Articles | Volume 12, issue 3
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
A comprehensive oceanographic dataset of a subpolar, mid-latitude broad fjord: Fortune Bay, Newfoundland, Canada
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, 80 East White Hills Rd, St. John's NL, A1C 5X1, Canada
Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea) Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique et Spatiale, Centre Bretagne, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, CS 10070, 29280 Plouzané, France
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, 80 East White Hills Rd, St. John's NL, A1C 5X1, Canada
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, 80 East White Hills Rd, St. John's NL, A1C 5X1, Canada
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney BC, V8L 4B2, Canada
Related subject area
Physical oceanographyAnnual hydrographic variability in Antarctic coastal waters infused with glacial inflowArgo salinity: bias and uncertainty evaluationImproved global sea surface height and current maps from remote sensing and in situ observationsSea surface height anomaly and geostrophic current velocity from altimetry measurements over the Arctic Ocean (2011–2020)SDUST2020 MSS: a global 1′ × 1′ mean sea surface model determined from multi-satellite altimetry dataSynoptic observations of sediment transport and exchange mechanisms in the turbid Ems Estuary: the EDoM campaignA compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean colour satellite applications – version threeDeep-water hydrodynamic observations of two moorings sites on the continental slope of the southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)Hydrodynamic and hydrological processes within a variety of coral reef lagoons: field observations during six cyclonic seasons in New CaledoniaReconstructing ocean subsurface salinity at high resolution using a machine learning approachThe HYPERMAQ dataset: bio-optical properties of moderately to extremely turbid watersMesoscale observations of temperature and salinity in the Arctic Transpolar Drift: a high-resolution dataset from the MOSAiC Distributed NetworkSDUST2021GRA: global marine gravity anomaly model recovered from Ka-band and Ku-band satellite altimeter dataSouthern Europe and Western Asia Marine Heat Waves (SEWA-MHWs): a dataset based on macro eventsReanalyses of Maskelyne's tidal data at St. Helena in 1761Twenty-one years of hydrological data acquisition in the Mediterranean Sea: quality, availability, and researchA new operational Mediterranean diurnal optimally interpolated sea surface temperature product within the Copernicus Marine ServiceWind waves in the North Atlantic from ship navigational radar: SeaVision development and its validation with the Spotter wave buoy and WaveWatch IIIWave attenuation potential, sediment properties and mangrove growth dynamics data over Guyana's intertidal mudflats: assessing the potential of mangrove restoration worksHigh-resolution bathymetry models for the Lena Delta and Kolyma Gulf coastal zonesAn evaluation of long-term physical and hydrochemical measurements at the Sylt Roads Marine Observatory (1973–2019), Wadden Sea, North SeaTowards improved analysis of short mesoscale sea level signals from satellite altimetryMETA3.1exp: a new global mesoscale eddy trajectory atlas derived from altimetryGlobal sea-level budget and ocean-mass budget, with a focus on advanced data products and uncertainty characterisationImproved BEC SMOS Arctic Sea Surface Salinity product v3.1Monitoring the ocean heat content change and the Earth energy imbalance from space altimetry and space gravimetryWater masses distribution offshore the Sabrina Coast (East Antarctica)Next generation of Bluelink ocean reanalysis with multiscale data assimilation: BRAN2020Arctic sea surface height maps from multi-altimeter combinationLaboratory data on wave propagation through vegetation with following and opposing currentsMinute Sea-Level Analysis (MISELA): a high-frequency sea-level analysis global datasetEOT20: a global ocean tide model from multi-mission satellite altimetryNorth SEAL: a new dataset of sea level changes in the North Sea from satellite altimetryAn integrated marine data collection for the German Bight – Part 2: Tides, salinity, and waves (1996–2015)A new global gridded sea surface temperature data product based on multisource dataA climate index for the Newfoundland and Labrador shelfMeasurements from the RV Ronald H. Brown and related platforms as part of the Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC)The MALINA oceanographic expedition: how do changes in ice cover, permafrost and UV radiation impact biodiversity and biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic Ocean?Wind, waves, and surface currents in the Southern Ocean: observations from the Antarctic Circumnavigation ExpeditionNine years of SMOS sea surface salinity global maps at the Barcelona Expert CenterA novel hydrographic gridded data set for the northern Antarctic PeninsulaA gridded surface current product for the Gulf of Mexico from consolidated drifter measurementsMeteorological and hydrodynamic data in the Mar Grande and Mar Piccolo, Italy, of the Coastal Engineering Laboratory (LIC) Survey, winter and summer 2015Global maps of Forel–Ule index, hue angle and Secchi disk depth derived from 21 years of monthly ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative dataGlobal dataset of thermohaline staircases obtained from Argo floats and Ice-Tethered ProfilersPhysical and biogeochemical parameters of the Mediterranean Sea during a cruise with RV Maria S. Merian in March 2018Half-hourly changes in intertidal temperature at nine wave-exposed locations along the Atlantic Canadian coast: a 5.5-year studyA volumetric census of the Barents Sea in a changing climateHeat stored in the Earth system: where does the energy go?The Sea State CCI dataset v1: towards a sea state climate data record based on satellite observations
Maria Osińska, Kornelia A. Wójcik-Długoborska, and Robert J. Bialik
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 607–616,Short summary
Water properties, including temperature, conductivity, turbidity and pH as well as the dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll-a and phycoerythrin contents, were investigated in 31 different locations at up to 100 m depth over a period of 38 months in a glacial bay in Antarctica. These investigations were carried out 142 times in all seasons of the year, resulting in a unique dataset of information about seasonal and long-term changes in polar water properties.
