Articles | Volume 6, issue 1
Review article 21 Mar 2014
Review article | 21 Mar 2014
Atmospheric ozone above Troll station, Antarctica observed by a ground based microwave radiometer
M. Daae et al.
No articles found.
Willem E. van Caspel, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, and John P. McCormack
Ann. Geophys., 38, 1257–1265,Short summary
Global-scale wind measurements from the upper regions of the atmosphere are used to isolate those atmospheric waves that follow the apparent motion of the sun over the course of a day. We present 16 years of near-continuous measurements, demonstrating the unique capabilities of the array of high-latitude SuperDARN radars. The validation steps outlined in our work also provide a methodology for future studies using wind measurements from the (expanding) network of SuperDARN radars.
Ekaterina Vorobeva, Marine De Carlo, Alexis Le Pichon, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Sven Peter Näsholm
Ann. Geophys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ANGEOShort summary
The study presents an approach to compare infrasound data and simulated microbarom soundscapes in multiple directions. Data recorded during 2014–2019 at the IS37 in Norway were processed and compared to model results in different aspects: directional distribution, signal amplitude, and ability to track atmospheric changes during extreme events. The results reveal good agreement between model and data. The approach has potential for near-real-time atmospheric and microbaroms diagnostics.
Christoph Franzen, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Robert Edward Hibbins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 333–343,Short summary
Ground-based observations of the hydroxyl (OH) airglow have indicated that the rotational energy levels may not be in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding gas. Here we use simulations of the OH airglow to show that temperature changes across the extended airglow layer, either climatological or those temporarily caused by atmospheric waves, can mimic this effect for thermalized OH. Thus, these must be considered in order to quantify the non-thermal nature of the OH airglow.
David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, Michael Kosch, Annika Seppälä, and Pekka T. Verronen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1375–1392,Short summary
A simulation study has been carried out to investigate the potential for observing ozone and hydroxyl radical abundances in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using ground-based passive microwave radiometry. In the polar middle atmosphere these chemical species respond strongly to geomagnetic activity associated with space weather. The results show that measuring diurnal variations in ozone and hydroxyl from high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic locations would be possible.
Stefan Bender, Miriam Sinnhuber, Patrick J. Espy, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2135–2147,Short summary
We present an empirical model for nitric oxide (NO) in the mesosphere (60–90 km) derived from SCIAMACHY limb scan data. Our model relates the daily (longitudinally) averaged NO number densities from SCIAMACHY as a function of geomagnetic latitude to the solar Lyman-alpha and the geomagnetic AE indices. We use a non-linear regression model, incorporating a finite and seasonally varying lifetime for the geomagnetically induced NO.
Christoph Franzen, Robert Edward Hibbins, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Anlaug Amanda Djupvik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3093–3101,Short summary
We discuss a technique to extract the hydroxyl (OH) airglow signal from routine astronomical spectroscopic observations from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Emission spectra from the vibrational manifold from v′ = 9 down to v′ = 3. The fitted rotational temperature distribution with v′ agrees with model conditions and the preponderance of previous work. We highlight the potential for archived and future observations with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Emma C. Turner, Stafford Withington, David A. Newnham, Peter Wadhams, Anna E. Jones, and Robin Clancy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5461–5485,Short summary
Observations of the submillimetre part of the electromagnetic spectrum have previously been the domain of the astronomical community. However, new technological advances in the superconducting detectors field are offering the atmospheric sciences unexplored opportunities to perform useful spectroscopy in this region, exploiting existing radio telescope sites. Example simulations at six sites are presented for HBr, HOBr, HO2 and N2O showing the need for broad high-resolution measurements.
Tamás Kovács, John M. C. Plane, Wuhu Feng, Tibor Nagy, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Pekka T. Verronen, Monika E. Andersson, David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, and Daniel R. Marsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3123–3136,Short summary
This study was completed on D-region atmospheric model development. The sophisticated 3-D Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and the 1-D Sodynkalä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC) were combined in order to provide a detailed, accurate model (WACCM-SIC) that considers the processes taking place in solar proton events. The original SIC model was reduced by mechanism reduction, which provided an accurate sub-mechanism (rSIC, WACCM-rSIC) of the original model.
