Articles | Volume 13, issue 3
Data description paper 08 Mar 2021
Data description paper | 08 Mar 2021
Merging ground-based sunshine duration observations with satellite cloud and aerosol retrievals to produce high-resolution long-term surface solar radiation over China
Fei Feng and Kaicun Wang
No articles found.
Qian Ma, Kaicun Wang, Yanyi He, Liangyuan Su, Qizhong Wu, Han Liu, and Youren Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 463–477,Short summary
Surface incident solar radiation plays a key role in atmospheric circulation, the water cycle, and ecological equilibrium on Earth. A homogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation dataset was obtained over Japan.
Chunlüe Zhou, Yanyi He, and Kaicun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8113–8136,
Jizeng Du, Kaicun Wang, Jiankai Wang, and Qian Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4931–4944,
X. Y. Wang and K. C. Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1701–1709,
B. Mueller, M. Hirschi, C. Jimenez, P. Ciais, P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, F. Ludwig, F. Maignan, D. G. Miralles, M. F. McCabe, M. Reichstein, J. Sheffield, K. Wang, E. F. Wood, Y. Zhang, and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3707–3720,
Related subject area
Data, Algorithms, and ModelsA flux tower dataset tailored for land model evaluationA Landsat-derived annual inland water clarity dataset of China between 1984 and 2018A harmonized global land evaporation dataset from model-based products covering 1980–2017Estimating population and urban areas at risk of coastal hazards, 1990–2015: how data choices matterLandsat-based Irrigation Dataset (LANID): 30 m resolution maps of irrigation distribution, frequency, and change for the US, 1997–2017GRQA: Global River Water Quality ArchiveA 1 km global cropland dataset from 10 000 BCE to 2100 CEA 1 km global dataset of historical (1979–2013) and future (2020–2100) Köppen–Geiger climate classification and bioclimatic variablesSeaFlux: harmonization of air–sea CO2 fluxes from surface pCO2 data products using a standardized approachNitrogen deposition in the UK at 1 km resolution from 1990 to 2017Full-coverage 1 km daily ambient PM2.5 and O3 concentrations of China in 2005–2017 based on multi-variable random forest modelERA5-Land: a state-of-the-art global reanalysis dataset for land applicationsAn all-sky 1 km daily land surface air temperature product over mainland China for 2003–2019 from MODIS and ancillary data100 years of lake evolution over the Qinghai–Tibet PlateauThe 30 m annual land cover dataset and its dynamics in China from 1990 to 2019Median bed-material sediment particle size across rivers in the contiguous U.S.Coastal complexity of the Antarctic continentUAV-based very high resolution point cloud, digital surface model and orthomosaic of the Chã das Caldeiras lava fields (Fogo, Cabo Verde)AQ-Bench: a benchmark dataset for machine learning on global air quality metricsBias-corrected and spatially disaggregated seasonal forecasts: a long-term reference forecast product for the water sector in semi-arid regionsThe consolidated European synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990–2017The consolidated European synthesis of CO2 emissions and removals for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990–2018A new merged dataset for analyzing clouds, precipitation and atmospheric parameters based on ERA5 reanalysis data and the measurements of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar and visible and infrared scannerA new satellite-derived dataset for marine aquaculture areas in China's coastal regionDatabase of petrophysical properties of the Mid-German Crystalline RiseLandsat-derived bathymetry of lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern AlaskaMulti-site, multi-crop measurements in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum: A comprehensive dataset from two climatically contrasting regions in South West Germany for the period 2009–2018Hyperspectral-reflectance dataset of dry, wet and submerged marine litterA climate service for ecologists: sharing pre-processed EURO-CORDEX regional climate scenario data using the eLTER Information SystemCrowdsourced air traffic data from the OpenSky Network 2019–2020A restructured and updated global soil respiration database (SRDB-V5)The Berkeley Earth Land/Ocean Temperature RecordDielectric database of organic Arctic soils (DDOAS)Global Carbon Budget 2020A global long-term (1981–2000) land surface temperature product for NOAA AVHRRA coastally improved global dataset of wet tropospheric corrections for satellite altimetryDevelopment of a standard database of reference sites for validating global burned area productsA Last Glacial Maximum forcing dataset for ocean modellingAn update of IPCC climate reference regions for subcontinental analysis of climate model data: definition and aggregated datasetsShipborne lidar measurements showing the progression of the tropical reservoir of volcanic aerosol after the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptionImproved estimate of global gross primary production for reproducing its long-term variation, 1982–2017Hyperspectral longwave infrared reflectance spectra of naturally dried algae, anthropogenic plastics, sands and shellsThe PetroPhysical Property Database (P3) – a global compilation of lab-measured rock propertiesWFDE5: bias-adjusted ERA5 reanalysis data for impact studiesA high-resolution reanalysis of global fire weather from 1979 to 2018 – overwintering the Drought CodeImproving the usability of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product (2000–present) in land surface applicationsAnnual dynamics of global land cover and its long-term changes from 1982 to 2015A global compilation of in situ aquatic high spectral resolution inherent and apparent optical property data for remote sensing applicationsA digital archive of human activity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, AntarcticaAn integrated compilation of data sources for the development of a marine protected area in the Weddell Sea
Anna M. Ukkola, Gab Abramowitz, and Martin G. De Kauwe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 449–461,Short summary
Flux towers provide measurements of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. Flux tower data are invaluable in improving and evaluating land models but are not suited to modelling applications as published. Here we present flux tower data tailored for land modelling, encompassing 170 sites globally. Our dataset resolves several key limitations hindering the use of flux tower data in land modelling, including incomplete forcing variable, data format, and low data quality.
Hui Tao, Kaishan Song, Ge Liu, Qiang Wang, Zhidan Wen, Pierre-Andre Jacinthe, Xiaofeng Xu, Jia Du, Yingxin Shang, Sijia Li, Zongming Wang, Lili Lyu, Junbin Hou, Xiang Wang, Dong Liu, Kun Shi, Baohua Zhang, and Hongtao Duan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 79–94,Short summary
During 1984–2018, lakes in the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau had the clearest water (mean 3.32 ± 0.38 m), while those in the northeastern region had the lowest Secchi disk depth (SDD) (mean 0.60 ± 0.09 m). Among the 10 814 lakes with > 10 years of SDD results, 55.4 % and 3.5 % experienced significantly increasing and decreasing trends of SDD, respectively. With the exception of Inner Mongolia–Xinjiang, more than half of lakes in all the other regions exhibited a significant trend of increasing SDD.
Jiao Lu, Guojie Wang, Tiexi Chen, Shijie Li, Daniel Fiifi Tawia Hagan, Giri Kattel, Jian Peng, Tong Jiang, and Buda Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5879–5898,Short summary
This study has combined three existing land evaporation (ET) products to obtain a single framework of a long-term (1980–2017) daily ET product at a spatial resolution of 0.25° to define the global proxy ET with lower uncertainties. The merged product is the best at capturing dynamics over different locations and times among all data sets. The merged product performed well over a range of vegetation cover scenarios and also captured the trend of land evaporation over different areas well.
Kytt MacManus, Deborah Balk, Hasim Engin, Gordon McGranahan, and Rya Inman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5747–5801,Short summary
New estimates of population and land area by settlement types within low-elevation coastal zones (LECZs) based on four sources of population data, four sources of settlement data and four sources of elevation data for the years 1990, 2000 and 2015. The paper describes the sensitivity of these estimates and discusses the fitness of use guiding user decisions. Data choices impact the number of people estimated within LECZs, but across all sources the LECZs are predominantly urban and growing.