Annie P. S. Wong, John Gilson, and Cécile Cabanes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 383–393,Short summary
This article describes the instrument bias in the raw Argo salinity data from 2000 to 2021. The main cause of this bias is sensor drift. Using Argo data without filtering out this instrument bias has been shown to lead to spurious results in various scientific applications. We describe the Argo delayed-mode process that evaluates and adjusts such instrument bias, and we estimate the uncertainty of the Argo delayed-mode salinity dataset. The best ways to use Argo data are illustrated.
Maxime Ballarotta, Clément Ubelmann, Pierre Veillard, Pierre Prandi, Hélène Etienne, Sandrine Mulet, Yannice Faugère, Gérald Dibarboure, Rosemary Morrow, and Nicolas Picot
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 295–315,Short summary
We present a new gridded sea surface height and current dataset produced by combining observations from nadir altimeters and drifting buoys. This product is based on a multiscale and multivariate mapping approach that offers the possibility to improve the physical content of gridded products by combining the data from various platforms and resolving a broader spectrum of ocean surface dynamic than in the current operational mapping system. A quality assessment of this new product is presented.
Francesca Doglioni, Robert Ricker, Benjamin Rabe, Alexander Barth, Charles Troupin, and Torsten Kanzow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 225–263,Short summary
This paper presents a new satellite-derived gridded dataset, including 10 years of sea surface height and geostrophic velocity at monthly resolution, over the Arctic ice-covered and ice-free regions, up to 88° N. We assess the dataset by comparison to independent satellite and mooring data. Results correlate well with independent satellite data at monthly timescales, and the geostrophic velocity fields can resolve seasonal to interannual variability of boundary currents wider than about 50 km.
Jiajia Yuan, Jinyun Guo, Chengcheng Zhu, Zhen Li, Xin Liu, and Jinyao Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 155–169,Short summary
The mean sea surface (MSS) is a relative steady-state sea level within a finite period with important applications in geodesy, oceanography, and other disciplines. In this study, the Shandong University of Science and Technology 2020 (SDUST2020), a new global MSS model, was established with a 19-year moving average method from multi-satellite altimetry data. Its global coverage is from 80 °S to 84 °N, the grid size is 1'×1', and the reference period is from January 1993 to December 2019.
Dirk S. van Maren, Christian Maushake, Jan-Willem Mol, Daan van Keulen, Jens Jürges, Julia Vroom, Henk Schuttelaars, Theo Gerkema, Kirstin Schulz, Thomas H. Badewien, Michaela Gerriets, Andreas Engels, Andreas Wurpts, Dennis Oberrecht, Andrew J. Manning, Taylor Bailey, Lauren Ross, Volker Mohrholz, Dante M. L. Horemans, Marius Becker, Dirk Post, Charlotte Schmidt, and Petra J. T. Dankers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 53–73,Short summary
This paper reports on the main findings of a large measurement campaign aiming to better understand how an exposed estuary (the Ems Estuary on the Dutch–German border) interacts with a tidal river (the lower Ems River). Eight simultaneously deployed ships measuring a tidal cycle and 10 moorings collecting data throughout a spring–neap tidal cycle have produced a dataset providing valuable insight into processes determining exchange of water and sediment between the two systems.