David A. Newnham, George P. Ford, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3309–3323,Short summary
We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring polar atmospheric winds over the altitude range 23–97 km using ground-based millimetre-wave Doppler radiometry. Atmospheric and instrument simulations were carried out for Halley station, Antarctica. This remote sensing technique will provide continuous horizontal wind observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere where measurements are currently very limited. The data are needed for meteorological analyses and atmospheric modelling applications.
N. H. Stray, Y. J. Orsolini, P. J. Espy, V. Limpasuvan, and R. E. Hibbins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4997–5005,Short summary
Planetary wave activity measured in the mesosphere to lower thermosphere is shown to increase drastically after strong stratospheric polar cap wind reversals associated with sudden stratospheric warmings. In addition, a moderate but significant correlation was found between planetary wave enhancement in the mesosphere to lower thermosphere and all stratospheric polar cap wind reversals, irrespective of the strength of the reversal.
R. J. de Wit, R. E. Hibbins, P. J. Espy, and E. A. Hennum
Ann. Geophys., 33, 309–319,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are a natural laboratory to study vertical and horizontal coupling throughout the whole atmosphere. This study presents MLS derived pole-to-pole temperature anomalies associated with the 2013 major SSW. The results provide observational evidence for interhemispheric coupling, and the wave-mean flow interactions thought to be responsible for the formation of temperature anomalies in the summer hemisphere.
T. D. Demissie, P. J. Espy, N. H. Kleinknecht, M. Hatlen, N. Kaifler, and G. Baumgarten
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12133–12142,Short summary
Summertime gravity waves detected in noctilucent clouds (NLCs) between 64◦ and 74◦N are found to have a similar climatology to those observed between 60◦ and 64◦N, and their direction of propagation is to the north and northeast as observed south of 64◦N. However, a unique population of fast, short wavelength waves propagating towards the SW is observed in the NLC. The sources of the prominent wave structures observed in the NLC are likely to be from waves propagating from near the tropopause.
T. D. Demissie, N. H. Kleinknecht, R. E. Hibbins, P. J. Espy, and C. Straub
Ann. Geophys., 31, 1279–1284,
B. Tschanz, C. Straub, D. Scheiben, K. A. Walker, G. P. Stiller, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1725–1745,
C. Straub, P. J. Espy, R. E. Hibbins, and D. A. Newnham
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 199–208,
Related subject area
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Cheng Chen, Oleg Dubovik, David Fuertes, Pavel Litvinov, Tatyana Lapyonok, Anton Lopatin, Fabrice Ducos, Yevgeny Derimian, Maurice Herman, Didier Tanré, Lorraine A. Remer, Alexei Lyapustin, Andrew M. Sayer, Robert C. Levy, N. Christina Hsu, Jacques Descloitres, Lei Li, Benjamin Torres, Yana Karol, Milagros Herrera, Marcos Herreras, Michael Aspetsberger, Moritz Wanzenboeck, Lukas Bindreiter, Daniel Marth, Andreas Hangler, and Christian Federspiel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3573–3620,Short summary
Aerosol products obtained from POLDER/PARASOL processed by the GRASP algorithm have been released. The entire archive of PARASOL/GRASP aerosol products is evaluated against AERONET and compared with MODIS (DT, DB and MAIAC), as well as PARASOL/Operational products. PARASOL/GRASP aerosol products provide spectral 443–1020 nm AOD correlating well with AERONET with a maximum bias of 0.02. Finally, GRASP shows capability to derive detailed spectral properties, including aerosol absorption.
