Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Meteorological drought lacunarity around the world and its classification
Climate Research Foundation (FIC), C/Gran Vía 22 (duplicado), 7, 28013 Madrid, Spain
Department of Algebra, Geometry and Topology, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Geography, University of Porto, Via Panorâmica, 4150-564 Porto, Portugal
Department of Geography, University of Santiago de Compostela, Praza da Universidade 1, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Climatology Group, Department of Physical Geography, University of Barcelona, C/Montalegre 6, 08001 Barcelona, Spain
No articles found.
Johannes H. Uhl, Dominic Royé, Keith Burghardt, José Antonio Aldrey Vázquez, Manuel Borobio Sanchiz, and Stefan Leyk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Historical, fine-grained geospatial datasets on built-up areas are rarely available, constraining studies of urbanization, settlement evolution, or the dynamics of human-environment interactions to recent decades. In order to provide such historical data, we used publicly available cadastral building data for Spain and created a series of gridded surfaces, measuring age, physical, and land use related features of the built environment in Spain, and the evolution of settlements from 1900 to 2020.
Joan Albert Lopez-Bustins, Laia Arbiol-Roca, Javier Martin-Vide, Antoni Barrera-Escoda, and Marc Prohom
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2483–2501,Short summary
We considered the Western Mediterranean Oscillation index (WeMOi) to analyse the occurrence of extreme torrential episodes (≥ 200 mm in 24 h) over Catalonia (NE Iberia) during the 1951–2016 period. Principal results reveal the occurrence of 50 episodes, mainly in autumn, especially during the second 10 d period of October (11–20), coinciding with the most negative WeMOi values of the year. Seasonal changes in these episodes and in WeMOi values might be due to sea warming.
Related subject area
MeteorologyA new daily gridded precipitation dataset for the Chinese mainland based on gauge observationsA 16-year global climate data record of total column water vapour generated from OMI observations in the visible blue spectral rangeThe EUPPBench postprocessing benchmark dataset v1.0MOPREDAScentury: a long-term monthly precipitation grid for the Spanish mainlandCHELSA-W5E5: daily 1 km meteorological forcing data for climate impact studiesDatabase of the Italian disdrometer networkEast Asia Reanalysis System (EARS)Data rescue of historical wind observations in Sweden since the 1920sLegacyClimate 1.0: a dataset of pollen-based climate reconstructions from 2594 Northern Hemisphere sites covering the last 30 kyr and beyondIWIN: The Isfjorden Weather Information NetworkEURADCLIM: the European climatological high-resolution gauge-adjusted radar precipitation datasetRadar and ground-level measurements of clouds and precipitation collected during the POPE 2020 campaign at Princess Elisabeth AntarcticaCombined wind lidar and cloud radar for high-resolution wind profilingAn enhanced integrated water vapour dataset from more than 10 000 global ground-based GPS stations in 2020TPHiPr: a long-term (1979–2020) high-accuracy precipitation dataset (1∕30°, daily) for the Third Pole region based on high-resolution atmospheric modeling and dense observationsThe AntAWS dataset: a compilation of Antarctic automatic weather station observationsHiTIC-Monthly: a monthly high spatial resolution (1 km) human thermal index collection over China during 2003–2020A long-term 1 km monthly near-surface air temperature dataset over the Tibetan glaciers by fusion of station and satellite observationsA global dataset of daily maximum and minimum near-surface air temperature at 1 km resolution over land (2003–2020)GSDM-WBT: global station-based daily maximum wet-bulb temperature data for 1981–2020Tropospheric water vapor: a comprehensive high-resolution data collection for the transnational Upper Rhine Graben regionThe hourly wind-bias-adjusted precipitation data set from the Environment and Climate Change Canada automated surface observation network (2001–2019)The PANDA automatic weather station network between the coast and Dome A, East AntarcticaEnhanced automated meteorological observations at the Canadian Arctic Weather Science (CAWS) supersitesQuality control and correction method for air temperature data from a citizen science weather station network in Leuven, BelgiumCombined high-resolution rainfall and wind data collected for 3 months on a wind farm 110 km southeast of Paris (France)Sub-mesoscale observations of convective cold pools with a dense station network in Hamburg, GermanyObservational data from uncrewed systems over Southern Great PlainsEMO-5: a high-resolution multi-variable gridded meteorological dataset for EuropeGPRChinaTemp1km: a high-resolution monthly air temperature data set for China (1951–2020) based on machine learningSTAR NDSI collection: a cloud-free MODIS NDSI dataset (2001–2020) for ChinaA global dataset of spatiotemporally seamless daily mean land surface temperatures: generation, validation, and analysisHistorical and future weather data for dynamic building simulations in Belgium using the regional climate model MAR: typical and extreme