Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Data description paper 05 Mar 2020
Data description paper | 05 Mar 2020
Geometric accuracy assessment of coarse-resolution satellite datasets: a study based on AVHRR GAC data at the sub-pixel level
Xiaodan Wu et al.
No articles found.
Ethan Welty, Michael Zemp, Francisco Navarro, Matthias Huss, Johannes J. Fürst, Isabelle Gärtner-Roer, Johannes Landmann, Horst Machguth, Kathrin Naegeli, Liss M. Andreassen, Daniel Farinotti, Huilin Li, and GlaThiDa Contributors
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3039–3055,Short summary
Knowing the thickness of glacier ice is critical for predicting the rate of glacier loss and the myriad downstream impacts. To facilitate forecasts of future change, we have added 3 million measurements to our worldwide database of glacier thickness: 14 % of global glacier area is now within 1 km of a thickness measurement (up from 6 %). To make it easier to update and monitor the quality of our database, we have used automated tools to check and track changes to the data over time.
Dimitri Osmont, Sandra Brugger, Anina Gilgen, Helga Weber, Michael Sigl, Robin L. Modini, Christoph Schwörer, Willy Tinner, Stefan Wunderle, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 3731–3745,Short summary
In this interdisciplinary case study, we were able to link biomass burning emissions from the June 2017 wildfires in Portugal to their deposition in the snowpack at Jungfraujoch, Swiss Alps. We analysed black carbon and charcoal in the snowpack, calculated backward trajectories, and monitored the fire evolution by remote sensing. Such case studies help to understand the representativity of biomass burning records in ice cores and how biomass burning tracers are archived in the snowpack.
Céline Portenier, Fabia Hüsler, Stefan Härer, and Stefan Wunderle
The Cryosphere, 14, 1409–1423,Short summary
We present a method to derive snow cover maps from freely available webcam images in the Swiss Alps. With marginal manual user input, we can transform a webcam image into a georeferenced map and therewith perform snow cover analyses with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a large area. Our evaluation has shown that webcams could not only serve as a reference for improved validation of satellite-based approaches, but also complement satellite-based snow cover retrieval.
Theo Baracchini, Philip Y. Chu, Jonas Šukys, Gian Lieberherr, Stefan Wunderle, Alfred Wüest, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1267–1284,Short summary
Lake physical processes occur at a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. 3D hydrodynamic lake models are the only information source capable of solving those scales; however, they still need observations to be calibrated and to constrain their uncertainties. The optimal combination of a 3D hydrodynamic model, in situ measurements, and remote sensing observations is achieved through data assimilation. Here we present a complete data assimilation experiment for lakes using open-source tools.
Kathrin Naegeli, Matthias Huss, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 13, 397–412,Short summary
The paper investigates the temporal changes of bare-ice glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps between 1999 and 2016 from a regional to local scale using satellite data. Significant negative trends were found in the lowermost elevations and margins of the ablation zones. Although significant changes of glacier ice albedo are only present over a limited area, we emphasize that albedo feedback will considerably enhance the rate of glacier mass loss in the Swiss Alps in the near future.
M. Riffler, G. Lieberherr, and S. Wunderle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 1–17,Short summary
We were able to demonstrate that data from polar orbiting satellites can be used not only to derive lake water temperature for large lakes (> 500km2) but also for the many lakes like in central Europe which are smaller than 100km2. The linear warming trend derived for one of the lakes shows good agreement between in situ and satellite observations. Thus, this data set will offer the possibility to investigate the impact of climate change on lake water temperatures in central Europe.
