahashi, T.: Precision and accuracy of the GEOSECS Indian Ocean alkalinity and total CO2 concentrations data, in: GEOSECS Indian Ocean Expedition, edited by: Weiss, R., et al., US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 5–7, 1983.
Tanhua, T., van Heuven, S., Key, R. M., Velo, A., Olsen, A., and Schirnick, C.: Quality control procedures and methods of the CARINA database, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 35–49, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2-35-2010, 2010a.
Tanhua, T., Steinfeldt, R., Key, R. M., Brown, P., Gruber, N., Wanninkhof, R., Perez, F., Körtzinger, A., Velo, A., Schuster, U., van Heuven, S., Bullister, J. L., Stendardo, I., Hoppema, M., Olsen, A., Kozyr, A., Pierrot, D., Schirnick, C., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 17–34, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2-17-2010, 2010b.
Wang, Z. A., Liu, X., Byrne, R. H., and Wanninkhof, R.: Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Flow-Through Measurements of Multiple Inorganic Carbon Parameters in Seawater: At-sea Test and Comparison, Analytica Chimica Acta, 596, 23–36, 2007.
Wunsch, C.: The ocean circulation inverse problem, Cambridge University Press, 442 pp., 1996.