meteorological year and heatwavesHourly historical and near-future weather and climate variables for energy system modellingHCPD-CA: high-resolution climate projection dataset in central AsiaDevelopment of East Asia Regional Reanalysis based on advanced hybrid gain data assimilation method and evaluation with E3DVAR, ERA-5, and ERA-Interim reanalysisEUREC4A observations from the SAFIRE ATR42 aircraftObservations of marine cold-air outbreaks: a comprehensive data set of airborne and dropsonde measurements from the Springtime Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE)Water vapor in cold and clean atmosphere: a 3-year data set in the boundary layer of Dome C, East Antarctic PlateauResilient dataset of rain clusters with life cycle evolution during April to June 2016–2020 over eastern Asia based on observations from the GPM DPR and Himawari-8 AHIDataset of daily near-surface air temperature in China from 1979 to 2018C3ONTEXT: a Common Consensus on Convective OrgaNizaTion during the EUREC4A eXperimenTThe Large eddy Observatory, Voitsumra Experiment 2019 (LOVE19) with high-resolution, spatially distributed observations of air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction from fiber-optic distributed sensing, towers, and ground-based remote sensingHomogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation over JapanEUREC4A's Maria S. Merian ship-based cloud and micro rain radar observations of clouds and precipitationDeployment of the C-band radar Poldirad on Barbados during EUREC4ARemote and autonomous measurements of precipitation for the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, AntarcticaHigh-frequency observation during sand and dust storms at the Qingtu Lake Observatory10 years of temperature and wind observation on a 45 m tower at Dome C, East Antarctic plateauGlobal balanced wind derived from SABER temperature and pressure observations and its validations
Jingya Han, Chiyuan Miao, Jiaojiao Gou, Haiyan Zheng, Qi Zhang, and Xiaoying Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3147–3161,Short summary
Constructing a high-quality, long-term daily precipitation dataset is essential to current hydrometeorology research. This study aims to construct a long-term daily precipitation dataset with different spatial resolutions based on 2839 gauge observations. The constructed precipitation dataset shows reliable quality compared with the other available precipitation products and is expected to facilitate the advancement of drought monitoring, flood forecasting, and hydrological modeling.
Christian Borger, Steffen Beirle, and Thomas Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3023–3049,Short summary
This study presents a long-term data set of monthly mean total column water vapour (TCWV) based on measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) covering the time range from January 2005 to December 2020. We describe how the TCWV values are retrieved from UV–Vis satellite spectra and demonstrate that the OMI TCWV data set is in good agreement with various different reference data sets. Moreover, we also show that it fulfills typical stability requirements for climate data records.
Jonathan Demaeyer, Jonas Bhend, Sebastian Lerch, Cristina Primo, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Aitor Atencia, Zied Ben Bouallègue, Jieyu Chen, Markus Dabernig, Gavin Evans, Jana Faganeli Pucer, Ben Hooper, Nina Horat, David Jobst, Janko Merše, Peter Mlakar, Annette Möller, Olivier Mestre, Maxime Taillardat, and Stéphane Vannitsem
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2635–2653,Short summary
A benchmark dataset is proposed to compare different statistical postprocessing methods used in forecasting centers to properly calibrate ensemble weather forecasts. This dataset is based on ensemble forecasts covering a portion of central Europe and includes the corresponding observations. Examples on how to download and use the data are provided, a set of evaluation methods is proposed, and a first benchmark of several methods for the correction of 2 m temperature forecasts is performed.
Santiago Beguería, Dhais Peña-Angulo, Víctor Trullenque-Blanco, and Carlos González-Hidalgo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2547–2575,Short summary
A gridded dataset on monthly precipitation over mainland Spain between spans 1916–2020. The dataset combines ground observations from the Spanish National Climate Data Bank and new data rescued from meteorological yearbooks published prior to 1951, which almost doubled the number of weather stations available during the first decades of the 20th century. Geostatistical techniques were used to interpolate a regular 10 x 10 km grid.
Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Stefan Lange, Chantal Hari, Christopher P. O. Reyer, Olaf Conrad, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2445–2464,Short summary
We present the first 1 km, daily, global climate dataset for climate impact studies. We show that the high-resolution data have a decreased bias and higher correlation with measurements from meteorological stations than coarser data. The dataset will be of value for a wide range of climate change impact studies both at global and regional level that benefit from using a consistent global dataset.
