Articles | Volume 13, issue 6
Data description paper 15 Jun 2021
Data description paper | 15 Jun 2021
Bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts: a long-term reference forecast product for the water sector in semi-arid regions
Christof Lorenz et al.
No articles found.
Heye Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Berk M. Duygu, Miguel A. Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Felix Frances, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten Høgh Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena M. Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 65 Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) operated by 23 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Julius Polz, Christian Chwala, Maximilian Graf, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3835–3853,Short summary
Commercial microwave link (CML) networks can be used to estimate path-averaged rain rates. This study evaluates the ability of convolutional neural networks to distinguish between wet and dry periods in CML time series data and the ability to transfer this detection skill to sensors not used for training. Our data set consists of several months of data from 3904 CMLs covering all of Germany. Compared to a previously used detection method, we could show a significant increase in performance.
Maximilian Graf, Christian Chwala, Julius Polz, and Harald Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2931–2950,Short summary
Commercial microwave links (CMLs), which form large parts of the backhaul from the ubiquitous cellular communication networks, can be used to estimate path-integrated rainfall rates. This study presents the processing and evaluation of the largest CML data set to date, covering the whole of Germany with almost 4000 CMLs. The CML-derived rainfall information compares well to a standard precipitation data set from the German Meteorological Service, which combines radar and rain gauge data.
Benjamin Fersch, Alfonso Senatore, Bianca Adler, Joël Arnault, Matthias Mauder, Katrin Schneider, Ingo Völksch, and Harald Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2457–2481,
Rebecca Mott, Andreas Wolf, Maximilian Kehl, Harald Kunstmann, Michael Warscher, and Thomas Grünewald
The Cryosphere, 13, 1247–1265,Short summary
The mass balance of very small glaciers is often governed by anomalous snow accumulation, winter precipitation being multiplied by snow redistribution processes, or by suppressed snow ablation driven by micrometeorological effects lowering net radiation and turbulent heat exchange. In this study we discuss the relative contribution of snow accumulation (avalanches) versus micrometeorology (katabatic flow) on the mass balance of the lowest perennial ice field of the Alps, the Ice Chapel.
Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Natalie Kaifler, Tanja Christina Portele, Martina Bramberger, Markus Rapp, Michael Gerding, Jens Söder, Nedjeljka Žagar, and Damjan Jelić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12915–12931,Short summary
A deep upper-air sounding stimulated the current investigation of internal gravity waves excited during a minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in the Arctic winter 2015/16. The analysis of the radiosonde profile revealed large kinetic and potential energies in the upper stratosphere without any simultaneous enhancement of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric values. In combination with high-resolution meteorological analyses we identified an elevated source of gravity wave excitation.
Dominikus Heinzeller, Diarra Dieng, Gerhard Smiatek, Christiana Olusegun, Cornelia Klein, Ilse Hamann, Seyni Salack, Jan Bliefernicht, and Harald Kunstmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 815–835,Short summary
Climate change and population growth pose severe challenges to 21st century rural Africa. Within the framework of the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate change simulations is provided to support adaptation and mitigation measures. This contribution presents the concept and design of the simulations and provides information on the format and dissemination of the available data.
Caroline Brosy, Karina Krampf, Matthias Zeeman, Benjamin Wolf, Wolfgang Junkermann, Klaus Schäfer, Stefan Emeis, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2773–2784,Short summary
Vertical and horizontal sounding of the planetary boundary layer can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Utilizing a multicopter-type UAV spatial sampling of air and simultaneously sensing of meteorological variables is possible for the study of surface exchange processes. During stable atmospheric conditions, vertical methane gradients of about 300 ppb were found. This approach extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of five.
Jan Schmieder, Florian Hanzer, Thomas Marke, Jakob Garvelmann, Michael Warscher, Harald Kunstmann, and Ulrich Strasser
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 5015–5033,Short summary
We present novel research on the spatiotemporal variability of snowmelt isotopic content in a high-elevation catchment with complex terrain to improve the isotope-based hydrograph separation method. A modelling approach was used to weight the plot-scale snowmelt isotopic content with melt rates for the north- and south-facing slope. The investigations showed that it is important to sample at least north- and south-facing slopes, because of distinct isotopic differences between both slopes.
Bernd Schalge, Jehan Rihani, Gabriele Baroni, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Vincent Haefliger, Barbara Haese, Pablo Saavedra, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Felix Ament, Sabine Attinger, Olaf A. Cirpka, Stefan Kollet, Harald Kunstmann, Harry Vereecken, and Clemens Simmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this work we show how we used a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model at highest possible resolution to create a testbed for data assimilation. The model was able to capture all important processes and interactions between the compartments as well as showing realistic statistical behavior. This proves that using a model as a virtual truth is possible and it will enable us to develop data assimilation methods where states and parameters are updated across compartment.