André Valente, Shubha Sathyendranath, Vanda Brotas, Steve Groom, Michael Grant, Thomas Jackson, Andrei Chuprin, Malcolm Taberner, Ruth Airs, David Antoine, Robert Arnone, William M. Balch, Kathryn Barker, Ray Barlow, Simon Bélanger, Jean-François Berthon, Şükrü Beşiktepe, Yngve Borsheim, Astrid Bracher, Vittorio Brando, Robert J. W. Brewin, Elisabetta Canuti, Francisco P. Chavez, Andrés Cianca, Hervé Claustre, Lesley Clementson, Richard Crout, Afonso Ferreira, Scott Freeman, Robert Frouin, Carlos García-Soto, Stuart W. Gibb, Ralf Goericke, Richard Gould, Nathalie Guillocheau, Stanford B. Hooker, Chuamin Hu, Mati Kahru, Milton Kampel, Holger Klein, Susanne Kratzer, Raphael Kudela, Jesus Ledesma, Steven Lohrenz, Hubert Loisel, Antonio Mannino, Victor Martinez-Vicente, Patricia Matrai, David McKee, Brian G. Mitchell, Tiffany Moisan, Enrique Montes, Frank Muller-Karger, Aimee Neeley, Michael Novak, Leonie O'Dowd, Michael Ondrusek, Trevor Platt, Alex J. Poulton, Michel Repecaud, Rüdiger Röttgers, Thomas Schroeder, Timothy Smyth, Denise Smythe-Wright, Heidi M. Sosik, Crystal Thomas, Rob Thomas, Gavin Tilstone, Andreia Tracana, Michael Twardowski, Vincenzo Vellucci, Kenneth Voss, Jeremy Werdell, Marcel Wernand, Bozena Wojtasiewicz, Simon Wright, and Giuseppe Zibordi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5737–5770,Short summary
A compiled set of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the global compilation of bio-optical in situ data (spanning from 1997 to 2021) used for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The compilation merges and harmonizes several in situ data sources into a simple format that could be used directly for the evaluation of satellite-derived ocean-colour data.
Francesco Paladini de Mendoza, Katrin Schroeder, Leonardo Langone, Jacopo Chiggiato, Mireno Borghini, Patrizia Giordano, Giulio Verazzo, and Stefano Miserocchi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5617–5635,Short summary
This work presents the dataset of continuous monitoring in the southern Adriatic Margin, providing a unique observatory of deep-water dynamics. The study area is influenced by episodic dense-water cascading, which is a fundamental process for water renewal and deep-water dynamics. Information about the frequency and intensity variations of these events is observed along a time series. The monitoring activities are still ongoing and the moorings are part of the EMSO-ERIC network.
Oriane Bruyère, Benoit Soulard, Hugues Lemonnier, Thierry Laugier, Morgane Hubert, Sébastien Petton, Térence Desclaux, Simon Van Wynsberge, Eric Le Tesson, Jérôme Lefèvre, Franck Dumas, Jean-François Kayara, Emmanuel Bourassin, Noémie Lalau, Florence Antypas, and Romain Le Gendre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5439–5462,Short summary
From 2014 to 2021, extensive monitoring of hydrodynamics was deployed within five contrasted lagoons of New Caledonia during austral summers. These coastal physical observations encompassed unmonitored lagoons and captured eight major atmospheric events ranging from tropical depression to category 4 cyclone. The main objectives were to characterize the processes controlling hydrodynamics of these lagoons and record the signature of extreme events on land–lagoon–ocean continuum functioning.
Tian Tian, Lijing Cheng, Gongjie Wang, John Abraham, Wangxu Wei, Shihe Ren, Jiang Zhu, Junqiang Song, and Hongze Leng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5037–5060,Short summary
A high-resolution gridded dataset is crucial for understanding ocean processes at various spatiotemporal scales. Here we used a machine learning approach and successfully reconstructed a high-resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) ocean subsurface (1–2000 m) salinity dataset for the period 1993–2018 (monthly) by merging in situ salinity profile observations with high-resolution satellite remote-sensing data. This new product could be useful in various applications in ocean and climate fields.
Héloïse Lavigne, Ana Dogliotti, David Doxaran, Fang Shen, Alexandre Castagna, Matthew Beck, Quinten Vanhellemont, Xuerong Sun, Juan Ignacio Gossn, Pannimpullath Remanan Renosh, Koen Sabbe, Dieter Vansteenwegen, and Kevin Ruddick
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4935–4947,Short summary
Because of the large diversity of case 2 waters and the complexity of light transfer, retrieving main biogeochemical parameters in these waters is still challenging. By providing optical and biogeochemical parameters for 180 sampling stations with turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration ranging from low to extreme values, the HYPERMAQ dataset will contribute to a better description of marine optics in optically complex water bodies and can help the scientific community to develop algorithms.
Mario Hoppmann, Ivan Kuznetsov, Ying-Chih Fang, and Benjamin Rabe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4901–4921,Short summary
The role of eddies and fronts in the oceans is a hot topic in climate research, but there are still many related knowledge gaps, particularly in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. Here we present a unique dataset of ocean observations collected by a set of drifting buoys installed on ice floes as part of the 2019/2020 MOSAiC campaign. The buoys recorded temperature and salinity data for 10 months, providing extraordinary insights into the properties and processes of the ocean along their drift.
