Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-96
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-96
02 Apr 2024
 | 02 Apr 2024
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

PM2.5 concentrations based on near-surface visibility at 4011 sites in the Northern Hemisphere from 1959 to 2022

Hongfei Hao, Kaicun Wang, Guocan Wu, Jianbao Liu, and Jing Li

Abstract. Long-term PM2.5 data are needed to study the atmospheric environment, human health, and climate change. PM2.5 measurements are sparsely distributed and of short duration. In this study, daily PM2.5 concentrations are estimated from 1959 to 2022 using a machine learning method at 4011 terrestrial sites in the Northern Hemisphere based on hourly atmospheric visibility data, which are extracted from the Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR). PM2.5 monitoring is the target of machine learning, and atmospheric visibility and other related variables are the inputs. The training results show that the slope between the estimated PM2.5 concentration and the monitored PM2.5 concentration is 0.946± 0.0002 within the 95 % confidence interval (CI), the coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.95, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 7.0 μg/m3, and the mean absolute error (MAE) is 3.1 μg/m3. The test results show that the slope between the predicted PM2.5 concentration and the monitored PM2.5 concentration is 0.862 ± 0.0010 within a 95 % CI, the R2 is 0.80, the RMSE is 13.5 μg/m3, and the MAE is 6.9 μg/m3. The multiyear mean PM2.5 concentrations from 1959 to 2022 in the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and India are 11.2 μg/m3, 8.2 μg/m3, 20.1 μg/m3, 51.3 μg/m3 and 88.6 μg/m3, respectively. PM2.5 is low and continues to decrease from 1959 to 2022. PM2.5 in the United States increases slightly at a rate of 0.38 μg/m3/decade from 1959 to 1990 and decreases at a rate of -1.32 μg/m3/decade from 1991 to 2022. Trends in Europe are positive (5.69 μg/m3/decade) from 1959 to 1972 and negative (-1.91 μg/m3/decade) from 1973 to 2022. Trends in China and India are increasing (3.04 and 3.35 μg/m3/decade, respectively) from 1959 to 2012 and decreasing (-38.82 and -42.84 μg/m3/decade, respectively) from 2013 to 2022. The dataset is available at National Tibetan Plateau / Third Pole Environment Data Center (https://doi.org/10.11888/Atmos.tpdc.301127) (Hao et al., 2024).

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Hongfei Hao, Kaicun Wang, Guocan Wu, Jianbao Liu, and Jing Li

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2024-96', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Apr 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Kaicun Wang, 14 Jun 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2024-96', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Apr 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Kaicun Wang, 14 Jun 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on essd-2024-96', Anonymous Referee #3, 02 May 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Kaicun Wang, 14 Jun 2024
Hongfei Hao, Kaicun Wang, Guocan Wu, Jianbao Liu, and Jing Li

Data sets

Daily PM2.5 concentration data at more than 4000 sites in the Northern Hemisphere from 1959 to 2022 Hongfei Hao, Kaicun Wang, Guocan Wu, Jianbao Liu, and Jing Li https://doi.org/10.11888/Atmos.tpdc.301127

Hongfei Hao, Kaicun Wang, Guocan Wu, Jianbao Liu, and Jing Li

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Short summary
In this study, daily PM2.5 concentrations are estimated from 1959 to 2022 using a machine learning method at 4011 terrestrial sites in the Northern Hemisphere based on hourly atmospheric visibility data, which are extracted from the Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR).
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