Christian Chwala, Felix Keis, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991–999,Short summary
Commercial microwave link (CML) networks, like they are used as backbone for the cell phone network, can be used to derive rainfall information. However, data availability is limited due to the lack of suitable data acquisition systems. We have developed and currently operate a custom data acquisition system for CML networks that is able to acquire the required data for a large number of CMLs in real time. This system is the basis for a future countrywide rainfall product derived from CML data.
D. Heinzeller, M. G. Duda, and H. Kunstmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 77–110,Short summary
We present an in-depth evaluation of the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for medium-size meshes on several HPCs. We also demonstrate the model performance in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African monsoon and its associated precipitation in a pilot study. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3km mesh with 65,536,002 horizontal grid cells on up to 458,752 cores.
F. Alshawaf, B. Fersch, S. Hinz, H. Kunstmann, M. Mayer, and F. J. Meyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4747–4764,Short summary
This work aims at deriving high spatially resolved maps of atmospheric water vapor by the fusion data from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The data fusion approach exploits the redundant and complementary spatial properties of all data sets to provide more accurate and high-resolution maps of water vapor. The comparison with maps from MERIS shows rms values of less than 1 mm.
G. Mao, S. Vogl, P. Laux, S. Wagner, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1787–1806,
A. Wagner, J. Seltmann, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
R. J. van der Ent, O. A. Tuinenburg, H.-R. Knoche, H. Kunstmann, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4869–4884,
Related subject area
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Bowen Cao, Le Yu, Xuecao Li, Min Chen, Xia Li, Pengyu Hao, and Peng Gong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5403–5421,Short summary
In the study, the first 1 km global cropland proportion dataset for 10 000 BCE–2100 CE was produced through the harmonization and downscaling framework. The mapping result coincides well with widely used datasets at present. With improved spatial resolution, our maps can better capture the cropland distribution details and spatial heterogeneity. The dataset will be valuable for long-term simulations and precise analyses. The framework can be extended to specific regions or other land use types.
Diyang Cui, Shunlin Liang, Dongdong Wang, and Zheng Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5087–5114,Short summary
Large portions of the Earth's surface are expected to experience changes in climatic conditions. The rearrangement of climate distributions can lead to serious impacts on ecological and social systems. Major climate zones are distributed in a predictable pattern and are largely defined following the Köppen climate classification. This creates an urgent need to compile a series of Köppen climate classification maps with finer spatial and temporal resolutions and improved accuracy.
Amanda R. Fay, Luke Gregor, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Nicolas Gruber, Marion Gehlen, Yosuke Iida, Goulven G. Laruelle, Christian Rödenbeck, Alizée Roobaert, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4693–4710,Short summary
The movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean is estimated using surface ocean carbon (pCO2) measurements and an equation including variables such as temperature and wind speed; the choices of these variables lead to uncertainties. We introduce the SeaFlux ensemble which provides carbon flux maps calculated in a consistent manner, thus reducing uncertainty by using common choices for wind speed and a set definition of "global" coverage.
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Edward J. Carnell, Anthony J. Dore, and Ulrike Dragosits
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4677–4692,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) may impact the environment in many ways, and estimation of its deposition to the terrestrial surface is of interest. N deposition data have not been generated at a high resolution (1 km × 1 km) over a long time series in the UK before now. This study concludes that N deposition has reduced by ~ 40 % from 1990. The impact of these results allows analysis of environmental impacts at a high spatial and temporal resolution, using a consistent methodology and consistent set of input data.
Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Emanuel Dutra, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Clément Albergel, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Souhail Boussetta, Margarita Choulga, Shaun Harrigan, Hans Hersbach, Brecht Martens, Diego G. Miralles, María Piles, Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández, Ervin Zsoter, Carlo Buontempo, and Jean-Noël Thépaut
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4349–4383,Short summary
The creation of ERA5-Land responds to a growing number of applications requiring global land datasets at a resolution higher than traditionally reached. ERA5-Land provides operational, global, and hourly key variables of the water and energy cycles over land surfaces, at 9 km resolution, from 1981 until the present. This work provides evidence of an overall improvement of the water cycle compared to previous reanalyses, whereas the energy cycle variables perform as well as those of ERA5.
Yan Chen, Shunlin Liang, Han Ma, Bing Li, Tao He, and Qian Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4241–4261,Short summary
This study used remotely sensed and assimilated data to estimate all-sky land surface air temperature (Ta) using a machine learning method, and developed an all-sky 1 km daily mean land Ta product for 2003–2019 over mainland China. Validation results demonstrated that this dataset has achieved satisfactory accuracy and high spatial resolution simultaneously, which fills the current dataset gap in this field and plays an important role in studies of climate change and the hydrological cycle.
Guoqing Zhang, Youhua Ran, Wei Wan, Wei Luo, Wenfeng Chen, Fenglin Xu, and Xin Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3951–3966,Short summary
Lakes can be effective indicators of climate change, especially over the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Here, we provide the most comprehensive lake mapping covering the past 100 years. The new features of this data set are (1) its temporal length, providing the longest period of lake observations from maps, (2) the data set provides a state-of-the-art lake inventory for the Landsat era (from the 1970s to 2020), and (3) it provides the densest lake observations for lakes with areas larger than 1 km2.