Yanhua Xie, Holly K. Gibbs, and Tyler J. Lark
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5689–5710,Short summary
We created 30 m resolution annual irrigation maps covering the conterminous US for the period of 1997–2017, together with derivative products and ground reference data. The products have several improvements over other data, including field-level details of change and frequency, an annual time step, a collection of ~ 10 000 ground reference locations for the eastern US, and improved mapping accuracy of over 90 %, especially in the east compared to others of 50 % to 80 %.
Holger Virro, Giuseppe Amatulli, Alexander Kmoch, Longzhu Shen, and Evelyn Uuemaa
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5483–5507,Short summary
Water quality modeling is essential for understanding and mitigating water quality deterioration in river networks due to agricultural and industrial pollution. Improving the availability and usability of open data is vital to support global water quality modeling efforts. The GRQA extends the spatial and temporal coverage of previously available water quality data and provides a reproducible workflow for combining multi-source water quality datasets.
Bowen Cao, Le Yu, Xuecao Li, Min Chen, Xia Li, Pengyu Hao, and Peng Gong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5403–5421,Short summary
In the study, the first 1 km global cropland proportion dataset for 10 000 BCE–2100 CE was produced through the harmonization and downscaling framework. The mapping result coincides well with widely used datasets at present. With improved spatial resolution, our maps can better capture the cropland distribution details and spatial heterogeneity. The dataset will be valuable for long-term simulations and precise analyses. The framework can be extended to specific regions or other land use types.
Diyang Cui, Shunlin Liang, Dongdong Wang, and Zheng Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5087–5114,Short summary
Large portions of the Earth's surface are expected to experience changes in climatic conditions. The rearrangement of climate distributions can lead to serious impacts on ecological and social systems. Major climate zones are distributed in a predictable pattern and are largely defined following the Köppen climate classification. This creates an urgent need to compile a series of Köppen climate classification maps with finer spatial and temporal resolutions and improved accuracy.
Amanda R. Fay, Luke Gregor, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Nicolas Gruber, Marion Gehlen, Yosuke Iida, Goulven G. Laruelle, Christian Rödenbeck, Alizée Roobaert, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4693–4710,Short summary
The movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean is estimated using surface ocean carbon (pCO2) measurements and an equation including variables such as temperature and wind speed; the choices of these variables lead to uncertainties. We introduce the SeaFlux ensemble which provides carbon flux maps calculated in a consistent manner, thus reducing uncertainty by using common choices for wind speed and a set definition of "global" coverage.
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Edward J. Carnell, Anthony J. Dore, and Ulrike Dragosits
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4677–4692,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) may impact the environment in many ways, and estimation of its deposition to the terrestrial surface is of interest. N deposition data have not been generated at a high resolution (1 km × 1 km) over a long time series in the UK before now. This study concludes that N deposition has reduced by ~ 40 % from 1990. The impact of these results allows analysis of environmental impacts at a high spatial and temporal resolution, using a consistent methodology and consistent set of input data.
Runmei Ma, Jie Ban, Qing Wang, Yayi Zhang, Yang Yang, Shenshen Li, Wenjiao Shi, and Tiantian Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We constructed multi-variable random forest models based on ten-fold cross validation, and estimated daily PM2.5 and O3 concentration of China in 2005–2017 at a resolution of 1 km. The daily R2 values of PM2.5 and O3 were 0.85 and 0.77. The meteorological variables can significantly affect both PM2.5 and O3 modeling. During 2005–2017, PM2.5 exhibited an overall downward trend, while O3 was on the contrary. The temporal trend of PM2.5 and O3 had spatial characteristic during study period.
Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Emanuel Dutra, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Clément Albergel, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Souhail Boussetta, Margarita Choulga, Shaun Harrigan, Hans Hersbach, Brecht Martens, Diego G. Miralles, María Piles, Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández, Ervin Zsoter, Carlo Buontempo, and Jean-Noël Thépaut
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4349–4383,Short summary
The creation of ERA5-Land responds to a growing number of applications requiring global land datasets at a resolution higher than traditionally reached. ERA5-Land provides operational, global, and hourly key variables of the water and energy cycles over land surfaces, at 9 km resolution, from 1981 until the present. This work provides evidence of an overall improvement of the water cycle compared to previous reanalyses, whereas the energy cycle variables perform as well as those of ERA5.