Minghu Ding, Biao Tian, Michael C. B. Ashley, Davide Putero, Zhenxi Zhu, Lifan Wang, Shihai Yang, Chuanjin Li, and Cunde Xiao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3529–3544,Short summary
Dome A, is one of the harshest environments on Earth.To evaluate the characteristics of near-surface O3, continuous observations were carried out in 2016. The results showed different patterns between coastal and inland Antarctic areas that were characterized by high concentrations in cold seasons and at night. Short-range transport accounted for the O3 enhancement events (OEEs) during summer at DA, rather than efficient local production, which is consistent with previous studies.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Pierre-Yves Tournigand, Valeria Cigala, Elzbieta Lasota, Mohammed Hammouti, Lieven Clarisse, Hugues Brenot, Fred Prata, Gottfried Kirchengast, Andrea K. Steiner, and Riccardo Biondi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3139–3159,Short summary
The detection and monitoring of volcanic clouds are important for aviation management, climate and weather forecasts. We present in this paper the first comprehensive archive collecting spatial and temporal information about volcanic clouds generated by the 11 largest eruptions of this century. We provide a complete set of state-of-the-art data allowing the development and testing of new algorithms contributing to improve the accuracy of the estimation of fundamental volcanic cloud parameters.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Chengbo Wu, Ni-Bin Chang, and Jianping Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3067–3080,Short summary
PM2.5 data from the national air quality monitoring network in China suffered from significant inconsistency and inhomogeneity issues. To create a coherent PM2.5 concentration dataset to advance our understanding of haze pollution and its impact on weather and climate, we homogenized this PM2.5 dataset between 2015 and 2019 after filling in the data gaps. The homogenized PM2.5 data is found to better characterize the variation of aerosol in space and time compared to the original dataset.
Patrick Chazette, Julien Totems, Alexandre Baron, Cyrille Flamant, and Sandrine Bony
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2919–2936,Short summary
To characterize the trade-wind cumuli for climate change purposes, 20 ATR-42 flights were conducted over the tropical Atlantic, off the coast of Barbados from 23 January to 13 February 2020. These flights were conducted as part of the international EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of cloud–circulation coupling in climate) field campaign. A new sampling approach was applied, consisting in using a sidewards-staring lidar. The data are now made available to the international scientific community.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Henri Diémoz, Anna Maria Siani, Gregor Hülsen, and Julian Gröbner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2787–2810,Short summary
In this study we discuss the procedures and the technical aspects which ensure the high quality of the measurements of the global solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance performed by a Bentham spectroradiometer located at Aosta–Saint-Christophe (north-western Alps), Italy. This particular instrument is the reference for the Aosta Valley UV monitoring network, which is the first UV monitoring network in Italy. The final spectra constitute one of the most accurate datasets globally.
Mahesh Kovilakam, Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, and Luis Millán
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2607–2634,Short summary
A robust stratospheric aerosol climatology is important as many global climate models (GCMs) make use of observed aerosol properties to prescribe aerosols in the stratosphere. Here, we present version 2.0 of the GloSSAC data set in which a new methodology is used for the post-2005 data that improves the quality of data in the lower stratosphere, which includes an improved 1020 nm extinction. Additionally, size information from multiwavelength measurements of SAGE III/ISS is provided.
Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, Henk Eskes, Folkert Boersma, Helen Worden, Nathaniel Livesey, Vivienne H. Payne, Kengo Sudo, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, and Koji Ogochi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2223–2259,Short summary
This study presents the results from the Tropospheric Chemistry Reanalysis version 2 (TCR-2) for 2005–2018 obtained from the assimilation of multiple satellite measurements of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the OMI, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, TES, MLS, and MOPITT instruments. The evaluation results demonstrate the capability of the reanalysis products to improve understanding of the processes controlling variations in atmospheric composition, including long-term changes in air quality and emissions.
Dalei Hao, Ghassem R. Asrar, Yelu Zeng, Qing Zhu, Jianguang Wen, Qing Xiao, and Min Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2209–2221,Short summary
We adopted machine-learning models to generate the first global land products of SW–PAR based on DSCOVR/EPIC data. Our products are consistent with ground-based observations, capture the spatiotemporal patterns well and accurately track substantial diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations in SW–PAR. Our products provide a valuable alternative for solar photovoltaic applications and can be used to improve our understanding of the diurnal cycles of terrestrial water, carbon and energy fluxes.