Jie Yang and Xin Huang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3907–3925,Short summary
We produce the 30 m annual China land cover dataset (CLCD), with an accuracy reaching 79.31 %. Trends and patterns of land cover changes during 1985 and 2019 were revealed, such as expansion of impervious surface (+148.71 %) and water (+18.39 %), decrease in cropland (−4.85 %) and increase in forest (+4.34 %). The CLCD generally reflected the rapid urbanization and a series of ecological projects in China and revealed the anthropogenic implications on LC under the condition of climate change.
Anna M. Ukkola, Gab Abramowitz, and Martin G. De Kauwe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Flux towers provide measurements of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Flux tower data are invaluable in improving and evaluating land models but are not suited to modelling applications as published. Here we present a flux tower data tailored for land modelling, encompassing 170 sites globally. Our dataset resolves several key limitations hindering the use of flux tower data in land modelling, including incomplete forcing variable, data format and low data quality.
Richard Porter-Smith, John McKinlay, Alexander D. Fraser, and Robert A. Massom
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3103–3114,Short summary
This study quantifies the characteristic complexity
signaturesaround the Antarctic outer coastal margin, giving a multiscale estimate of the magnitude and direction of undulation or complexity at each point location along the entire coastline. It has numerous applications for both geophysical and biological studies and will contribute to Antarctic research requiring quantitative information about this important interface.
Gonçalo Vieira, Carla Mora, Pedro Pina, Ricardo Ramalho, and Rui Fernandes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3179–3201,Short summary
Fogo in Cabo Verde is one of the most active ocean island volcanoes on Earth, posing important hazards to local populations and at a regional level. The last eruption occurred from November 2014 to February 2015. A survey of the Chã das Caldeiras area was conducted using a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle. A point cloud, digital surface model and orthomosaic with 10 and 25 cm resolutions are provided, together with the full aerial survey projects and datasets.
Yanhua Xie, Holly K. Gibbs, and Tyler J. Lark
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We created 30 m resolution annual irrigation maps covering the conterminous U.S. for the period of 1997–2017, together with derivative products and ground reference data. The products have several improvements over other data, including field-level details of change and frequency, an annual time step, a collection of ~10,000 ground reference locations for the eastern U.S., and improved mapping accuracy of over 90 % especially in the east than others of 50 to 80 %.
Clara Betancourt, Timo Stomberg, Ribana Roscher, Martin G. Schultz, and Scarlet Stadtler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3013–3033,Short summary
With the AQ-Bench dataset, we contribute to shared data usage and machine learning methods in the field of environmental science. The AQ-Bench dataset contains air quality data and metadata from more than 5500 air quality observation stations all over the world. The dataset offers a low-threshold entrance to machine learning on a real-world environmental dataset. AQ-Bench thus provides a blueprint for environmental benchmark datasets.
Kytt MacManus, Deborah Balk, Hasim Engin, Gordon McGranahan, and Rya Inman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
New estimates of population and land area by settlement types within Low Elevation Coastal Zones (LECZs) based on 4 sources of population data, 4 sources of settlement data, and 4 sources of elevation data for the years 1990, 2000, and 2015. The paper describes the sensitivity of these estimates and discusses the fitness of use which could guide user decisions. Data choices impact the number of people estimated within LECZs, but across all sources the LECZs are predominantly Urban and growing.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Francesco N. Tubiello, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Pongratz, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, Matthias Kuhnert, Juraj Balkovič, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Efisio Solazzo, Chunjing Qiu, Roberto Pilli, Igor B. Konovalov, Richard A. Houghton, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Monica Crippa, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Pete Smith, Saqr Munassar, Rona L. Thompson, Giulia Conchedda, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2363–2406,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CO2 fossil emissions and CO2 land fluxes in the EU27+UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with ecosystem data, land carbon models and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling CO2 estimates with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Lilu Sun and Yunfei Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2293–2306,Short summary
Multi-source dataset use is hampered by use of different spatial and temporal resolutions. We merged Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar and visible and infrared scanner measurements with ERA5 reanalysis. The statistical results indicate this process has no unacceptable influence on the original data. The merged dataset can help in studying characteristics of and changes in cloud and precipitation systems and provides an opportunity for data analysis and model simulations.
Yongyong Fu, Jinsong Deng, Hongquan Wang, Alexis Comber, Wu Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Shixue You, Yi Lin, and Ke Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1829–1842,Short summary
Marine aquaculture areas in a region up to 30 km from the coast in China were mapped for the first time. It was found to cover a total area of ~1100 km2, of which more than 85 % is marine plant culture areas, with 87 % found in four coastal provinces. The results confirm the applicability and effectiveness of deep learning when applied to GF-1 data at the national scale, identifying the detailed spatial distributions and supporting the sustainable management of coastal resources in China.