Yan Chen, Shunlin Liang, Han Ma, Bing Li, Tao He, and Qian Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4241–4261,Short summary
This study used remotely sensed and assimilated data to estimate all-sky land surface air temperature (Ta) using a machine learning method, and developed an all-sky 1 km daily mean land Ta product for 2003–2019 over mainland China. Validation results demonstrated that this dataset has achieved satisfactory accuracy and high spatial resolution simultaneously, which fills the current dataset gap in this field and plays an important role in studies of climate change and the hydrological cycle.
Guoqing Zhang, Youhua Ran, Wei Wan, Wei Luo, Wenfeng Chen, Fenglin Xu, and Xin Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3951–3966,Short summary
Lakes can be effective indicators of climate change, especially over the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Here, we provide the most comprehensive lake mapping covering the past 100 years. The new features of this data set are (1) its temporal length, providing the longest period of lake observations from maps, (2) the data set provides a state-of-the-art lake inventory for the Landsat era (from the 1970s to 2020), and (3) it provides the densest lake observations for lakes with areas larger than 1 km2.
Jie Yang and Xin Huang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3907–3925,Short summary
We produce the 30 m annual China land cover dataset (CLCD), with an accuracy reaching 79.31 %. Trends and patterns of land cover changes during 1985 and 2019 were revealed, such as expansion of impervious surface (+148.71 %) and water (+18.39 %), decrease in cropland (−4.85 %) and increase in forest (+4.34 %). The CLCD generally reflected the rapid urbanization and a series of ecological projects in China and revealed the anthropogenic implications on LC under the condition of climate change.
Guta Wakbulcho Abeshu, Hong-Yi Li, Zhenduo Zhu, Zeli Tan, and L. Ruby Leung
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Existing river-bed sediment particle size data are sparsely available at individual sites. We develop a continuous map of median river-bed sediment particle size over the contiguous U.S. corresponding to millions of river segments based on the existing observations and machine-learning methods. This map is useful for research in large-scale river sediment using model- and data-driven approaches, teaching environmental and earth system sciences, planning and managing floodplain zones, etc.
Richard Porter-Smith, John McKinlay, Alexander D. Fraser, and Robert A. Massom
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3103–3114,Short summary
This study quantifies the characteristic complexity
signaturesaround the Antarctic outer coastal margin, giving a multiscale estimate of the magnitude and direction of undulation or complexity at each point location along the entire coastline. It has numerous applications for both geophysical and biological studies and will contribute to Antarctic research requiring quantitative information about this important interface.
Gonçalo Vieira, Carla Mora, Pedro Pina, Ricardo Ramalho, and Rui Fernandes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3179–3201,Short summary
Fogo in Cabo Verde is one of the most active ocean island volcanoes on Earth, posing important hazards to local populations and at a regional level. The last eruption occurred from November 2014 to February 2015. A survey of the Chã das Caldeiras area was conducted using a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle. A point cloud, digital surface model and orthomosaic with 10 and 25 cm resolutions are provided, together with the full aerial survey projects and datasets.
Clara Betancourt, Timo Stomberg, Ribana Roscher, Martin G. Schultz, and Scarlet Stadtler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3013–3033,Short summary
With the AQ-Bench dataset, we contribute to shared data usage and machine learning methods in the field of environmental science. The AQ-Bench dataset contains air quality data and metadata from more than 5500 air quality observation stations all over the world. The dataset offers a low-threshold entrance to machine learning on a real-world environmental dataset. AQ-Bench thus provides a blueprint for environmental benchmark datasets.