Elisa Adirosi, Federico Porcù, Mario Montopoli, Luca Baldini, Alessandro Bracci, Vincenzo Capozzi, Clizia Annella, Giorgio Budillon, Edoardo Bucchignani, Alessandra Lucia Zollo, Orietta Cazzuli, Giulio Camisani, Renzo Bechini, Roberto Cremonini, Andrea Antonini, Alberto Ortolani, Samantha Melani, Paolo Valisa, and Simone Scapin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2417–2429,Short summary
The paper describes the database of 1 min drop size distribution (DSD) of atmospheric precipitation collected by the Italian disdrometer network over the last 10 years. These data are useful for several applications that range from climatological, meteorological and hydrological uses to telecommunications, agriculture and conservation of cultural heritage exposed to precipitation. Descriptions of the processing and of the database organization, along with some examples, are provided.
Jinfang Yin, Xudong Liang, Yanxin Xie, Feng Li, Kaixi Hu, Lijuan Cao, Feng Chen, Haibo Zou, Feng Zhu, Xin Sun, Jianjun Xu, Geli Wang, Ying Zhao, and Juanjuan Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2329–2346,Short summary
A collection of regional reanalysis datasets has been produced. However, little attention has been paid to East Asia, and there are no long-term, physically consistent regional reanalysis data available. The East Asia Reanalysis System was developed using the WRF model and GSI data assimilation system. A 39-year (1980–2018) reanalysis dataset is available for the East Asia region, at a high temporal (of 3 h) and spatial resolution (of 12 km), for mesoscale weather and regional climate studies.
John Erik Engström, Lennart Wern, Sverker Hellström, Erik Kjellström, Chunlüe Zhou, Deliang Chen, and Cesar Azorin-Molina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2259–2277,Short summary
Newly digitized wind speed observations provide data from the time period from around 1920 to the present, enveloping one full century of wind measurements. The results of this work enable the investigation of the historical variability and trends in surface wind speed in Sweden for the last century.
Ulrike Herzschuh, Thomas Böhmer, Chenzhi Li, Manuel Chevalier, Raphaël Hébert, Anne Dallmeyer, Xianyong Cao, Nancy H. Bigelow, Larisa Nazarova, Elena Y. Novenko, Jungjae Park, Odile Peyron, Natalia A. Rudaya, Frank Schlütz, Lyudmila S. Shumilovskikh, Pavel E. Tarasov, Yongbo Wang, Ruilin Wen, Qinghai Xu, and Zhuo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2235–2258,Short summary
Climate reconstruction from proxy data can help evaluate climate models. We present pollen-based reconstructions of mean July temperature, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation from 2594 pollen records from the Northern Hemisphere, using three reconstruction methods (WA-PLS, WA-PLS_tailored, and MAT). Since no global or hemispheric synthesis of quantitative precipitation changes are available for the Holocene so far, this dataset will be of great value to the geoscientific community.
Lukas Frank, Marius Opsanger Jonassen, Teresa Remes, Florina Roana Schalamon, and Agnes Stenlund
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The Isfjorden Weather Information Network (IWIN) provides continuous meteorological near-surface observations from Isfjorden in Svalbard. The network combines permanent automatic weather stations on lighthouses along the coast line with mobile stations onboard small tourist cruise ships regularly trafficking the fjord during spring-autumn. All data are available online in near real-time. Besides their scientific value, IWIN data crucially enhance the safety of field activities in the region.
Aart Overeem, Else van den Besselaar, Gerard van der Schrier, Jan Fokke Meirink, Emiel van der Plas, and Hidde Leijnse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1441–1464,Short summary
EURADCLIM is a new precipitation dataset covering a large part of Europe. It is based on weather radar data to provide local precipitation information every hour and combined with rain gauge data to obtain good precipitation estimates. EURADCLIM provides a much better reference for validation of weather model output and satellite precipitation datasets. It also allows for climate monitoring and better evaluation of extreme precipitation events and their impact (landslides, flooding).
Alfonso Ferrone and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1115–1132,Short summary
This article presents the datasets collected between November 2019 and February 2020 in the vicinity of the Belgian research base Princess Elisabeth Antarctica. Five meteorological radars, a multi-angle snowflake camera, three weather stations, and two radiometers have been deployed at five sites, up to a maximum distance of 30 km from the base. Their varied locations allow the study of spatial variability in snowfall and its interaction with the complex terrain in the region.