Sebastian Weinert, Kristian Bär, and Ingo Sass
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1441–1459,Short summary
Physical rock properties are a key element for resource exploration, the interpretation of results from geophysical methods or the parameterization of physical or geological models. Despite the need for physical rock properties, data are still very scarce and often not available for the area of interest. The database presented aims to provide easy access to physical rock properties measured at 224 locations in Bavaria, Hessen, Rhineland-Palatinate and Thuringia (Germany).
Claire E. Simpson, Christopher D. Arp, Yongwei Sheng, Mark L. Carroll, Benjamin M. Jones, and Laurence C. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1135–1150,Short summary
Sonar depth point measurements collected at 17 lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are used to train and validate models to map lake bathymetry. These models predict depth from remotely sensed lake color and are able to explain 58.5–97.6 % of depth variability. To calculate water volumes, we integrate this modeled bathymetry with lake surface area. Knowledge of Alaskan lake bathymetries and volumes is crucial to better understanding water storage, energy balance, and ecological habitat.
Jiao Lu, Guojie Wang, Tiexi Chen, Shijie Li, Daniel Fiifi Tawia Hagan, Giri Kattel, Jian Peng, Tong Jiang, and Buda Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD
Fei Feng and Kaicun Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 907–922,
Tobias K. D. Weber, Joachim Ingwersen, Petra Högy, Arne Poyda, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Michael Scott Demyan, Kristina Bohm, Ravshan Eshonkulov, Sebastian Gayler, Pascal Kremer, Moritz Laub, Yvonne Funkiun Nkwain, Christian Troost, Irene Witte, Georg Cadisch, Torsten Müller, Andreas Fangmeier, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Thilo Streck
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Presented measurement results from 6 agricultural fields, operated by local farmers in South-Western Germany, over a period of 9 years. Six eddy-covariance stations measuring water, energy and carbon fluxes between the vegetated soil surface and the atmosphere provided the backbone of the measurement sites and were supplemented by extensive soil and vegetation state monitoring. The dataset is ideal for testing process models characterising fluxes at the vegetated soil surface and the atmosphere.
Els Knaeps, Sindy Sterckx, Gert Strackx, Johan Mijnendonckx, Mehrdad Moshtaghi, Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba, and Dieter Meire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 713–730,Short summary
This paper describes a dataset consisting of 47 hyperspectral-reflectance measurements of plastic litter samples. The plastic litter samples include virgin and real samples. They were measured in dry conditions, and a selection of the samples were also measured in wet conditions and submerged in a water tank. The dataset can be used to better understand the effect of water absorption on the plastics and develop algorithms to detect and characterize marine plastics.
Holger Virro, Giuseppe Amatulli, Alexander Kmoch, Longzhu Shen, and Evelyn Uuemaa
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Water quality modeling is essential for understanding and mitigating water quality deterioration in river networks due to agricultural and industrial pollution. Improving the availability and usability of open data is vital to support global water quality modeling efforts. The GRQA extends the spatial and temporal coverage of previously available water quality data and provides a reproducible workflow for combining multi-source water quality datasets.
Susannah Rennie, Klaus Goergen, Christoph Wohner, Sander Apweiler, Johannes Peterseil, and John Watkins
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 631–644,Short summary
This paper describes a pan-European climate service data product intended for ecological researchers. Access to regional climate scenario data will save ecologists time, and, for many, it will allow them to work with data resources that they will not previously have used due to a lack of knowledge and skills to access them. Providing easy access to climate scenario data in this way enhances long-term ecological research, for example in general regional climate change or impact assessments.
Martin Strohmeier, Xavier Olive, Jannis Lübbe, Matthias Schäfer, and Vincent Lenders
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 357–366,Short summary
Flight data have been used widely for research by academic researchers and (supra)national institutions. Example domains range from epidemiology (e.g. examining the spread of COVID-19 via air travel) to economics (e.g. use as proxy for immediate forecasting of the state of a country's economy) and Earth sciences (climatology in particular). Until now, accurate flight data have been available only in small pieces from closed, proprietary sources. This work changes this with a crowdsourced effort.
Jinshi Jian, Rodrigo Vargas, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Emma Stell, Valentine Herrmann, Mercedes Horn, Nazar Kholod, Jason Manzon, Rebecca Marchesi, Darlin Paredes, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 255–267,Short summary
Field soil-to-atmosphere CO2 flux (soil respiration, Rs) observations were compiled into a global database (SRDB) a decade ago. Here, we restructured and updated the database to the fifth version, SRDB-V5, with data published through 2017 included. SRDB-V5 aims to be a data framework for the scientific community to share seasonal to annual field Rs measurements, and it provides opportunities for the scientific community to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of Rs.
Robert A. Rohde and Zeke Hausfather
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3469–3479,Short summary
A global land and ocean temperature record was created by combining the Berkeley Earth monthly land temperature field with a newly interpolated version of the HadSST3 ocean dataset. The resulting dataset covers the period from 1850 to present. This paper describes the methods used to create that combination and compares the results to other estimates of global temperature and the associated recent climate change, giving similar results.