Kirk Knobelspiesse, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Christine Bradley, Carol Bruegge, Brian Cairns, Gao Chen, Jacek Chowdhary, Anthony Cook, Antonio Di Noia, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, David J. Diner, Richard Ferrare, Guangliang Fu, Meng Gao, Michael Garay, Johnathan Hair, David Harper, Gerard van Harten, Otto Hasekamp, Mark Helmlinger, Chris Hostetler, Olga Kalashnikova, Andrew Kupchock, Karla Longo De Freitas, Hal Maring, J. Vanderlei Martins, Brent McBride, Matthew McGill, Ken Norlin, Anin Puthukkudy, Brian Rheingans, Jeroen Rietjens, Felix C. Seidel, Arlindo da Silva, Martijn Smit, Snorre Stamnes, Qian Tan, Sebastian Val, Andrzej Wasilewski, Feng Xu, Xiaoguang Xu, and John Yorks
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2183–2208,Short summary
The Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar (ACEPOL) field campaign is a resource for the next generation of spaceborne multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) and lidar missions. Conducted in the fall of 2017 from the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, four MAP instruments and two lidars were flown on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft over a variety of scene types and ground assets. Data are freely available to the public and useful for algorithm development and testing.
Christopher J. Smith, Ryan J. Kramer, and Adriana Sima
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2157–2168,Short summary
Radiative kernels allow efficient diagnosis of climate feedbacks and radiative adjustments to an external forcing using standard climate model output. We present a radiative kernel derived from the UK Met Office's HadGEM3-GA7.1 climate model. We show that a highly resolved stratosphere is important for correctly diagnosing the stratospheric temperature adjustment to greenhouse gas forcings and, by extension, the instantaneous radiative forcing.
Alexandre Caseiro, Berit Gehrke, Gernot Rücker, David Leimbach, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2137–2155,Short summary
Gas flaring is a global phenomenon with local, regional, and global environmental impacts. The present knowledge on gas flaring activity and emissions lacks consistency. Satellite remote sensing offers the possibility of global and consistent coverage of gas flares. In this work, we present the application of a previously published method to the detection and characterisation of gas flares globally. We derive the volumes of gas flared and their respective black carbon emissions.
Caroline A. Poulsen, Gregory R. McGarragh, Gareth E. Thomas, Martin Stengel, Matthew W. Christensen, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, Elisa Carboni, Rainer Hollmann, and Roy G. Grainger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2121–2135,Short summary
We have created a satellite cloud and radiation climatology from the ATSR-2 and AATSR on board ERS-2 and Envisat, respectively, which spans the period 1995–2012. The data set was created using a combination of optimal estimation and neural net techniques. The data set was created as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative program. The data set has been compared with active CALIOP lidar measurements and compared with MAC-LWP AND CERES-EBAF measurements and is shown to have good performance.
Marvin Knapp, Ralph Kleinschek, Frank Hase, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Antje Inness, Jérôme Barré, Jochen Landgraf, Tobias Borsdorff, Stefan Kinne, and André Butz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We developed a ship-borne variant of a remote sensing spectrometer for direct sunlight measurements of column-averaged atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The instrument was deployed on the research vessel Sonne during a longitudinal transect over the Pacific during June 2019. The campaign yielded more than 32 000 observations which compare excellently to atmospheric composition data from a state of the art model (CAMS) and satellite observations (TROPOMI).
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Ting Wang, Denghui Ji, Corinne Vigouroux, Nicolas Kumps, Gengchen Wang, Martine De Mazière, and Pucai Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1679–1696,Short summary
The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2), CH4 (XCH4) and CO (XCO) have been measured with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Xianghe (39.75° N, 116.96° E, north China) since June 2018. The instrumental setup follows the guidelines of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The site and the FTIR system are described in this study. The FTIR measurements are discussed and have been applied for satellite validations.