Christof Lorenz, Tanja C. Portele, Patrick Laux, and Harald Kunstmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2701–2722,Short summary
Semi-arid regions depend on the freshwater resources from the rainy seasons as they are crucial for ensuring security for drinking water, food and electricity. Thus, forecasting the conditions for the next season is crucial for proactive water management. We hence present a seasonal forecast product for four semi-arid domains in Iran, Brazil, Sudan/Ethiopia and Ecuador/Peru. It provides a benchmark for seasonal forecasts and, finally, a crucial contribution for improved disaster preparedness.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Francesco N. Tubiello, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Pongratz, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, Matthias Kuhnert, Juraj Balkovič, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Efisio Solazzo, Chunjing Qiu, Roberto Pilli, Igor B. Konovalov, Richard A. Houghton, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Monica Crippa, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Pete Smith, Saqr Munassar, Rona L. Thompson, Giulia Conchedda, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2363–2406,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CO2 fossil emissions and CO2 land fluxes in the EU27+UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with ecosystem data, land carbon models and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling CO2 estimates with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Lilu Sun and Yunfei Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2293–2306,Short summary
Multi-source dataset use is hampered by use of different spatial and temporal resolutions. We merged Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar and visible and infrared scanner measurements with ERA5 reanalysis. The statistical results indicate this process has no unacceptable influence on the original data. The merged dataset can help in studying characteristics of and changes in cloud and precipitation systems and provides an opportunity for data analysis and model simulations.
Yongyong Fu, Jinsong Deng, Hongquan Wang, Alexis Comber, Wu Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Shixue You, Yi Lin, and Ke Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1829–1842,Short summary
Marine aquaculture areas in a region up to 30 km from the coast in China were mapped for the first time. It was found to cover a total area of ~1100 km2, of which more than 85 % is marine plant culture areas, with 87 % found in four coastal provinces. The results confirm the applicability and effectiveness of deep learning when applied to GF-1 data at the national scale, identifying the detailed spatial distributions and supporting the sustainable management of coastal resources in China.
Sebastian Weinert, Kristian Bär, and Ingo Sass
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1441–1459,Short summary
Physical rock properties are a key element for resource exploration, the interpretation of results from geophysical methods or the parameterization of physical or geological models. Despite the need for physical rock properties, data are still very scarce and often not available for the area of interest. The database presented aims to provide easy access to physical rock properties measured at 224 locations in Bavaria, Hessen, Rhineland-Palatinate and Thuringia (Germany).
Claire E. Simpson, Christopher D. Arp, Yongwei Sheng, Mark L. Carroll, Benjamin M. Jones, and Laurence C. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1135–1150,Short summary
Sonar depth point measurements collected at 17 lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are used to train and validate models to map lake bathymetry. These models predict depth from remotely sensed lake color and are able to explain 58.5–97.6 % of depth variability. To calculate water volumes, we integrate this modeled bathymetry with lake surface area. Knowledge of Alaskan lake bathymetries and volumes is crucial to better understanding water storage, energy balance, and ecological habitat.
Tobias K. D. Weber, Joachim Ingwersen, Petra Högy, Arne Poyda, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Michael Scott Demyan, Kristina Bohm, Ravshan Eshonkulov, Sebastian Gayler, Pascal Kremer, Moritz Laub, Yvonne Funkiun Nkwain, Christian Troost, Irene Witte, Georg Cadisch, Torsten Müller, Andreas Fangmeier, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Thilo Streck
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Presented measurement results from 6 agricultural fields, operated by local farmers in South-Western Germany, over a period of 9 years. Six eddy-covariance stations measuring water, energy and carbon fluxes between the vegetated soil surface and the atmosphere provided the backbone of the measurement sites and were supplemented by extensive soil and vegetation state monitoring. The dataset is ideal for testing process models characterising fluxes at the vegetated soil surface and the atmosphere.