Igor Savin, Valery Mironov, Konstantin Muzalevskiy, Sergey Fomin, Andrey Karavayskiy, Zdenek Ruzicka, and Yuriy Lukin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3481–3487,Short summary
This article presents a dielectric database of organic Arctic soils. This database was created based on dielectric measurements of seven samples of organic soils collected in various parts of the Arctic tundra. The created database can serve not only as a source of experimental data for the development of new soil dielectric models for the Arctic tundra but also as a source of training data for artificial intelligence satellite algorithms of soil moisture retrievals based on neural networks.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Jin Ma, Ji Zhou, Frank-Michael Göttsche, Shunlin Liang, Shaofei Wang, and Mingsong Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3247–3268,Short summary
Land surface temperature is an important parameter in the research of climate change and many land surface processes. This article describes the development and testing of an algorithm for generating a consistent global long-term land surface temperature product from 20 years of NOAA AVHRR radiance data. The preliminary validation results indicate good accuracy of this new long-term product, which has been designed to simplify applications and support the scientific research community.
Clara Lázaro, Maria Joana Fernandes, Telmo Vieira, and Eliana Vieira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3205–3228,Short summary
In satellite altimetry (SA), the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) accounts for the path delay induced mainly by atmospheric water vapour. In coastal regions, the accuracy of the WTC determined by the on-board radiometer deteriorates. The GPD+ methodology, developed by the University of Porto in the remit of ESA-funded projects, computes improved WTCs for SA. Global enhanced products are generated for all past and operational altimetric missions, forming a relevant dataset for coastal altimetry.
Magí Franquesa, Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Dimitris Stavrakoudis, Ioannis Z. Gitas, Ekhi Roteta, Marc Padilla, and Emilio Chuvieco
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3229–3246,Short summary
The article presents a database of reference sites for the validation of burned area products. We have compiled 2661 reference files from different international projects. The paper describes the methods used to generate and standardize the data. The Burned Area Reference Data (BARD) is publicly available and will facilitate the arduous task of validating burned area algorithms.
Anne L. Morée and Jörg Schwinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2971–2985,Short summary
This dataset consists of eight variables needed in ocean modelling and is made to support modelers of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) ocean. The LGM is a time of specific interest for climate researchers. The data are based on the results of state-of-the-art climate models and are the best available estimate of these variables for the LGM. The dataset shows clear spatial patterns but large uncertainties and is presented in a way that facilitates applications in any ocean model.
Maialen Iturbide, José M. Gutiérrez, Lincoln M. Alves, Joaquín Bedia, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ezequiel Cimadevilla, Antonio S. Cofiño, Alejandro Di Luca, Sergio Henrique Faria, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Mathias Hauser, Sixto Herrera, Kevin Hennessy, Helene T. Hewitt, Richard G. Jones, Svitlana Krakovska, Rodrigo Manzanas, Daniel Martínez-Castro, Gemma T. Narisma, Intan S. Nurhati, Izidine Pinto, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart van den Hurk, and Carolina S. Vera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2959–2970,Short summary
We present an update of the IPCC WGI reference regions used in AR5 for the synthesis of climate change information. This revision was guided by the basic principles of climatic consistency and model representativeness (in particular for the new CMIP6 simulations). We also present a new dataset of monthly CMIP5 and CMIP6 spatially aggregated information using the new reference regions and describe a worked example of how to use this dataset to inform regional climate change studies.
Juan-Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Graham W. Mann, Philippe Keckhut, Sergey Avdyushin, Bruno Nardi, and Larry W. Thomason
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2843–2851,Short summary
We report the recovery of lidar measurements of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Two Soviet ships crossing the tropical Atlantic in July–September 1991 and January–February 1992 measured the vertical profile of the Pinatubo cloud at different points in its spatio-temporal evolution. The datasets provide valuable new information on the eruption's impacts on climate, with the SAGE-II satellite measurements not able to measure most of the lower half of the Pinatubo cloud in the tropics in this period.
Yi Zheng, Ruoque Shen, Yawen Wang, Xiangqian Li, Shuguang Liu, Shunlin Liang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Li Zhang, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2725–2746,Short summary
Accurately reproducing the interannual variations in vegetation gross primary production (GPP) is a major challenge. A global GPP dataset was generated by integrating the regulations of several major environmental variables with long-term changes. The dataset can effectively reproduce the spatial, seasonal, and particularly interannual variations in global GPP. Our study will contribute to accurate carbon flux estimates at long timescales.
Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba, Tomás Acuña-Ruz, and Cristian B. Mattar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2665–2678,Short summary
Technologies to support detection and tracking of plastic litter in aquatic environments capable of repeated observations at a wide-area scale have been getting increased interest from scientists and stakeholders. We report findings about thermal infrared optical properties of naturally dried samples of algae, sands, sea shells and synthetic plastics obtained in Chile. Diagnostic features of the dataset are foreseen to contribute towards research relevant in thermal infrared sensing of plastics.