Nicolas Bellouin, Will Davies, Keith P. Shine, Johannes Quaas, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Piers M. Forster, Chris Smith, Lindsay Lee, Leighton Regayre, Guy Brasseur, Natalia Sudarchikova, Idir Bouarar, Olivier Boucher, and Gunnar Myhre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1649–1677,Short summary
Quantifying the imbalance in the Earth's energy budget caused by human activities is important to understand and predict climate changes. This study presents new estimates of the imbalance caused by changes in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and particles of pollution. Over the period 2003–2017, the overall imbalance has been positive, indicating that the climate system has gained energy and will warm further.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Stefanie Kremser, Larry W. Thomason, and Leroy J. Bird
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1419–1435,Short summary
Since space-based measurements of stratospheric composition started, a plethora of
generally acceptedscreening methods have been developed and tailored to each measurement system and to each anticipated use of the data. These methods are often inconsistent, ad hoc, and untraceable and are seldom revised even after significant revisions to the data themselves. Here we developed new and simplified SAGE II ozone data usage rules that are based on how the measurements were made.
Max R. McGillen, William P. L. Carter, Abdelwahid Mellouki, John J. Orlando, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, and Timothy J. Wallington
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1203–1216,Short summary
The gas-phase reactions of organic compounds in the atmosphere are a crucial step in the degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and the formation of secondary pollutants. This work is an attempt to produce a dataset that is as comprehensive as possible regarding the multitude of chemicals that react in the atmosphere. We find that we are able to make substantial improvements upon previous compendia and that this progress will help improve our understanding of atmospheric chemistry.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Huangjian Wu, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Duohong Chen, Yuepeng Pan, Tao Song, Fei Li, Haitao Zheng, Guanglin Jia, Miaomiao Lu, Lin Wu, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The China's air pollution has changed substantially since 2013. Here we developed a six-year long high-resolution air quality reanalysis dataset over china from 2013 to 2018 to illustrate such changes and to provide a basic dataset for relevant studies. Surface fields of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 concentrations are provided, and the evaluation results indicate that the reanalysis dataset has excellent performance in reproducing the magnitude and variation of air pollution in China.
Kaisa Lakkala, Margit Aun, Ricardo Sanchez, Germar Bernhard, Eija Asmi, Outi Meinander, Fernando Nollas, Gregor Hülsen, Tomi Karppinen, Veijo Aaltonen, Antti Arola, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 947–960,Short summary
A GUV multi-filter radiometer was set up at Marambio, 64° S, 56° W, Antarctica, in 2017. The instrument continuously measures ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible (VIS) radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The measurements are designed for providing high-quality long-term time series that can be used to assess the impact of global climate change in the Antarctic region. The data from the last 5 d are plotted and updated daily.
Anna Karion, William Callahan, Michael Stock, Steve Prinzivalli, Kristal R. Verhulst, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Israel Lopez-Coto, and James Whetstone
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 699–717,Short summary
Our paper presents atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the northeastern United States. We also describe the collection, quality control, and uncertainty estimation methods associated with the observations. The network is composed of 23 tower-based stations, including a dense sub-network in the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Maryland, urban areas. Observations can be used to assess greenhouse gas emissions from these cities and regions.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Tia R. Scarpelli, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Kelly Rose, Lucy Romeo, John R. Worden, and Greet Janssens-Maenhout
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 563–575,Short summary
Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is emitted through the exploitation of oil, gas, and coal resources, and many efforts to reduce emissions have targeted these sources. We have created a global inventory of oil, gas, and coal methane emissions based on country reporting to the United Nations. The inventory can be used along with satellite observations of methane to better understand the contribution of these sources to global emissions and to identify potential biases in emissions reporting.
André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Christof Lüpkes, Matthias Buschmann, Heiko Bozem, Dmitri Chechin, Hans-Christian Clemen, Régis Dupuy, Olliver Eppers, Jörg Hartmann, Andreas Herber, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Franziska Köllner, Mario Mech, Stephan Mertes, Roland Neuber, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Johannes Stapf, and Marco Zanatta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1853–1881,Short summary
During the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, two research aircraft (Polar 5 and 6) jointly performed 22 research flights over the transition zone between open ocean and closed sea ice. The data set combines remote sensing and in situ measurement of cloud, aerosol, and trace gas properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes, which will be used to study Arctic boundary layer and mid-level clouds and their role in Arctic amplification.