Els Knaeps, Sindy Sterckx, Gert Strackx, Johan Mijnendonckx, Mehrdad Moshtaghi, Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba, and Dieter Meire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 713–730,Short summary
This paper describes a dataset consisting of 47 hyperspectral-reflectance measurements of plastic litter samples. The plastic litter samples include virgin and real samples. They were measured in dry conditions, and a selection of the samples were also measured in wet conditions and submerged in a water tank. The dataset can be used to better understand the effect of water absorption on the plastics and develop algorithms to detect and characterize marine plastics.
Susannah Rennie, Klaus Goergen, Christoph Wohner, Sander Apweiler, Johannes Peterseil, and John Watkins
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 631–644,Short summary
This paper describes a pan-European climate service data product intended for ecological researchers. Access to regional climate scenario data will save ecologists time, and, for many, it will allow them to work with data resources that they will not previously have used due to a lack of knowledge and skills to access them. Providing easy access to climate scenario data in this way enhances long-term ecological research, for example in general regional climate change or impact assessments.
Martin Strohmeier, Xavier Olive, Jannis Lübbe, Matthias Schäfer, and Vincent Lenders
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 357–366,Short summary
Flight data have been used widely for research by academic researchers and (supra)national institutions. Example domains range from epidemiology (e.g. examining the spread of COVID-19 via air travel) to economics (e.g. use as proxy for immediate forecasting of the state of a country's economy) and Earth sciences (climatology in particular). Until now, accurate flight data have been available only in small pieces from closed, proprietary sources. This work changes this with a crowdsourced effort.
Jinshi Jian, Rodrigo Vargas, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Emma Stell, Valentine Herrmann, Mercedes Horn, Nazar Kholod, Jason Manzon, Rebecca Marchesi, Darlin Paredes, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 255–267,Short summary
Field soil-to-atmosphere CO2 flux (soil respiration, Rs) observations were compiled into a global database (SRDB) a decade ago. Here, we restructured and updated the database to the fifth version, SRDB-V5, with data published through 2017 included. SRDB-V5 aims to be a data framework for the scientific community to share seasonal to annual field Rs measurements, and it provides opportunities for the scientific community to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of Rs.
Robert A. Rohde and Zeke Hausfather
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3469–3479,Short summary
A global land and ocean temperature record was created by combining the Berkeley Earth monthly land temperature field with a newly interpolated version of the HadSST3 ocean dataset. The resulting dataset covers the period from 1850 to present. This paper describes the methods used to create that combination and compares the results to other estimates of global temperature and the associated recent climate change, giving similar results.
Igor Savin, Valery Mironov, Konstantin Muzalevskiy, Sergey Fomin, Andrey Karavayskiy, Zdenek Ruzicka, and Yuriy Lukin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3481–3487,Short summary
This article presents a dielectric database of organic Arctic soils. This database was created based on dielectric measurements of seven samples of organic soils collected in various parts of the Arctic tundra. The created database can serve not only as a source of experimental data for the development of new soil dielectric models for the Arctic tundra but also as a source of training data for artificial intelligence satellite algorithms of soil moisture retrievals based on neural networks.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Jin Ma, Ji Zhou, Frank-Michael Göttsche, Shunlin Liang, Shaofei Wang, and Mingsong Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3247–3268,Short summary
Land surface temperature is an important parameter in the research of climate change and many land surface processes. This article describes the development and testing of an algorithm for generating a consistent global long-term land surface temperature product from 20 years of NOAA AVHRR radiance data. The preliminary validation results indicate good accuracy of this new long-term product, which has been designed to simplify applications and support the scientific research community.
Clara Lázaro, Maria Joana Fernandes, Telmo Vieira, and Eliana Vieira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3205–3228,Short summary
In satellite altimetry (SA), the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) accounts for the path delay induced mainly by atmospheric water vapour. In coastal regions, the accuracy of the WTC determined by the on-board radiometer deteriorates. The GPD+ methodology, developed by the University of Porto in the remit of ESA-funded projects, computes improved WTCs for SA. Global enhanced products are generated for all past and operational altimetric missions, forming a relevant dataset for coastal altimetry.