Kristian Bär, Thomas Reinsch, and Judith Bott
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2485–2515,Short summary
Petrophysical properties are key to populating numerical models of subsurface process simulations and the interpretation of many geophysical exploration methods. The P3 database presented here aims at providing easily accessible, peer-reviewed information on physical rock properties in one single compilation. The uniqueness of P3 emerges from its coverage and metadata structure. Each measured value is complemented by the corresponding location, petrography, stratigraphy and original reference.
Marco Cucchi, Graham P. Weedon, Alessandro Amici, Nicolas Bellouin, Stefan Lange, Hannes Müller Schmied, Hans Hersbach, and Carlo Buontempo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2097–2120,Short summary
WFDE5 is a novel meteorological forcing dataset for running land surface and global hydrological models. It has been generated using the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to surface meteorological variables from the ERA5 reanalysis. It is publicly available, along with its source code, through the C3S Climate Data Store at ECMWF. Results of the evaluations described in the paper highlight the benefits of using WFDE5 compared to both ERA5 and its predecessor WFDEI.
Megan McElhinny, Justin F. Beckers, Chelene Hanes, Mike Flannigan, and Piyush Jain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1823–1833,Short summary
The Canadian Fire Weather Index uses temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall to provide a fire danger rating that is crucial for fire managers and communities for risk assessment. We provide a global calculation of this index and other relevant indices using high-resolution modelled weather data for 1979–2018. These data will be useful for research studies aiming to quantify the relationships between fire occurrence, growth, or severity and weather or for trend analysis studies.
Michel M. Verstraete, Linda A. Hunt, and Veljko M. Jovanovic
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1321–1346,Short summary
The L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product, available for each of the nine cameras of the MISR instrument, contains a variable number of missing values, especially wherever and whenever the instrument is switched from the Global to the Local Mode. This paper proposes an algorithm to effectively replace those missing values and demonstrates the performance of the process. MISR data and software tools are obtainable from public domain websites to explore this issue further.
Han Liu, Peng Gong, Jie Wang, Nicholas Clinton, Yuqi Bai, and Shunlin Liang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1217–1243,Short summary
We built the first set of 5 km resolution CDRs to record the annual dynamics of global land cover (GLASS-GLC) from 1982 to 2015. The average overall accuracy is 82 %. By conducting long-term change analysis, significant land cover changes and spatiotemporal patterns at various scales were found, which can improve our understanding of global environmental change and help achieve sustainable development goals. This will be further applied in Earth system modeling to facilitate relevant studies.
Kimberly A. Casey, Cecile S. Rousseaux, Watson W. Gregg, Emmanuel Boss, Alison P. Chase, Susanne E. Craig, Colleen B. Mouw, Rick A. Reynolds, Dariusz Stramski, Steven G. Ackleson, Annick Bricaud, Blake Schaeffer, Marlon R. Lewis, and Stéphane Maritorena
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1123–1139,Short summary
An increase in spectral resolution in forthcoming remote-sensing missions will improve our ability to understand and characterize aquatic ecosystems. We organize and provide a global compilation of high spectral resolution inherent and apparent optical property data from polar, midlatitude, and equatorial open-ocean, estuary, coastal, and inland waters. The data are intended to aid in development of remote-sensing data product algorithms and to perform calibration and validation activities.
Adrian Howkins, Stephen M. Chignell, Poppie Gullett, Andrew G. Fountain, Melissa Brett, and Evelin Preciado
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1117–1122,Short summary
Historical data have much to offer current research activities and environmental management in Antarctica, but such information is often widely scattered and difficult to access. We addressed this need in the McMurdo Dry Valleys by compiling over 5000 historical photographs, maps, oral interviews, and other archival resources into a user-friendly digital archive. This can be used to identify benchmarks for understanding change over time, as well as the date and extent of past human activities.
Katharina Teschke, Hendrik Pehlke, Volker Siegel, Horst Bornemann, Rainer Knust, and Thomas Brey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1003–1023,Short summary
Successful nature conservation depends on well-founded decisions. Such decisions rely on valid and comprehensive information and data. This paper compiles data sources on the environment and ecology of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica), primarily to support the development of a marine protected area in this region. However, future projects can also benefit from our systematic data overview, as it can be used to develop specific data collections, thus saving a time-consuming data search from scratch.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Glen P. Peters, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Philippe Ciais, Francesco N. Tubiello, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Adrian Leip, Gema Carmona-Garcia, Wilfried Winiwarter, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Dirk Günther, Efisio Solazzo, Anja Kiesow, Ana Bastos, Julia Pongratz, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Giulia Conchedda, Roberto Pilli, Robbie M. Andrew, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, and Albertus J. Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 961–1001,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up GHG anthropogenic emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) in the EU28. The data integrate recent AFOLU emission inventories with ecosystem data and land carbon models, aiming at reconciling GHG budgets with official country-level UNFCCC inventories. We provide comprehensive emission assessments in support to policy, facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Samuel Eberenz, Dario Stocker, Thomas Röösli, and David N. Bresch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 817–833,Short summary
The modeling of economic disaster risk on a global scale requires high-resolution maps of exposed asset values. We have developed a generic and scalable method to downscale national asset value estimates proportional to a combination of nightlight intensity and population data. Here, we present the methodology together with an evaluation of its performance for the subnational downscaling of GDP. The resulting exposure data for 224 countries and the open-source Python code are available online.