Bo Zheng, Frederic Chevallier, Yi Yin, Philippe Ciais, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Merritt N. Deeter, Robert J. Parker, Yilong Wang, Helen M. Worden, and Yuanhong Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1411–1436,Short summary
We use a multi-species atmospheric Bayesian inversion approach to attribute satellite-observed atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) variations to its sources and sinks in order to achieve a full closure of the global CO budget during 2000–2017. We identify a declining trend in the global CO budget since 2000, driven by reduced anthropogenic emissions in the US, Europe, and China, as well as by reduced biomass burning emissions globally, especially in equatorial Africa.
Gijs de Boer, Darielle Dexheimer, Fan Mei, John Hubbe, Casey Longbottom, Peter J. Carroll, Monty Apple, Lexie Goldberger, David Oaks, Justin Lapierre, Michael Crume, Nathan Bernard, Matthew D. Shupe, Amy Solomon, Janet Intrieri, Dale Lawrence, Abhiram Doddi, Donna J. Holdridge, Michael Hubbell, Mark D. Ivey, and Beat Schmid
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1349–1362,Short summary
This paper provides a summary of observations collected at Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments (POPEYE) campaign. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) is a multi-year concentrated effort to improve forecasting capabilities at high latitudes across a variety of timescales. POPEYE observations include atmospheric data collected using unmanned aircraft, tethered balloons, and radiosondes, made in parallel with routine measurements at the site.
Kevin R. Gurney, Risa Patarasuk, Jianming Liang, Yang Song, Darragh O'Keeffe, Preeti Rao, James R. Whetstone, Riley M. Duren, Annmarie Eldering, and Charles Miller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1309–1335,Short summary
Hestia Projectis an effort to provide bottom-up fossil fuel (FFCO2) emissions at the urban scale with building, street, and hourly space–time resolution. Here, we report on the latest urban area for which a Hestia estimate has been completed – the Los Angeles megacity. We provide a complete description of the methods used to build the Hestia FFCO2 emissions data product and general analysis of the numerical results.
Ryan Bares, Logan Mitchell, Ben Fasoli, David R. Bowling, Douglas Catharine, Maria Garcia, Byron Eng, Jim Ehleringer, and John C. Lin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1291–1308,Short summary
We overview two near-surface trace gas measurement networks with the aim of describing procedures, locations, and data structure with sufficient detail to serve as an in-depth method reference. Additionally, we developed a novel method for quantifying measurement uncertainty produced by these networks providing insight into appropriate applications of the data and differences in data collection methods. This uncertainty metric is broadly applicable to many trace gas and air quality datasets.
Tomás Sherwen, Rosie J. Chance, Liselotte Tinel, Daniel Ellis, Mat J. Evans, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1239–1262,Short summary
Iodine plays an important role in the Earth system, as a nutrient to the biosphere and by changing the concentrations of climate and air-quality species. However, there are uncertainties on the magnitude of iodine’s role, and a key uncertainty is our understanding of iodide in the global sea-surface. Here we take a data-driven approach using a machine learning algorithm to convert a sparse set of sea-surface iodide observations into a spatially and temporally resolved dataset for use in models.
Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Edwin Schaaf, Frank Dentener, Peter Bergamaschi, Valerio Pagliari, Jos G. J. Olivier, Jeroen A. H. W. Peters, John A. van Aardenne, Suvi Monni, Ulrike Doering, A. M. Roxana Petrescu, Efisio Solazzo, and Gabriel D. Oreggioni
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 959–1002,Short summary
In support of the Paris Agreement, EDGARv4.3.2 provides global annual estimates, broken down into IPCC-compliant source-sector levels, from 1970 to 2012. The anthropogenic CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated bottom up with international statistics and emission factors for 226 countries and spatially distributed. EDGARv4.3.2 is input for the top-down modelling of the Global Carbon Project and EU policy-making, needing GHG emission estimates for each country at the climate negotiations.
Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Beata Bukosa, Masataka Ajiro, Akihide Kamei, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 935–946,Short summary
We present ground-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide columns from a portable spectrometer taken in a semiarid region of Australia. We compared these measurements to space-based retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and calibrated them against a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instrument to ascertain a retrieval bias. We also present the unique opportunities that Central Australia could offer in the context of satellite product validation.
Mauro Rubino, David M. Etheridge, David P. Thornton, Russell Howden, Colin E. Allison, Roger J. Francey, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Darren A. Spencer, Mark A. J. Curran, Tas D. van Ommen, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 473–492,Short summary
The scientific community uses numerical models to predict future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming. This study presents the history of atmospheric concentration of the major greenhouse gases over the last 2000 years measured in ice core bubbles from the site of Law Dome (East Antarctica). The associated dataset is useful to test climate models and help provide accurate predictions of future climate change.
Shawn P. Urbanski, Matt C. Reeves, Rachel E. Corley, Robin P. Silverstein, and Wei Min Hao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2241–2274,Short summary
Wildfires are a major source of air pollutants in the US that trigger pollution episodes and challenge air regulators’ efforts to meet air quality standards. Improved wildfire emission estimates are needed to quantify air pollution from fires to guide decision-making activities related to the control of anthropogenic sources. To address the need of air regulators for improved wildfire emission estimates, we developed an inventory of daily US wildfire pollutant emissions for 2003–2015.
Joshua L. Laughner, Qindan Zhu, and Ronald C. Cohen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2069–2095,Short summary
This paper describes the upgrade of the BErkeley High Resolution (BEHR) NO2 retrieval from versions 2.1C to 3.0B. This retrieval measures NO2 over the continental US using input data at higher spatial and temporal resolution than global retrievals. We analyze how each part of the upgrade affected the measured NO2. Most interestingly, we find that using NO2 profiles at daily (rather than monthly) time resolution does lead to differences in multi-month averages for regions affected by lightning.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
M. Louise Jeffery, Johannes Gütschow, Robert Gieseke, and Ronja Gebel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1427–1438,Short summary
Developed countries are required to report detailed greenhouse gas emissions data to the UN on an annual basis. The reporting tables are complex, do not fit well with existing hierarchical reporting guidelines, and are not machine-readable. We present a processed version of the reported data in a consistent hierarchy, and in a format that is machine-readable and easy-to-use. The emissions data are also aggregated into
basketsof gases using global warming equivalency metrics from IPCC reports.
Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Jgor Arduini, Tim Arnold, H. Langley DeWitt, Paul J. Fraser, Anita L. Ganesan, Jimmy Gasore, Christina M. Harth, Ove Hermansen, Jooil Kim, Paul B. Krummel, Shanlan Li, Zoë M. Loh, Chris R. Lunder, Michela Maione, Alistair J. Manning, Ben R. Miller, Blagoj Mitrevski, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Matt Rigby, Takuya Saito, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Peter G. Simmonds, L. Paul Steele, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. Wang, Bo Yao, Yoko Yokouchi, Dickon Young, and Lingxi Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 985–1018,Short summary
We present the data and accomplishments of the multinational global atmospheric measurement program AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). At high frequency and at multiple sites, AGAGE measures all the important chemicals in the Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer and the non-carbon-dioxide gases assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. AGAGE uses these data to estimate sources and sinks of all these gases and has operated since 1978.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Peter Preusse, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, and Martin Riese
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 857–892,Short summary
The gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE) is a global data set of gravity wave (GW) distributions in the stratosphere and the mesosphere observed by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. Typical distributions of multiple GW parameters are provided. Possible applications are scientific studies, comparison with other observations, or comparison with resolved or parametrized GW distributions in models.
Marie Opálková, Martin Navrátil, Vladimír Špunda, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 837–846,Short summary
Files with irradiances of a few spectral regions of incident solar radiation and some meteorological variables including concentrations of some air pollutants measured for 2.5 years at 3 stations in Ostrava (CZ) were prepared. Special attention was given to the data quality and the process of quality check was described. This database offers an ensemble of data with high temporal resolution and creates a source on radiation in relation with environment and vegetation in polluted areas of cities.