Related subject area
Data, Algorithms, and ModelsThe Berkeley Earth Land/Ocean Temperature RecordDielectric database of organic Arctic soils (DDOAS)Global Carbon Budget 2020A global long-term (1981–2000) land surface temperature product for NOAA AVHRRA coastally improved global dataset of wet tropospheric corrections for satellite altimetryDevelopment of a standard database of reference sites for validating global burned area productsA Last Glacial Maximum forcing dataset for ocean modellingAn update of IPCC climate reference regions for subcontinental analysis of climate model data: definition and aggregated datasetsShipborne lidar measurements showing the progression of the tropical reservoir of volcanic aerosol after the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptionImproved estimate of global gross primary production for reproducing its long-term variation, 1982–2017Hyperspectral longwave infrared reflectance spectra of naturally dried algae, anthropogenic plastics, sands and shellsThe PetroPhysical Property Database (P3) – a global compilation of lab-measured rock propertiesA Climate Service for Ecologists: Sharing pre-processed EUROCORDEX Regional Climate Scenario Data using the eLTER Information SystemWFDE5: bias-adjusted ERA5 reanalysis data for impact studiesA high-resolution reanalysis of global fire weather from 1979 to 2018 – overwintering the Drought CodeCrowdsourced Air Traffic Data from the OpenSky Network 2019–20A restructured and updated global soil respiration database (SRDB-V5)Improving the usability of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product (2000–present) in land surface applicationsAnnual dynamics of global land cover and its long-term changes from 1982 to 2015A global compilation of in situ aquatic high spectral resolution inherent and apparent optical property data for remote sensing applicationsA digital archive of human activity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, AntarcticaAn integrated compilation of data sources for the development of a marine protected area in the Weddell SeaEuropean anthropogenic AFOLU greenhouse gas emissions: a review and benchmark dataAsset exposure data for global physical risk assessmentHistoric photographs of glaciers and glacial landforms from the Ralph Stockman Tarr collection at Cornell UniversityA Fundamental Climate Data Record of SMMR, SSM/I, and SSMIS brightness temperaturesReplacing missing values in the standard Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask (RCCM) data productHigh-resolution meteorological forcing data for hydrological modelling and climate change impact analysis in the Mackenzie River BasinA national dataset of 30 m annual urban extent dynamics (1985–2015) in the conterminous United StatesReconstructing three decades of total international trawling effort in the North SeaThe European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP): 25 years of monitoring data exchangeThe UK Environmental Change Network datasets – integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993–2015)Hyperspectral ultraviolet to shortwave infrared characteristics of marine-harvested, washed-ashore and virgin plasticsCloud_cci Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer post meridiem (AVHRR-PM) dataset version 3: 35-year climatology of global cloud and radiation propertiesReference crop evapotranspiration database in Spain (1961–2014)A 16-year dataset (2000–2015) of high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global surface solar radiationComprehensive aerosol and gas data set from the Sydney Particle StudyGeostrophic currents in the northern Nordic Seas from a combination of multi-mission satellite altimetry and ocean modelingThe BernClim plant phenological data set from the canton of Bern (Switzerland) 1970–2018High-temporal-resolution water level and storage change data sets for lakes on the Tibetan Plateau during 2000–2017 using multiple altimetric missions and Landsat-derived lake shoreline positionsDjankuat glacier station in the North Caucasus, Russia: a database of glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological observations and stable isotope sampling results during 2007–2017The spatial allocation of population: a review of large-scale gridded population data products and their fitness for useThe Environment and Climate Change Canada solid precipitation intercomparison data from Bratt's Lake and Caribou Creek, SaskatchewanA decade of detailed observations (2008–2018) in steep bedrock permafrost at the Matterhorn Hörnligrat (Zermatt, CH)STEAD: a high-resolution daily gridded temperature dataset for SpainTime series of the Inland Surface Water Dataset in China (ISWDC) for 2000–2016 derived from MODIS archivesNew 30 m resolution Hong Kong climate, vegetation, and topography rasters indicate greater spatial variation than global grids within an urban mosaicA dataset of 30 m annual vegetation phenology indicators (1985–2015) in urban areas of the conterminous United StatesGenerating a rule-based global gridded tillage datasetEvolution of the ESA CCI Soil Moisture climate data records and their underlying merging methodology
Robert A. Rohde and Zeke Hausfather
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3469–3479,Short summary
A global land and ocean temperature record was created by combining the Berkeley Earth monthly land temperature field with a newly interpolated version of the HadSST3 ocean dataset. The resulting dataset covers the period from 1850 to present. This paper describes the methods used to create that combination and compares the results to other estimates of global temperature and the associated recent climate change, giving similar results.
Igor Savin, Valery Mironov, Konstantin Muzalevskiy, Sergey Fomin, Andrey Karavayskiy, Zdenek Ruzicka, and Yuriy Lukin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3481–3487,Short summary
This article presents a dielectric database of organic Arctic soils. This database was created based on dielectric measurements of seven samples of organic soils collected in various parts of the Arctic tundra. The created database can serve not only as a source of experimental data for the development of new soil dielectric models for the Arctic tundra but also as a source of training data for artificial intelligence satellite algorithms of soil moisture retrievals based on neural networks.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Jin Ma, Ji Zhou, Frank-Michael Göttsche, Shunlin Liang, Shaofei Wang, and Mingsong Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3247–3268,Short summary
Land surface temperature is an important parameter in the research of climate change and many land surface processes. This article describes the development and testing of an algorithm for generating a consistent global long-term land surface temperature product from 20 years of NOAA AVHRR radiance data. The preliminary validation results indicate good accuracy of this new long-term product, which has been designed to simplify applications and support the scientific research community.