Julie Elliott and Matthew E. Pritchard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 771–787,Short summary
We have digitized a collection of photographs of glaciated and formerly glaciated regions in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and New York taken during the late 1800s and early 1900s, and we compiled related information just as photo locations, photo dates, and photographic techniques. The photos document dramatic landscape transformations related to climate change and preserve records of everyday life in the Arctic during the early 20th century.
Ahmed, K. F., Wang, G., Silander, J., Wilson, A. M., Allen, J. M., Horton, R., and Anyah, R.: Statistical downscaling and bias correction of climate model outputs for climate change impact assessment in the U.S. northeast, Global Planet. Change, 100, 320–332, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.11.003, 2013. a
Andrade, C. W. L., Montenegro, S. M. G. L., Montenegro, A. A. A., Lima, J. R. D. S., Srinivasan, R., and Jones, C. A.: Climate change impact assessment on water resources under RCP scenarios: A case study in Mundaú River Basin, Northeastern Brazil, Int. J. Climatol., 41, E1045–E1061, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6751, 2021. a
Brier, G. W.: Verification of forecasts expressed in terms of probability, Mon. Weather Rev., 78, 1–3, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1950)078<0001:VOFEIT>2.0.CO;2, 1950. a
ECMWF: ERA5-Land: data documentation, Tech. rep., 2020. a
Gubler, S., Sedlmeier, K., Bhend, J., Avalos, G., Coelho, C. A. S., Escajadillo, Y., Jacques-Coper, M., Martinez, R., Schwierz, C., de Skansi, M., and Spirig, C.: Assessment of ECMWF SEAS5 Seasonal Forecast Performance over South America, Weather Forecast., 35, 561–584, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-19-0106.1, 2019. a
Haiden, T., Janousek, M., Bidlot, J., Buizza, R., Ferranti, L., Prates, F., and Vitart, F.: Evaluation of ECMWF forecasts, including the 2018 upgrade, Tech. rep., ECMWF Tech. Memo. 831, 2018. a
Hartmann, H. C., Pagano, T. C., Sorooshian, S., and Bales, R.: Confidence Builders: Evaluating Seasonal Climate Forecasts from User Perspectives, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 683–698, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083<0683:CBESCF>2.3.CO;2, 2002. a
Hermanson, L., Ren, H.-L., Vellinga, M., Dunstone, N. D., Hyder, P., Ineson, S., Scaife, A. A., Smith, D. M., Thompson, V., Tian, B., and Williams, K. D.: Different types of drifts in two seasonal forecast systems and their dependence on ENSO, Clim. Dynam., 51, 1411–1426, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3962-9, 2018. a
Hersbach, H.: Decomposition of the Continuous Ranked Probability Score for Ensemble Prediction Systems, Weather Forecast., 15, 559–570, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015<0559:DOTCRP>2.0.CO;2, 2000. a
Hersbach, H., De Rosnay, P., Bell, B., Schepers, D., Simmons, A., Soci, C., Abdalla, S., Balmaseda, A., Balsamo, G., Bechtold, P., Berrisford, P., Bidlot, J., De Boisséson, E., Bonavita, M., Browne, P., Buizza, R., Dahlgren, P., Dee, D., Dragani, R., Diamantakis, M., Flemming, J., Forbes, R., Geer, A., Haiden, T., Hólm, E., Haimberger, L., Hogan, R., Horányi, A., Janisková, M., Laloyaux, P., Lopez, P., Muñoz-Sabater, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R., Richardson, D., Thépaut, J.-N., Vitart, F., Yang, X., Zsótér, E., and Zuo, H.: Operational global reanalysis: progress, future directions and synergies with NWP including updates on the ERA5 production status, Tech. rep., ECMWF, ERA Report Series 27, https://doi.org/10.21957/tkic6g3wm, 2018. a
Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Horányi, A., Munoz-Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Radu, R., Schepers, D., Simmons, A., Soci, C., and Dee, D.: Global reanalysis: goodbye ERA-Interim, hello ERA5, ECMWF Newsletter, 159, Spring 2019. a
Johnson, S. J., Stockdale, T. N., Ferranti, L., Balmaseda, M. A., Molteni, F., Magnusson, L., Tietsche, S., Decremer, D., Weisheimer, A., Balsamo, G., Keeley, S. P. E., Mogensen, K., Zuo, H., and Monge-Sanz, B. M.: SEAS5: the new ECMWF seasonal forecast system, Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1087–1117, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-1087-2019, 2019. a
Lorenz, C., Kunstmann, H., Devaraju, B., Tourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., Riegger, J., and Kunstmann, H.: Large-scale runoff from landmasses: a global assessment of the closure of the hydrological and atmospheric water balances, J. Hydrometeorol., 15, 2111–2139, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-13-0157.1, 2014. a
Lorenz, C., Portele, T. C., Laux, P., and Kunstmann, H.: Seasonal Water Resources Management for Semiarid Areas: Bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts for the Catamayo-Chira Basin (Ecuador/Peru) [dataset], World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ, https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/SaWaM_D04_SEAS5_BCSD, 2020a. a, b