José Dias Neto, Louise Nuijens, Christine Unal, and Steven Knoop
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 769–789,Short summary
This paper describes a dataset from a novel experimental setup to retrieve wind speed and direction profiles, combining cloud radars and wind lidar. This setup allows retrieving profiles from near the surface to the top of clouds. The field campaign occurred in Cabauw, the Netherlands, between September 13th and October 3rd 2021. This paper also provides examples of applications of this dataset (e.g. studying atmospheric turbulence, validating numerical atmospheric models).
Peng Yuan, Geoffrey Blewitt, Corné Kreemer, William C. Hammond, Donald Argus, Xungang Yin, Roeland Van Malderen, Michael Mayer, Weiping Jiang, Joseph Awange, and Hansjörg Kutterer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 723–743,Short summary
We developed a 5 min global integrated water vapour (IWV) product from 12 552 ground-based GPS stations in 2020. It contains more than 1 billion IWV estimates. The dataset is an enhanced version of the existing operational GPS IWV dataset from the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory. The enhancement is reached by using accurate meteorological information from ERA5 for the GPS IWV retrieval with a significantly higher spatiotemporal resolution. The dataset is recommended for high-accuracy applications.
Yaozhi Jiang, Kun Yang, Youcun Qi, Xu Zhou, Jie He, Hui Lu, Xin Li, Yingying Chen, Xiaodong Li, Bingrong Zhou, Ali Mamtimin, Changkun Shao, Xiaogang Ma, Jiaxin Tian, and Jianhong Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 621–638,Short summary
Our work produces a long-term (1979–2020) high-resolution (1/30°, daily) precipitation dataset for the Third Pole (TP) region by merging an advanced atmospheric simulation with high-density rain gauge (more than 9000) observations. Validation shows that the produced dataset performs better than the currently widely used precipitation datasets in the TP. This dataset can be used for hydrological, meteorological and ecological studies in the TP.
Yetang Wang, Xueying Zhang, Wentao Ning, Matthew A. Lazzara, Minghu Ding, Carleen H. Reijmer, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, Paolo Grigioni, Petra Heil, Elizabeth R. Thomas, David Mikolajczyk, Lee J. Welhouse, Linda M. Keller, Zhaosheng Zhai, Yuqi Sun, and Shugui Hou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 411–429,Short summary
Here we construct a new database of Antarctic automatic weather station (AWS) meteorological records, which is quality-controlled by restrictive criteria. This dataset compiled all available Antarctic AWS observations, and its resolutions are 3-hourly, daily and monthly, which is very useful for quantifying spatiotemporal variability in weather conditions. Furthermore, this compilation will be used to estimate the performance of the regional climate models or meteorological reanalysis products.
Hui Zhang, Ming Luo, Yongquan Zhao, Lijie Lin, Erjia Ge, Yuanjian Yang, Guicai Ning, Jing Cong, Zhaoliang Zeng, Ke Gui, Jing Li, Ting On Chan, Xiang Li, Sijia Wu, Peng Wang, and Xiaoyu Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 359–381,Short summary
We generate the first monthly high-resolution (1 km) human thermal index collection (HiTIC-Monthly) in China over 2003–2020, in which 12 human-perceived temperature indices are generated by LightGBM. The HiTIC-Monthly dataset has a high accuracy (R2 = 0.996, RMSE = 0.693 °C, MAE = 0.512 °C) and describes explicit spatial variations for fine-scale studies. It is freely available at https://zenodo.org/record/6895533 and https://data.tpdc.ac.cn/disallow/036e67b7-7a3a-4229-956f-40b8cd11871d.
Jun Qin, Weihao Pan, Min He, Ning Lu, Ling Yao, Hou Jiang, and Chenghu Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 331–344,Short summary
To enrich a glacial surface air temperature (SAT) product of a long time series, an ensemble learning model is constructed to estimate monthly SATs from satellite land surface temperatures at a spatial resolution of 1 km, and long-term glacial SATs from 1961 to 2020 are reconstructed using a Bayesian linear regression. This product reveals the overall warming trend and the spatial heterogeneity of warming on TP glaciers and helps to monitor glacier warming, analyze glacier evolution, etc.