Clara Lázaro, Maria Joana Fernandes, Telmo Vieira, and Eliana Vieira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3205–3228,Short summary
In satellite altimetry (SA), the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) accounts for the path delay induced mainly by atmospheric water vapour. In coastal regions, the accuracy of the WTC determined by the on-board radiometer deteriorates. The GPD+ methodology, developed by the University of Porto in the remit of ESA-funded projects, computes improved WTCs for SA. Global enhanced products are generated for all past and operational altimetric missions, forming a relevant dataset for coastal altimetry.
Magí Franquesa, Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Dimitris Stavrakoudis, Ioannis Z. Gitas, Ekhi Roteta, Marc Padilla, and Emilio Chuvieco
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3229–3246,Short summary
The article presents a database of reference sites for the validation of burned area products. We have compiled 2661 reference files from different international projects. The paper describes the methods used to generate and standardize the data. The Burned Area Reference Data (BARD) is publicly available and will facilitate the arduous task of validating burned area algorithms.
Anne L. Morée and Jörg Schwinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2971–2985,Short summary
This dataset consists of eight variables needed in ocean modelling and is made to support modelers of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) ocean. The LGM is a time of specific interest for climate researchers. The data are based on the results of state-of-the-art climate models and are the best available estimate of these variables for the LGM. The dataset shows clear spatial patterns but large uncertainties and is presented in a way that facilitates applications in any ocean model.
Maialen Iturbide, José M. Gutiérrez, Lincoln M. Alves, Joaquín Bedia, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ezequiel Cimadevilla, Antonio S. Cofiño, Alejandro Di Luca, Sergio Henrique Faria, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Mathias Hauser, Sixto Herrera, Kevin Hennessy, Helene T. Hewitt, Richard G. Jones, Svitlana Krakovska, Rodrigo Manzanas, Daniel Martínez-Castro, Gemma T. Narisma, Intan S. Nurhati, Izidine Pinto, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart van den Hurk, and Carolina S. Vera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2959–2970,Short summary
We present an update of the IPCC WGI reference regions used in AR5 for the synthesis of climate change information. This revision was guided by the basic principles of climatic consistency and model representativeness (in particular for the new CMIP6 simulations). We also present a new dataset of monthly CMIP5 and CMIP6 spatially aggregated information using the new reference regions and describe a worked example of how to use this dataset to inform regional climate change studies.
Juan-Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Graham W. Mann, Philippe Keckhut, Sergey Avdyushin, Bruno Nardi, and Larry W. Thomason
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2843–2851,Short summary
We report the recovery of lidar measurements of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Two Soviet ships crossing the tropical Atlantic in July–September 1991 and January–February 1992 measured the vertical profile of the Pinatubo cloud at different points in its spatio-temporal evolution. The datasets provide valuable new information on the eruption's impacts on climate, with the SAGE-II satellite measurements not able to measure most of the lower half of the Pinatubo cloud in the tropics in this period.
Yi Zheng, Ruoque Shen, Yawen Wang, Xiangqian Li, Shuguang Liu, Shunlin Liang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Li Zhang, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2725–2746,Short summary
Accurately reproducing the interannual variations in vegetation gross primary production (GPP) is a major challenge. A global GPP dataset was generated by integrating the regulations of several major environmental variables with long-term changes. The dataset can effectively reproduce the spatial, seasonal, and particularly interannual variations in global GPP. Our study will contribute to accurate carbon flux estimates at long timescales.
Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba, Tomás Acuña-Ruz, and Cristian B. Mattar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2665–2678,Short summary
Technologies to support detection and tracking of plastic litter in aquatic environments capable of repeated observations at a wide-area scale have been getting increased interest from scientists and stakeholders. We report findings about thermal infrared optical properties of naturally dried samples of algae, sands, sea shells and synthetic plastics obtained in Chile. Diagnostic features of the dataset are foreseen to contribute towards research relevant in thermal infrared sensing of plastics.