Valerie Carranza, Talha Rafiq, Isis Frausto-Vicencio, Francesca M. Hopkins, Kristal R. Verhulst, Preeti Rao, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 653–676,Short summary
We present a GIS-based approach to mapping methane emissions in areas with dense, complex source mixtures. The Vista-LA database classifies >33 000 potential methane-emitting features concentrated on <1% of the land area in California's South Coast Air Basin. The database is used for planning and analysis of atmospheric measurements, including airborne remote sensing campaigns and on-road mobile surveys focused on methane "hot-spot" detection, and development of a regional emissions inventory.
Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Luis Millán, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Jean-Paul Vernier, Gloria Manney, Beiping Luo, Florian Arfeuille, and Thomas Peter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 469–492,Short summary
We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979 to 2014) and is now extended through 2016. GloSSAC focuses on the the SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005 and on OSIRIS and CALIPSO after that time.
Kerry Anderson, Al Pankratz, Curtis Mooney, and Kelly Fleetham
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 325–337,Short summary
A field project was conducted to measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometers and photos taken at fire lookout towers. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 2010 to 2015.
Unanticipated issues were uncovered including instrument limitations, environmental conditions, and subjectivity of observations. Despite these problems, the data set showed responses to fire behaviour conditions consistent with processes leading to plume rise.
Unanticipated issues were uncovered including instrument limitations, environmental conditions, and subjectivity of observations. Despite these problems, the data set showed responses to fire behaviour conditions consistent with processes leading to plume rise.
David F. Pollard, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Brian Connor, and Hisako Shiona
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 977–992,
Matthew Toohey and Michael Sigl
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 809–831,Short summary
Based on ice core sulfate records from Greenland and Antarctica, the eVolv2k database provides volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection estimates from 500 BCE to 1900 CE along with reconstructed aerosol optical properties needed for climate model simulations. The eVolv2k database constitutes a significant update to prior ice-core-based volcanic forcing reconstructions for climate models, improving the accuracy of volcanic forcing, especially before 1250 CE, and extending the record by 1000 years.
Owen A. Sherwood, Stefan Schwietzke, Victoria A. Arling, and Giuseppe Etiope
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 639–656,Short summary
Multiple natural and anthropogenic emissions sources contribute to the global atmospheric methane budget. Methane emissions are constrained, in part, by inverse (top-down) models that incorporate data on the concentration and stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane from different sources. To aid in these modeling efforts, we present a geochemical database comprising over 10 000 discrete samples from fossil and non-fossil fuel sources of methane.
Martin Wild, Atsumu Ohmura, Christoph Schär, Guido Müller, Doris Folini, Matthias Schwarz, Maria Zyta Hakuba, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 601–613,Short summary
The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 database, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and to date contains around 500 000 monthly mean entries from 2500 locations.
Nikos Benas, Stephan Finkensieper, Martin Stengel, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, Timo Hanschmann, Rainer Hollmann, and Jan Fokke Meirink
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 415–434,Short summary
This study focuses on an evaluation of CLAAS-2 (Cloud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2), which was created based on observations from geostationary Meteosat satellites. Using a variety of reference datasets, very good overall agreement is found. This suggests the usefulness of CLAAS-2 in applications ranging from high spatial and temporal resolution cloud process studies to the evaluation of regional climate models.
Clare Paton-Walsh, Élise-Andrée Guérette, Dagmar Kubistin, Ruhi Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Doreena Dominick, Ian Galbally, Rebecca Buchholz, Mahendra Bhujel, Scott Chambers, Min Cheng, Martin Cope, Perry Davy, Kathryn Emmerson, David W. T. Griffith, Alan Griffiths, Melita Keywood, Sarah Lawson, Suzie Molloy, Géraldine Rea, Paul Selleck, Xue Shi, Jack Simmons, and Voltaire Velazco
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 349–362,Short summary
The MUMBA campaign provides a detailed snapshot of the atmospheric composition in an urban coastal environment with strong biogenic sources nearby. This campaign involved collaboration between several institutes and was undertaken to provide a case study for atmospheric models in a poorly sampled region of the globe.
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