Tao Zhang, Yuyu Zhou, Kaiguang Zhao, Zhengyuan Zhu, Gang Chen, Jia Hu, and Li Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5637–5649,Short summary
We generated a global 1 km daily maximum and minimum near-surface air temperature (Tmax and Tmin) dataset (2003–2020) using a novel statistical model. The average root mean square errors ranged from 1.20 to 2.44 °C for Tmax and 1.69 to 2.39 °C for Tmin. The gridded global air temperature dataset is of great use in a variety of studies such as the urban heat island phenomenon, hydrological modeling, and epidemic forecasting.
Jianquan Dong, Stefan Brönnimann, Tao Hu, Yanxu Liu, and Jian Peng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5651–5664,Short summary
We produced a new dataset of global station-based daily maximum wet-bulb temperature (GSDM-WBT) through the calculation of wet-bulb temperature, data quality control, infilling missing values, and homogenization. The GSDM-WBT covers the complete daily series of 1834 stations from 1981 to 2020. The GSDM-WBT dataset handles stations with many missing values and possible inhomogeneities, which could better support the studies on global and regional humid heat events.
Benjamin Fersch, Andreas Wagner, Bettina Kamm, Endrit Shehaj, Andreas Schenk, Peng Yuan, Alain Geiger, Gregor Moeller, Bernhard Heck, Stefan Hinz, Hansjörg Kutterer, and Harald Kunstmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5287–5307,Short summary
In this study, a comprehensive multi-disciplinary dataset for tropospheric water vapor was developed. Geodetic, photogrammetric, and atmospheric modeling and data fusion techniques were used to obtain maps of water vapor in a high spatial and temporal resolution. It could be shown that regional weather simulations for different seasons benefit from assimilating these maps and that the combination of the different observation techniques led to positive synergies.
Craig D. Smith, Eva Mekis, Megan Hartwell, and Amber Ross
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5253–5265,Short summary
It is well understood that precipitation gauges underestimate the measurement of solid precipitation (snow) as a result of systematic bias caused by wind. Relationships between the wind speed and gauge catch efficiency of solid precipitation have been previously established and are applied to the hourly precipitation measurements made between 2001 and 2019 in the automated Environment and Climate Change Canada observation network. The adjusted data are available for download and use.
Minghu Ding, Xiaowei Zou, Qizhen Sun, Diyi Yang, Wenqian Zhang, Lingen Bian, Changgui Lu, Ian Allison, Petra Heil, and Cunde Xiao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5019–5035,Short summary
The PANDA automatic weather station (AWS) network consists of 11 stations deployed along a transect from the coast (Zhongshan Station) to the summit of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Dome A). It covers the different climatic and topographic units of East Antarctica. All stations record hourly air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind speed and direction at two or three heights. The PANDA AWS dataset commences from 1989 and is planned to be publicly available into the future.
Zen Mariani, Laura Huang, Robert Crawford, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Shannon Hicks-Jalali, Eva Mekis, Ludovick Pelletier, Peter Rodriguez, and Kevin Strawbridge
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4995–5017,Short summary
Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) commissioned two supersites in Iqaluit (64°N, 69°W) and Whitehorse (61°N, 135°W) to provide new and enhanced automated and continuous altitude-resolved meteorological observations as part of the Canadian Arctic Weather Science (CAWS) project. These observations are being used to test new technologies, provide recommendations to the optimal Arctic observing system, and evaluate and improve the performance of numerical weather forecast systems.
Eva Beele, Maarten Reyniers, Raf Aerts, and Ben Somers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4681–4717,Short summary
This paper presents crowdsourced data from the Leuven.cool network, a citizen science network of around 100 low-cost weather stations distributed across Leuven, Belgium. The temperature data have undergone a quality control (QC) and correction procedure. The procedure consists of three levels that remove implausible measurements while also correcting for between-station and station-specific temperature biases.
Auguste Gires, Jerry Jose, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, and Daniel Schertzer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3807–3819,Short summary
The Hydrology Meteorology and Complexity laboratory of École des Ponts ParisTech (https://hmco.enpc.fr) has made a data set of high-resolution atmospheric measurements (rainfall, wind, temperature, pressure, and humidity) available. It comes from a campaign carried out on a meteorological mast located on a wind farm in the framework of the Rainfall Wind Turbine or Turbulence project (RW-Turb; supported by the French National Research Agency – ANR-19-CE05-0022).
Bastian Kirsch, Cathy Hohenegger, Daniel Klocke, Rainer Senke, Michael Offermann, and Felix Ament
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3531–3548,Short summary
Conventional observation networks are too coarse to resolve the horizontal structure of kilometer-scale atmospheric processes. We present the FESST@HH field experiment that took place in Hamburg (Germany) during summer 2020 and featured a dense network of 103 custom-built, low-cost weather stations. The data set is capable of providing new insights into the structure of convective cold pools and the nocturnal urban heat island and variations of local temperature fluctuations.