Kristian Bär, Thomas Reinsch, and Judith Bott
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2485–2515,Short summary
Petrophysical properties are key to populating numerical models of subsurface process simulations and the interpretation of many geophysical exploration methods. The P3 database presented here aims at providing easily accessible, peer-reviewed information on physical rock properties in one single compilation. The uniqueness of P3 emerges from its coverage and metadata structure. Each measured value is complemented by the corresponding location, petrography, stratigraphy and original reference.
Susannah Rennie, Klaus Goergen, Christoph Wohner, Sander Apweiler, Johannes Peterseil, and John Watkins
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper describes a climate service data product intended for the ecological researchers. Access to regional climate scenario data will save ecological researchers time, and for many it will allow them to work with data resources that they will not previously have had due to a lack of knowledge and skills to access them. Providing easy access to climate scenario data in this way enhances long term ecological research; for example in general regional climate change or impact assessments.
Marco Cucchi, Graham P. Weedon, Alessandro Amici, Nicolas Bellouin, Stefan Lange, Hannes Müller Schmied, Hans Hersbach, and Carlo Buontempo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2097–2120,Short summary
WFDE5 is a novel meteorological forcing dataset for running land surface and global hydrological models. It has been generated using the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to surface meteorological variables from the ERA5 reanalysis. It is publicly available, along with its source code, through the C3S Climate Data Store at ECMWF. Results of the evaluations described in the paper highlight the benefits of using WFDE5 compared to both ERA5 and its predecessor WFDEI.
Megan McElhinny, Justin F. Beckers, Chelene Hanes, Mike Flannigan, and Piyush Jain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1823–1833,Short summary
The Canadian Fire Weather Index uses temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall to provide a fire danger rating that is crucial for fire managers and communities for risk assessment. We provide a global calculation of this index and other relevant indices using high-resolution modelled weather data for 1979–2018. These data will be useful for research studies aiming to quantify the relationships between fire occurrence, growth, or severity and weather or for trend analysis studies.
Martin Strohmeier, Xavier Olive, Jannis Lübbe, Matthias Schäfer, and Vincent Lenders
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Flight data has been used widely for research by academic researchers and (supra-)national institutions. Example domains range from epidemiology (e.g. examining the spread of COVID-19 via air travel) to economics (e.g. use as proxy for immediate forecasting of the state of a country's economy) and Earth Sciences (climatology in particular). Until now, accurate flight data has been available only in small pieces from closed, proprietary sources. This work changes this using a crowdsourced effort.
Jinshi Jian, Rodrigo Vargas, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Emma Stell, Valentine Herrmann, Mercedes Horn, Nazar Kholod, Jason Manzon, Rebecca Marchesi, Darlin Paredes, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Field soil-to-atmosphere CO2 flux (soil respiration, Rs) observations were compiled into a global database (SRDB) a decade ago. Here, we restructured and updated the database to the fifth version, SRDB-V5, with data published through 2017 included. SRDB-V5 aims to be a data framework for the scientific community to share seasonal to annual field Rs measurements, and it provides opportunities for the scientific community to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of Rs.
Michel M. Verstraete, Linda A. Hunt, and Veljko M. Jovanovic
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1321–1346,Short summary
The L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product, available for each of the nine cameras of the MISR instrument, contains a variable number of missing values, especially wherever and whenever the instrument is switched from the Global to the Local Mode. This paper proposes an algorithm to effectively replace those missing values and demonstrates the performance of the process. MISR data and software tools are obtainable from public domain websites to explore this issue further.
Han Liu, Peng Gong, Jie Wang, Nicholas Clinton, Yuqi Bai, and Shunlin Liang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1217–1243,Short summary
We built the first set of 5 km resolution CDRs to record the annual dynamics of global land cover (GLASS-GLC) from 1982 to 2015. The average overall accuracy is 82 %. By conducting long-term change analysis, significant land cover changes and spatiotemporal patterns at various scales were found, which can improve our understanding of global environmental change and help achieve sustainable development goals. This will be further applied in Earth system modeling to facilitate relevant studies.