Magí Franquesa, Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Dimitris Stavrakoudis, Ioannis Z. Gitas, Ekhi Roteta, Marc Padilla, and Emilio Chuvieco
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3229–3246,Short summary
The article presents a database of reference sites for the validation of burned area products. We have compiled 2661 reference files from different international projects. The paper describes the methods used to generate and standardize the data. The Burned Area Reference Data (BARD) is publicly available and will facilitate the arduous task of validating burned area algorithms.
Anne L. Morée and Jörg Schwinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2971–2985,Short summary
This dataset consists of eight variables needed in ocean modelling and is made to support modelers of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) ocean. The LGM is a time of specific interest for climate researchers. The data are based on the results of state-of-the-art climate models and are the best available estimate of these variables for the LGM. The dataset shows clear spatial patterns but large uncertainties and is presented in a way that facilitates applications in any ocean model.
Maialen Iturbide, José M. Gutiérrez, Lincoln M. Alves, Joaquín Bedia, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ezequiel Cimadevilla, Antonio S. Cofiño, Alejandro Di Luca, Sergio Henrique Faria, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Mathias Hauser, Sixto Herrera, Kevin Hennessy, Helene T. Hewitt, Richard G. Jones, Svitlana Krakovska, Rodrigo Manzanas, Daniel Martínez-Castro, Gemma T. Narisma, Intan S. Nurhati, Izidine Pinto, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart van den Hurk, and Carolina S. Vera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2959–2970,Short summary
We present an update of the IPCC WGI reference regions used in AR5 for the synthesis of climate change information. This revision was guided by the basic principles of climatic consistency and model representativeness (in particular for the new CMIP6 simulations). We also present a new dataset of monthly CMIP5 and CMIP6 spatially aggregated information using the new reference regions and describe a worked example of how to use this dataset to inform regional climate change studies.
Juan-Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Graham W. Mann, Philippe Keckhut, Sergey Avdyushin, Bruno Nardi, and Larry W. Thomason
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2843–2851,Short summary
We report the recovery of lidar measurements of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Two Soviet ships crossing the tropical Atlantic in July–September 1991 and January–February 1992 measured the vertical profile of the Pinatubo cloud at different points in its spatio-temporal evolution. The datasets provide valuable new information on the eruption's impacts on climate, with the SAGE-II satellite measurements not able to measure most of the lower half of the Pinatubo cloud in the tropics in this period.
Yi Zheng, Ruoque Shen, Yawen Wang, Xiangqian Li, Shuguang Liu, Shunlin Liang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Li Zhang, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2725–2746,Short summary
Accurately reproducing the interannual variations in vegetation gross primary production (GPP) is a major challenge. A global GPP dataset was generated by integrating the regulations of several major environmental variables with long-term changes. The dataset can effectively reproduce the spatial, seasonal, and particularly interannual variations in global GPP. Our study will contribute to accurate carbon flux estimates at long timescales.
Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba, Tomás Acuña-Ruz, and Cristian B. Mattar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2665–2678,Short summary
Technologies to support detection and tracking of plastic litter in aquatic environments capable of repeated observations at a wide-area scale have been getting increased interest from scientists and stakeholders. We report findings about thermal infrared optical properties of naturally dried samples of algae, sands, sea shells and synthetic plastics obtained in Chile. Diagnostic features of the dataset are foreseen to contribute towards research relevant in thermal infrared sensing of plastics.
Kristian Bär, Thomas Reinsch, and Judith Bott
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2485–2515,Short summary
Petrophysical properties are key to populating numerical models of subsurface process simulations and the interpretation of many geophysical exploration methods. The P3 database presented here aims at providing easily accessible, peer-reviewed information on physical rock properties in one single compilation. The uniqueness of P3 emerges from its coverage and metadata structure. Each measured value is complemented by the corresponding location, petrography, stratigraphy and original reference.