Fan Mei, Mikhail S. Pekour, Darielle Dexheimer, Gijs de Boer, RaeAnn Cook, Jason Tomlinson, Beat Schmid, Lexie A. Goldberger, Rob Newsom, and Jerome D. Fast
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3423–3438,Short summary
This work focuses on an expanding number of data sets observed using ARM TBS (133 flights) and UAS (seven flights) platforms by the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility. These data streams provide new perspectives on spatial variability of atmospheric and surface parameters, helping to address critical science questions in Earth system science research, such as the aerosol–cloud interaction in the boundary layer.
Vera Thiemig, Goncalo N. Gomes, Jon O. Skøien, Markus Ziese, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Elke Rustemeier, Kira Rehfeldt, Jakub P. Walawender, Christine Kolbe, Damien Pichon, Christoph Schweim, and Peter Salamon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3249–3272,Short summary
EMO-5 is a free and open European high-resolution (5 km), sub-daily, multi-variable (precipitation, temperatures, wind speed, solar radiation, vapour pressure), multi-decadal meteorological dataset based on quality-controlled observations coming from almost 30 000 stations across Europe, and is produced in near real-time. EMO-5 (v1) covers the time period from 1990 to 2019. In this paper, we have provided insight into the source data, the applied methods, and the quality assessment of EMO-5.
Qian He, Ming Wang, Kai Liu, Kaiwen Li, and Ziyu Jiang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3273–3292,Short summary
We used three machine learning models and determined that Gaussian process regression (GPR) is best suited to the interpolation of air temperature data for China. The GPR-derived results were compared with that of traditional interpolation techniques and existing data sets and it was found that the accuracy of the GPR-derived data was better. Finally, we generated a gridded monthly air temperature data set with 1 km resolution and high accuracy for China (1951–2020) using the GPR model.
Yinghong Jing, Xinghua Li, and Huanfeng Shen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3137–3156,Short summary
Snow variation is a vital factor in global climate change. Satellite-based approaches are effective for large-scale environmental monitoring. Nevertheless, the high cloud fraction seriously impedes the remote-sensed investigation. Therefore, a recent 20-year cloud-free snow cover collection in China is generated for the first time. This collection can serve as a basic dataset for hydrological and climatic modeling to explore various critical environmental issues.
Falu Hong, Wenfeng Zhan, Frank-M. Göttsche, Zihan Liu, Pan Dong, Huyan Fu, Fan Huang, and Xiaodong Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3091–3113,Short summary
Daily mean land surface temperature (LST) acquired from satellite thermal sensors is crucial for various applications such as global and regional climate change analysis. This study proposed a framework to generate global spatiotemporally seamless daily mean LST products (2003–2019). Validations show that the products outperform the traditional method with satisfying accuracy. Our further analysis reveals that the LST-based global land surface warming rate is 0.029 K yr−1 from 2003 to 2019.
Sébastien Doutreloup, Xavier Fettweis, Ramin Rahif, Essam Elnagar, Mohsen S. Pourkiaei, Deepak Amaripadath, and Shady Attia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3039–3051,Short summary
This data set provides historical (1980–2014) and future (2015–2100) weather data for 12 cities in Belgium. This data set is intended for architects or building or energy designers. In particular, it makes available to all users hourly open-access weather data according to certain standards to recreate a Typical and an Extreme Meteorological Year. In addition, it provides hourly data on heatwaves from 1980 to 2100. Weather data were produced from the outputs of the MAR model simulations.
Hannah C. Bloomfield, David J. Brayshaw, Matthew Deakin, and David Greenwood
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2749–2766,Short summary
There is a global increase in renewable generation to meet carbon targets and reduce the impacts of climate change. Renewable generation and electricity demand depend on the weather. This means there is a need for high-quality weather data for energy system modelling. We present a new European-level, 70-year dataset which has been specifically designed to support the energy sector. We provide hourly, sub-national climate outputs and include the impacts of near-term climate change.
Yuan Qiu, Jinming Feng, Zhongwei Yan, and Jun Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2195–2208,Short summary
A high-resolution climate projection dataset in central Asia, named the HCPD-CA dataset, is derived from the dynamically downscaled results based on three bias-corrected global climate models and contains 4 geostatic variables and 10 meteorological elements that are widely used to drive ecological and hydrological models. This dataset can serve as a scientific basis for assessing the potential impacts of projected climate changes over central Asia on many sectors.