Lorenz, C., Portele, T. C., Laux, P., and Kunstmann, H.: Seasonal Water Resources Management for Semiarid Areas: Bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts for the Karun Basin (Iran) [dataset], World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ, https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/SaWaM_D01_SEAS5_BCSD, 2020b. a, b
Lorenz, C., Portele, T. C., Laux, P., and Kunstmann, H.: Seasonal Water Resources Management for Semiarid Areas: Bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts for the Rio São Francisco Basin (Brazil) [dataset], World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ, https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/SaWaM_D02_SEAS5_BCSD, 2020c. a, b
Lorenz, C., Portele, T. C., Laux, P., and Kunstmann, H.: Seasonal Water Resources Management for Semiarid Areas: Bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts for the Tekeze-Atbara and Blue Nile Basins (Ethiopia/Eritrea/Sudan) [dataset], World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ, https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/SaWaM_D03_SEAS5_BCSD, 2020d. a, b
Manzanas, R., Gutiérrez, J., Fernández, J., van Meijgaard, E., Calmanti, S., Magariño, M., Cofiño, A., and Herrera, S.: Dynamical and statistical downscaling of seasonal temperature forecasts in Europe: Added value for user applications, Climate Services, 9, 44–56, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cliser.2017.06.004, 2018a. a
Manzanas, R., Gutiérrez, J. M., Bhend, J., Hemri, S., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Torralba, V., Penabad, E., and Brookshaw, A.: Bias adjustment and ensemble recalibration methods for seasonal forecasting: a comprehensive intercomparison using the C3S dataset, Clim. Dynam., 53, 1287–1305, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04640-4, 2019. a
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Martins, E. S. P. R., Coelho, C. A. S., Haarsma, R., Otto, F. E. L., King, A. D., Jan van Oldenborgh, G., Kew, S., Philip, S., Vasconcelos Júnior, F. C., and Cullen, H.: A Multimethod Attribution Analysis of the Prolonged Northeast Brazil Hydrometeorological Drought (2012–16), B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 99, S65–S69, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0102.1, 2018. a, b
Schepen, A., Zhao, T., Wang, Q. J., and Robertson, D. E.: A Bayesian modelling method for post-processing daily sub-seasonal to seasonal rainfall forecasts from global climate models and evaluation for 12 Australian catchments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1615–1628, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-1615-2018, 2018. a
Tall, A., Mason, S. J., van Aalst, M., Suarez, P., Ait-Chellouche, Y., Diallo, A. A., and Braman, L.: Using Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Guide Disaster Management: The Red Cross Experience during the 2008 West Africa Floods, Int. J. Geophys., 2012, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/986016, 2012. a, b
Urraca, R., Huld, T., Gracia-Amillo, A., Martinez-de Pison, F. J., Kaspar, F., and Sanz-Garcia, A.: Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance estimates from ERA5 and COSMO-REA6 reanalyses using ground and satellite-based data, Solar Energ., 164, 339–354, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.02.059, 2018. a
Westrick, K. J. and Mass, C. F.: An Evaluation of a High-Resolution Hydrometeorological Modeling System for Prediction of a Cool-Season Flood Event in a Coastal Mountainous Watershed, J. Hydrometeorol., 2, 161–180, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0161:AEOAHR>2.0.CO;2, 2001. a
White, C. J., Carlsen, H., Robertson, A. W., Klein, R. J., Lazo, J. K., Kumar, A., Vitart, F., Coughlan de Perez, E., Ray, A. J., Murray, V., Bharwani, S., MacLeod, D., James, R., Fleming, L., Morse, A. P., Eggen, B., Graham, R., Kjellström, E., Becker, E., Pegion, K. V., Holbrook, N. J., McEvoy, D., Depledge, M., Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S., Brown, T. J., Street, R., Jones, L., Remenyi, T. A., Hodgson-Johnston, I., Buontempo, C., Lamb, R., Meinke, H., Arheimer, B., and Zebiak, S. E.: Potential applications of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictions, Meteorol. Appl., 24, 315–325, https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1654, 2017. a
Semi-arid regions depend on the freshwater resources from the rainy seasons as they are crucial for ensuring security for drinking water, food and electricity. Thus, forecasting the conditions for the next season is crucial for proactive water management. We hence present a seasonal forecast product for four semi-arid domains in Iran, Brazil, Sudan/Ethiopia and Ecuador/Peru. It provides a benchmark for seasonal forecasts and, finally, a crucial contribution for improved disaster preparedness.
Semi-arid regions depend on the freshwater resources from the rainy seasons as they are crucial...