Kimberly A. Casey, Cecile S. Rousseaux, Watson W. Gregg, Emmanuel Boss, Alison P. Chase, Susanne E. Craig, Colleen B. Mouw, Rick A. Reynolds, Dariusz Stramski, Steven G. Ackleson, Annick Bricaud, Blake Schaeffer, Marlon R. Lewis, and Stéphane Maritorena
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1123–1139,Short summary
An increase in spectral resolution in forthcoming remote-sensing missions will improve our ability to understand and characterize aquatic ecosystems. We organize and provide a global compilation of high spectral resolution inherent and apparent optical property data from polar, midlatitude, and equatorial open-ocean, estuary, coastal, and inland waters. The data are intended to aid in development of remote-sensing data product algorithms and to perform calibration and validation activities.
Adrian Howkins, Stephen M. Chignell, Poppie Gullett, Andrew G. Fountain, Melissa Brett, and Evelin Preciado
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1117–1122,Short summary
Historical data have much to offer current research activities and environmental management in Antarctica, but such information is often widely scattered and difficult to access. We addressed this need in the McMurdo Dry Valleys by compiling over 5000 historical photographs, maps, oral interviews, and other archival resources into a user-friendly digital archive. This can be used to identify benchmarks for understanding change over time, as well as the date and extent of past human activities.
Katharina Teschke, Hendrik Pehlke, Volker Siegel, Horst Bornemann, Rainer Knust, and Thomas Brey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1003–1023,Short summary
Successful nature conservation depends on well-founded decisions. Such decisions rely on valid and comprehensive information and data. This paper compiles data sources on the environment and ecology of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica), primarily to support the development of a marine protected area in this region. However, future projects can also benefit from our systematic data overview, as it can be used to develop specific data collections, thus saving a time-consuming data search from scratch.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Glen P. Peters, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Philippe Ciais, Francesco N. Tubiello, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Adrian Leip, Gema Carmona-Garcia, Wilfried Winiwarter, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Dirk Günther, Efisio Solazzo, Anja Kiesow, Ana Bastos, Julia Pongratz, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Giulia Conchedda, Roberto Pilli, Robbie M. Andrew, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, and Albertus J. Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 961–1001,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up GHG anthropogenic emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) in the EU28. The data integrate recent AFOLU emission inventories with ecosystem data and land carbon models, aiming at reconciling GHG budgets with official country-level UNFCCC inventories. We provide comprehensive emission assessments in support to policy, facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Samuel Eberenz, Dario Stocker, Thomas Röösli, and David N. Bresch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 817–833,Short summary
The modeling of economic disaster risk on a global scale requires high-resolution maps of exposed asset values. We have developed a generic and scalable method to downscale national asset value estimates proportional to a combination of nightlight intensity and population data. Here, we present the methodology together with an evaluation of its performance for the subnational downscaling of GDP. The resulting exposure data for 224 countries and the open-source Python code are available online.
Julie Elliott and Matthew E. Pritchard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 771–787,Short summary
We have digitized a collection of photographs of glaciated and formerly glaciated regions in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and New York taken during the late 1800s and early 1900s, and we compiled related information just as photo locations, photo dates, and photographic techniques. The photos document dramatic landscape transformations related to climate change and preserve records of everyday life in the Arctic during the early 20th century.
Karsten Fennig, Marc Schröder, Axel Andersson, and Rainer Hollmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 647–681,Short summary
A Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR) from satellite-borne microwave radiometers has been created, covering the time period from October 1978 to December 2015. This article describes how the observations are processed, calibrated, corrected, inter-calibrated, and evaluated in order to provide a homogeneous data record of brightness temperatures across 10 different instruments aboard three different satellite platforms.
Michel M. Verstraete, Linda A. Hunt, Hugo De Lemos, and Larry Di Girolamo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 611–628,Short summary
The radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask product, available for each of the nine cameras of the MISR instrument, contains a variable number of missing values, especially wherever and whenever the instrument is switched from the Global to Local Mode of operation. This paper proposes a simple method for effectively replacing those missing values and demonstrates the performance of the process. MISR data and software tools are obtainable from public domain websites to explore this issue further.
Zilefac Elvis Asong, Mohamed Ezzat Elshamy, Daniel Princz, Howard Simon Wheater, John Willard Pomeroy, Alain Pietroniro, and Alex Cannon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 629–645,Short summary
This dataset provides an improved set of forcing data for large-scale hydrological models for climate change impact assessment in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB). Here, the strengths of two historical datasets were blended to produce a less-biased long-record product for hydrological modelling and climate change impact assessment over the MRB. This product is then used to bias-correct climate projections from the Canadian Regional Climate Model under RCP8.5.
Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Zhengyuan Zhu, and Wenting Cao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 357–371,Short summary
The information of urban dynamics with fine spatial and temporal resolutions is highly needed in urban studies. In this study, we generated a long-term (1985–2015), fine-resolution (30 m) product of annual urban extent dynamics in the conterminous United States using all available Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The data product is of great use for relevant studies such as urban growth projection, urban sprawl modeling, and urbanization impacts on environments.
Elena Couce, Michaela Schratzberger, and Georg H. Engelhard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 373–386,Short summary
Fishing – especially trawling – is one of the most ubiquitous anthropogenic pressures on marine ecosystems, yet very few long-term, spatially explicit datasets on trawling effort exist, greatly hampering our understanding of its medium- to long-term impacts. Here we provide a dataset on the spatial distribution of total international otter and beam trawling effort in the North Sea, for the period 1985–2015, reconstructed using compiled effort datasets with data gaps filled by estimations.
Marco Sangiorgi, Miguel Angel Hernández-Ceballos, Kevin Jackson, Giorgia Cinelli, Konstantins Bogucarskis, Luca De Felice, Andrei Patrascu, and Marc De Cort
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 109–118,Short summary
After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the European Commission has invested resources for developing and improving a complete system called the European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP) to exchange real-time monitoring data to competent authorities and the public. We provide two complete datasets (air-concentration samples and gamma dose rates) for the recent radiological release of 106Ru in Europe, which occurred between the end of September and early October 2017.
Susannah Rennie, Chris Andrews, Sarah Atkinson, Deborah Beaumont, Sue Benham, Vic Bowmaker, Jan Dick, Bev Dodd, Colm McKenna, Denise Pallett, Rob Rose, Stefanie M. Schäfer, Tony Scott, Carol Taylor, and Helen Watson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 87–107,Short summary
This paper describes the meteorological, biological and biogeochemical datasets of the UK Environmental Change Network, a nationally unique long-term record environmental variability across UK habitats. The co-location of these measurements provides a rare opportunity to directly investigate relationships between environmental variables over significant time scales (1992–2015). This data record also provides the UK contribution to a global system of long-term environmental research networks.
Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba and Heidi M. Dierssen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 77–86,Short summary
As remote sensing is becoming more integral in future plastic litter monitoring strategies, there is need to improve our understanding of the optical properties of plastics. We present spectral reflectance data (350–2500 nm) of wet and dry marine-harvested (Atlantic and Pacific oceans), washed-ashore, and virgin plastics. Absorption features were identified at ~ 931, 1215, 1417 and 1732 nm in both the marine-harvested and washed-ashore plastics.
Martin Stengel, Stefan Stapelberg, Oliver Sus, Stephan Finkensieper, Benjamin Würzler, Daniel Philipp, Rainer Hollmann, Caroline Poulsen, Matthew Christensen, and Gregory McGarragh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 41–60,Short summary
The Cloud_cci AVHRR-PMv3 dataset contains global, cloud and radiative flux properties covering the period of 1982 to 2016. The properties were retrieved from AVHRR measurements recorded by afternoon satellites of the NOAA POES missions. Validation against CALIOP, BSRN and CERES demonstrates the high quality of the data. The Cloud_cci AVHRR-PMv3 dataset allows for a large variety of climate applications that build on cloud properties, radiative flux properties and/or the link between them.
Miquel Tomas-Burguera, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Fergus Reig, and Borja Latorre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1917–1930,Short summary
A database of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was obtained and made publicly available for Spain covering the 1961–2014 period at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km. Previous to ETo calculation, data of required climate variables were interpolated and validated, and the uncertainty was estimated. Obtained ETo values can be used to calculate irrigation requirements, improve drought studies (our main motivation) and study the impact of climate change, as a positive trend was detected.
Wenjun Tang, Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Xin Li, and Xiaolei Niu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1905–1915,Short summary
This study produced a 16-year (2000–2015) global surface solar radiation dataset (3 h, 10 km) based on recently updated ISCCP H-series cloud products with a physically based retrieval scheme. Its spatial resolution and accuracy are both higher than those of the ISCCP-FD, GEWEX-SRB and CERES. The dataset will contribute to photovoltaic applications and research related to the simulation of land surface processes.