Eun-Gyeong Yang, Hyun Mee Kim, and Dae-Hui Kim
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2109–2127,Short summary
The East Asia Regional Reanalysis (EARR) system is developed based on the advanced hybrid gain data assimilation method (AdvHG) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and conventional observations. Based on EARR, high-resolution regional reanalysis and reforecast fields are produced with 12 km horizontal resolution over East Asia for the period 2010–2019. Compared to ERA5, EARR represents precipitation better for January and July 2017 over East Asia.
Sandrine Bony, Marie Lothon, Julien Delanoë, Pierre Coutris, Jean-Claude Etienne, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Thierry André, Hubert Bellec, Alexandre Baron, Jean-François Bourdinot, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Aurélien Bourdon, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Christophe Caudoux, Patrick Chazette, Michel Cluzeau, Céline Cornet, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Dominique Duchanoy, Cyrille Flamant, Benjamin Fildier, Christophe Gourbeyre, Laurent Guiraud, Tetyana Jiang, Claude Lainard, Christophe Le Gac, Christian Lendroit, Julien Lernould, Thierry Perrin, Frédéric Pouvesle, Pascal Richard, Nicolas Rochetin, Kevin Salaün, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Guillaume Seurat, Bjorn Stevens, Julien Totems, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Gilles Vergez, Jessica Vial, Leonie Villiger, and Raphaela Vogel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2021–2064,Short summary
The French ATR42 research aircraft participated in the EUREC4A international field campaign that took place in 2020 over the tropical Atlantic, east of Barbados. We present the extensive instrumentation of the aircraft, the research flights and the different measurements. We show that the ATR measurements of humidity, wind, aerosols and cloudiness in the lower atmosphere are robust and consistent with each other. They will make it possible to advance understanding of cloud–climate interactions.
Janosch Michaelis, Amelie U. Schmitt, Christof Lüpkes, Jörg Hartmann, Gerit Birnbaum, and Timo Vihma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1621–1637,Short summary
A major goal of the Springtime Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE) aircraft campaign was to observe atmospheric conditions during marine cold-air outbreaks (MCAOs) originating from the sea-ice-covered Arctic ocean. Quality-controlled measurements of several meteorological variables collected during 15 vertical aircraft profiles and by 22 dropsondes are presented. The comprehensive data set may be used for validating model results to improve the understanding of future trends in MCAOs.
Christophe Genthon, Dana E. Veron, Etienne Vignon, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Luc Piard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1571–1580,Short summary
The surface atmosphere of the high Antarctic Plateau is very cold and clean. Such conditions favor water vapor supersaturation. A 3-year quasi-continuous series of atmospheric moisture in a ~40 m atmospheric layer at Dome C is reported that documents time variability, vertical profiles and occurrences of supersaturation. Supersaturation with respect to ice is frequently observed throughout the column, with relative humidities occasionally reaching values near liquid water saturation.
Aoqi Zhang, Chen Chen, Yilun Chen, Weibiao Li, Shumin Chen, and Yunfei Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1433–1445,Short summary
We constructed an event-based precipitation dataset with life cycle evolution based on coordinated application of observations from spaceborne active precipitation radar and geostationary satellites. The dataset provides both three-dimensional structures of the precipitation system and its corresponding life cycle evolution. The dataset greatly reduces the data size and avoids complex data processing algorithms for studying the life cycle evolution of precipitation microphysics.
Shu Fang, Kebiao Mao, Xueqi Xia, Ping Wang, Jiancheng Shi, Sayed M. Bateni, Tongren Xu, Mengmeng Cao, Essam Heggy, and Zhihao Qin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1413–1432,Short summary
Air temperature is an important parameter reflecting climate change, and the current method of obtaining daily temperature is affected by many factors. In this study, we constructed a temperature model based on weather conditions and established a correction equation. The dataset of daily air temperature (Tmax, Tmin, and Tavg) in China from 1979 to 2018 was obtained with a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Accuracy verification shows that the dataset has reliable accuracy and high spatial resolution.
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1233–1256,Short summary
Trade wind clouds are often organized on the mesoscale (O(100 km)), forming different cloud patterns. We present C3ONTEXT (a Common Consensus on Convective OrgaNizaTion during the EUREC4A eXperimenT), a dataset that contains information about the mesoscale cloud patterns identified during the EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of clouds–circulation coupling in climate) field campaign in January–February 2020 and thereby provide the mesoscale context for the campaign's measurements.