Marco Cucchi, Graham P. Weedon, Alessandro Amici, Nicolas Bellouin, Stefan Lange, Hannes Müller Schmied, Hans Hersbach, and Carlo Buontempo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2097–2120,Short summary
WFDE5 is a novel meteorological forcing dataset for running land surface and global hydrological models. It has been generated using the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to surface meteorological variables from the ERA5 reanalysis. It is publicly available, along with its source code, through the C3S Climate Data Store at ECMWF. Results of the evaluations described in the paper highlight the benefits of using WFDE5 compared to both ERA5 and its predecessor WFDEI.
Megan McElhinny, Justin F. Beckers, Chelene Hanes, Mike Flannigan, and Piyush Jain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1823–1833,Short summary
The Canadian Fire Weather Index uses temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall to provide a fire danger rating that is crucial for fire managers and communities for risk assessment. We provide a global calculation of this index and other relevant indices using high-resolution modelled weather data for 1979–2018. These data will be useful for research studies aiming to quantify the relationships between fire occurrence, growth, or severity and weather or for trend analysis studies.
Michel M. Verstraete, Linda A. Hunt, and Veljko M. Jovanovic
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1321–1346,Short summary
The L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product, available for each of the nine cameras of the MISR instrument, contains a variable number of missing values, especially wherever and whenever the instrument is switched from the Global to the Local Mode. This paper proposes an algorithm to effectively replace those missing values and demonstrates the performance of the process. MISR data and software tools are obtainable from public domain websites to explore this issue further.
Han Liu, Peng Gong, Jie Wang, Nicholas Clinton, Yuqi Bai, and Shunlin Liang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1217–1243,Short summary
We built the first set of 5 km resolution CDRs to record the annual dynamics of global land cover (GLASS-GLC) from 1982 to 2015. The average overall accuracy is 82 %. By conducting long-term change analysis, significant land cover changes and spatiotemporal patterns at various scales were found, which can improve our understanding of global environmental change and help achieve sustainable development goals. This will be further applied in Earth system modeling to facilitate relevant studies.
Kimberly A. Casey, Cecile S. Rousseaux, Watson W. Gregg, Emmanuel Boss, Alison P. Chase, Susanne E. Craig, Colleen B. Mouw, Rick A. Reynolds, Dariusz Stramski, Steven G. Ackleson, Annick Bricaud, Blake Schaeffer, Marlon R. Lewis, and Stéphane Maritorena
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1123–1139,Short summary
An increase in spectral resolution in forthcoming remote-sensing missions will improve our ability to understand and characterize aquatic ecosystems. We organize and provide a global compilation of high spectral resolution inherent and apparent optical property data from polar, midlatitude, and equatorial open-ocean, estuary, coastal, and inland waters. The data are intended to aid in development of remote-sensing data product algorithms and to perform calibration and validation activities.
Adrian Howkins, Stephen M. Chignell, Poppie Gullett, Andrew G. Fountain, Melissa Brett, and Evelin Preciado
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1117–1122,Short summary
Historical data have much to offer current research activities and environmental management in Antarctica, but such information is often widely scattered and difficult to access. We addressed this need in the McMurdo Dry Valleys by compiling over 5000 historical photographs, maps, oral interviews, and other archival resources into a user-friendly digital archive. This can be used to identify benchmarks for understanding change over time, as well as the date and extent of past human activities.
Katharina Teschke, Hendrik Pehlke, Volker Siegel, Horst Bornemann, Rainer Knust, and Thomas Brey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1003–1023,Short summary
Successful nature conservation depends on well-founded decisions. Such decisions rely on valid and comprehensive information and data. This paper compiles data sources on the environment and ecology of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica), primarily to support the development of a marine protected area in this region. However, future projects can also benefit from our systematic data overview, as it can be used to develop specific data collections, thus saving a time-consuming data search from scratch.
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