Melita Keywood, Paul Selleck, Fabienne Reisen, David Cohen, Scott Chambers, Min Cheng, Martin Cope, Suzanne Crumeyrolle, Erin Dunne, Kathryn Emmerson, Rosemary Fedele, Ian Galbally, Rob Gillett, Alan Griffiths, Elise-Andree Guerette, James Harnwell, Ruhi Humphries, Sarah Lawson, Branka Miljevic, Suzie Molloy, Jennifer Powell, Jack Simmons, Zoran Ristovski, and Jason Ward
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1883–1903,Short summary
The Sydney Particle Study increased scientific knowledge of the processes leading to particle formation and transformations in Sydney through two comprehensive observation programs which are described in detail here. The data set and its analysis underpin comprehensive chemical transport modelling tools that can be used to assist in the development of a long-term control strategy for particles in Sydney and thus reduce the impact of particles on human health.
Felix L. Müller, Denise Dettmering, Claudia Wekerle, Christian Schwatke, Marcello Passaro, Wolfgang Bosch, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1765–1781,Short summary
Polar regions by satellite-altimetry-derived geostrophic currents (GCs) suffer from irregular and sparse data coverage. Therefore, a new dataset is presented, combining along-track derived dynamic ocean topography (DOT) heights with simulated differential water heights. For this purpose, a combination method, based on principal component analysis, is used. The results are combined with spatio-temporally consistent DOT and derived GC representations on unstructured, triangular formulated grids.
This Rutishauser, François Jeanneret, Robert Brügger, Yuri Brugnara, Christian Röthlisberger, August Bernasconi, Peter Bangerter, Céline Portenier, Leonie Villiger, Daria Lehmann, Lukas Meyer, Bruno Messerli, and Stefan Brönnimann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1645–1654,Short summary
This paper reports 7414 quality-controlled plant phenological observations of the BernClim phenological network in Switzerland. The data from 1304 sites at 110 stations were recorded between 1970 and 2018. The quality control (QC) points to very good internal consistency (only 0.2 % flagged as internally inconsistent) and likely to high quality of the data. BernClim data originally served in regional planning and agricultural suitability and are now valuable for climate change impact studies.
Xingdong Li, Di Long, Qi Huang, Pengfei Han, Fanyu Zhao, and Yoshihide Wada
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1603–1627,Short summary
Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau experienced rapid changes (mainly expanding) in the past 2 decades. Here we provide a data set of high temporal resolution and accuracy reflecting changes in water level and storage of Tibetan lakes. A novel source of water levels generated from Landsat archives was validated with in situ data and adopted to resolve the inconsistency in existing studies, benefiting monitoring of lake overflow floods, seasonal and interannual variability, and long-term trends.
Ekaterina P. Rets, Viktor V. Popovnin, Pavel A. Toropov, Andrew M. Smirnov, Igor V. Tokarev, Julia N. Chizhova, Nadine A. Budantseva, Yurij K. Vasil'chuk, Maria B. Kireeva, Alexey A. Ekaykin, Arina N. Veres, Alexander A. Aleynikov, Natalia L. Frolova, Anatoly S. Tsyplenkov, Aleksei A. Poliukhov, Sergey R. Chalov, Maria A. Aleshina, and Ekaterina D. Kornilova
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1463–1481,Short summary
As climate change completely restructures hydrological processes and ecosystems in alpine areas, monitoring is fundamental to adaptation. Here we present a database on more than 10 years of hydrometeorological monitoring at the Djankuat station in the North Caucasus, which is one of 30 unique world reference sites with annual mass balance series longer than 50 years. We hope it will be useful for scientists studying various aspects of hydrological processes in mountain areas.
Stefan Leyk, Andrea E. Gaughan, Susana B. Adamo, Alex de Sherbinin, Deborah Balk, Sergio Freire, Amy Rose, Forrest R. Stevens, Brian Blankespoor, Charlie Frye, Joshua Comenetz, Alessandro Sorichetta, Kytt MacManus, Linda Pistolesi, Marc Levy, Andrew J. Tatem, and Martino Pesaresi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1385–1409,Short summary
Population data are essential for studies on human–nature relationships, disaster or environmental health. Several global and continental gridded population data have been produced but have never been systematically compared. This article fills this gap and critically compares these gridded population datasets. Through the lens of the
fitness for useconcept it provides users with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions about appropriate data use in relation to the target application.