Karl Lapo, Anita Freundorfer, Antonia Fritz, Johann Schneider, Johannes Olesch, Wolfgang Babel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 885–906,Short summary
The layer of air near the surface is poorly understood during conditions with weak winds. Further, it is even difficult to observe. In this experiment we used distributed temperature sensing to observe air temperature and wind speed at thousands of points simultaneously every couple of seconds. This incredibly rich data set can be used to examine and understand what drives the mixing between the atmosphere and surface during these weak-wind periods.
Qian Ma, Kaicun Wang, Yanyi He, Liangyuan Su, Qizhong Wu, Han Liu, and Youren Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 463–477,Short summary
Surface incident solar radiation plays a key role in atmospheric circulation, the water cycle, and ecological equilibrium on Earth. A homogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation dataset was obtained over Japan.
Claudia Acquistapace, Richard Coulter, Susanne Crewell, Albert Garcia-Benadi, Rosa Gierens, Giacomo Labbri, Alexander Myagkov, Nils Risse, and Jan H. Schween
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 33–55,Short summary
This publication describes the unprecedented high-resolution cloud and precipitation dataset collected by two radars deployed on the Maria S. Merian research vessel. The ship operated in the west Atlantic Ocean during the measurement campaign called EUREC4A, between 19 January and 19 February 2020. The data collected are crucial to investigate clouds and precipitation and understand how they form and change over the ocean, where it is so difficult to measure them.
Martin Hagen, Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Lothar Oswald, David A. Farrell, Marvin Forde, Manuel Gutleben, Johann Heumos, Jens Reimann, Eleni Tetoni, Gregor Köcher, Eleni Marinou, Christoph Kiemle, Qiang Li, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Alton Daley, Delando Grant, and Kashawn Hall
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5899–5914,Short summary
The German polarimetric weather radar Poldirad was deployed for the international campaign EUREC4A on Barbados. The focus was monitoring clouds and precipitation in the trade wind region east of Barbados. Observations were with a temporal sequence of 5 min and a maximum range of 375 km. Examples of mesoscale precipitation patterns, rain rate accumulation, diurnal cycle, and vertical distribution show the potential for further studies on the life cycle of precipitating shallow cumulus clouds.
Mark W. Seefeldt, Taydra M. Low, Scott D. Landolt, and Thomas H. Nylen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5803–5817,Short summary
The Antarctic Precipitation System project deployed and maintained four sites across Antarctica from November 2017 to November 2019. The goals for the project included the collection of in situ observations of precipitation in Antarctica, an improvement in the understanding of precipitation in Antarctica, and the ability to validate precipitation data from atmospheric numerical models. The collected dataset represents some of the first year-round observations of precipitation in Antarctica.
Xuebo Li, Yongxiang Huang, Guohua Wang, and Xiaojing Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5819–5830,Short summary
High-frequency observatory data (50 Hz 3D wind velocity, 50 Hz temperature and 1 Hz PM10) for studying the features of the fluid and dust field during sand and dust storms were presented. It is anticipated that data collected in this work will be of utility not only specifically for the boundary layer community in building a model for sand and dust storms but also broadly for communities studying the exchange of the dust and fluid field and energy transfer for the particle-laden two-phase flow.
Christophe Genthon, Dana Veron, Etienne Vignon, Delphine Six, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Emmanuelle Sultan, and François Forget
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5731–5746,Short summary
A 10-year dataset of observation in the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C on the high Antarctic plateau is presented. This is obtained with sensors at six levels along a tower higher than 40 m. The temperature inversion can reach more than 25 °C along the tower in winter, while full mixing by convection can occur in summer. Different amplitudes of variability for wind and temperature at the different levels reflect different signatures of solar vs. synoptic forcing of the boundary layer.
Xiao Liu, Jiyao Xu, Jia Yue, You Yu, Paulo P. Batista, Vania F. Andrioli, Zhengkuan Liu, Tao Yuan, Chi Wang, Ziming Zou, Guozhu Li, and James M. Russell III
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5643–5661,Short summary
Based on the gradient balance wind theory and the SABER observations, a dataset of monthly mean zonal wind has been developed at heights of 18–100 km and latitudes of 50° Sndash;50° N from 2002 to 2019. The dataset agrees with the zonal wind from models (MERRA2, UARP, HWM14) and observations by meteor radar and lidar at seven stations. The dataset can be used to study seasonal and interannual variations and can serve as a background for wave studies of tides and planetary waves.
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