Craig D. Smith, Daqing Yang, Amber Ross, and Alan Barr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1337–1347,Short summary
During and following the WMO Solid Precipitation Inter-Comparison Experiment (SPICE), winter (2013–2017) precipitation intercomparison data sets were collected at two test sites in Saskatchewan: Caribou Creek in the southern boreal forest and Bratt's Lake on the prairies. Precipitation was measured by the WMO automated reference and can be compared to measurements made by gauge configurations commonly used in Canada to examine issues with systematic bias.
Samuel Weber, Jan Beutel, Reto Da Forno, Alain Geiger, Stephan Gruber, Tonio Gsell, Andreas Hasler, Matthias Keller, Roman Lim, Philippe Limpach, Matthias Meyer, Igor Talzi, Lothar Thiele, Christian Tschudin, Andreas Vieli, Daniel Vonder Mühll, and Mustafa Yücel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1203–1237,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a unique 10-year or more data record obtained from in situ measurements in steep bedrock permafrost in an Alpine environment on the Matterhorn Hörnligrat, Zermatt, Switzerland, at 3500 m a.s.l. By documenting and sharing these data in this form, we contribute to facilitating future research based on them, e.g., in the area of analysis methodology, comparative studies, assessment of change in the environment, natural hazard warning and the development of process models.
Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Santiago Beguería, and Martín de Luis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1171–1188,Short summary
Spanish TEmperature At Daily scale (STEAD) is a new daily gridded maximum and minimum temperature dataset for Spain. It covers the whole territory of peninsular Spain and the Balearic and Canary Islands at a 5 km × 5 km spatial resolution for the 1901–2014 period. This product is useful not only for climatic analysis but also to provide support to any other climate-related variable and for decision-making purposes.
Shanlong Lu, Jin Ma, Xiaoqi Ma, Hailong Tang, Hongli Zhao, and Muhammad Hasan Ali Baig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1099–1108,Short summary
A 8 d time series 250 m resolution surface water dataset of inland China (ISWDC) from 2000 to 2016 is introduced. It is a fully public-sharing data product with prominent features of long time series, moderate spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The ISWDC is a valuable basic data source for the analysis of dynamic changes of surface water in China over the past 20 years. It can be used as cross-validation reference data for other global surface water datasets.
Brett Morgan and Benoit Guénard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1083–1098,Short summary
Hong Kong is poised to become a model region for understanding the effects of urbanization, biotic invasions, and protected areas in the tropics. However, until now there have been few suitable GIS layers to address these issues on a landscape scale. This set of 30 m resolution vegetation, topography, and interpolated climate rasters will enable a new generation of spatial studies in Hong Kong. Compared to global datasets, these local models consistently indicate greater climatic heterogeneity.
Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, and Qiusheng Wu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 881–894,Short summary
We generated a long-term (1985–2015) and medium-resolution (30 m) product of phenology indicators in urban domains in the conterminous US using Landsat satellite observations. The derived phenology indicators agree well with in situ observations and provide more spatial details in complex urban areas compared to the existing coarse resolution phenology products (e.g., MODIS). The published data are of great use for urban phenology studies (e.g., pollen-induced respiratory allergies).
Vera Porwollik, Susanne Rolinski, Jens Heinke, and Christoph Müller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 823–843,Short summary
This study describes the generation of a classification and the global spatially explicit mapping of six crop-specific tillage systems for around the year 2005. Tillage practices differ by the kind of equipment used, soil surface and depth affected, timing, and their purpose within the cropping systems. The identified tillage systems including a downscale algorithm of national Conservation Agriculture area values were allocated to crop-specific cropland areas with a resolution of 5 arcmin.
Alexander Gruber, Tracy Scanlon, Robin van der Schalie, Wolfgang Wagner, and Wouter Dorigo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 717–739,Short summary
Soil moisture is a key variable in our Earth system. Knowledge of soil moisture and its dynamics across scales is vital for many applications such as the prediction of agricultural yields or irrigation demands, flood and drought monitoring, weather forecasting and climate modelling. To date, the ESA CCI SM products are the only consistent long-term multi-satellite soil moisture data sets available. This paper reviews the evolution of these products and their underlying merging methodology.
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Based on the idea of the co-registration method, this study proposes a method named correlation-based patch matching method (CPMM), which is capable of quantifying the geometric accuracy of coarse-resolution satellite data. The assessment is conducted at the sub-pixel level and not affected by the mixed-pixel problem. It is not limited to a certain landmark such as a lake or sea shoreline and thus enables a more comprehensive assessment.
Based on the idea of the co-registration method, this study proposes a method named...