Chengcheng Zhu, Jinyun Guo, Jiajia Yuan, Zhen Li, Xin Liu, and Jinyao Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4589–4606,Short summary
Accurate marine gravity anomalies play an important role in the fields of submarine topography, Earth structure, and submarine exploitation. With the launch of different altimetry satellites, the density of altimeter data can meet the requirements of inversion of high-resolution and high-precision gravity anomaly models. We construct the global marine gravity anomaly model (SDUST2021GRA) from altimeter data (including HY-2A). The accuracy of the model is high, especially in the offshore area.
Giulia Bonino, Simona Masina, Giuliano Galimberti, and Matteo Moretti
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We present a unique observational dataset of Marine Heatwaves (MHWs) macro events and their characteristics over the Southern Europe and western Asian (SEWA) basins, SEWA-MHWs dataset. This dataset is the first effort in literature in archiving extreme hot sea surface temperature macro events. The advantages of the availability of SEWA-MHWs are to avoid waste of computational resources to detect MHWs, and to build a consistent framework which would increase comparability among MHWs studies.
Philip L. Woodworth and John M. Vassie
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4387–4396,Short summary
An electronic data set of tidal measurements at St. Helena in 1761 by Nevil Maskelyne is described. These data were first analysed by Cartwright in papers on changing tides, but his data files were never archived. The now newly digitised Maskelyne data have been reanalysed in order to obtain an updated impression of whether the tide has changed at that location in over two and a half centuries. Our main conclusion is that the major tidal constituent (M2) has changed little.
Alberto Ribotti, Roberto Sorgente, Federica Pessini, Andrea Cucco, Giovanni Quattrocchi, and Mireno Borghini
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4187–4199,Short summary
Over 1468 hydrological vertical profiles were acquired in 21 years in the Mediterranean Sea. This allowed us to follow the diffusion of the Western Mediterranean Transient along all western seas or make some important repetitions across straits, channels, or at defined locations. These data are now available in four open-access online datasets, including profiles of water temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll α fluorescence, and, after 2004, turbidity and pH.
Andrea Pisano, Daniele Ciani, Salvatore Marullo, Rosalia Santoleri, and Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4111–4128,Short summary
A new operational diurnal sea surface temperature (SST) product has been developed within the Copernicus Marine Service, providing gap-free hourly mean SST fields from January 2019 to the present. This product is able to accurately reproduce the diurnal cycle, the typical day–night SST oscillation mainly driven by solar heating, including extreme diurnal warming events. This product can thus represent a valuable dataset to improve the study of those processes that require a subdaily frequency.
Natalia Tilinina, Dmitry Ivonin, Alexander Gavrikov, Vitali Sharmar, Sergey Gulev, Alexander Suslov, Vladimir Fadeev, Boris Trofimov, Sergey Bargman, Leysan Salavatova, Vasilisa Koshkina, Polina Shishkova, Elizaveta Ezhova, Mikhail Krinitsky, Olga Razorenova, Klaus Peter Koltermann, Vladimir Tereschenkov, and Alexey Sokov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3615–3633,Short summary
We present wind wave parameter data from research cruises in the North Atlantic in 2020 and 2021 and the SeaVision system for measuring wind wave characteristics with a standard marine navigation X-band radar. We promote the potential of ship navigation X-band radars (when assembled with SeaVision or similar systems) for the development of a new near-global observational network, providing a much larger number of wind wave observations.
Üwe S. N. Best, Mick van der Wegen, Jasper Dijkstra, Johan Reyns, Bram C. van Prooijen, and Dano Roelvink
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2445–2462,Short summary
The combination of seawalls and vegetation may be the key to Guyana's survival against rising water levels; however knowledge about the system behaviour and use of vegetation is inadequate. This paper comprises the first dataset since the 1970s along the Guyana coastline. Instruments were deployed to capture data on the water levels, waves and sediment locally. Data revealed the ways in which sediment is transported and deposited, as well as the wave damping of the mangrove–mudflat system.
Matthias Fuchs, Juri Palmtag, Bennet Juhls, Pier Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Michael Bedington, Tina Sanders, Olga Ogneva, Irina V. Fedorova, Nikita S. Zimov, Paul J. Mann, and Jens Strauss
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2279–2301,Short summary
We created digital, high-resolution bathymetry data sets for the Lena Delta and Kolyma Gulf regions in northeastern Siberia. Based on nautical charts, we digitized depth points and isobath lines, which serve as an input for a 50 m bathymetry model. The benefit of this data set is the accurate mapping of near-shore areas as well as the offshore continuation of the main deep river channels. This will improve the estimation of river outflow and the nutrient flux output into the coastal zone.
Johannes J. Rick, Mirco Scharfe, Tatyana Romanova, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Ragnhild Asmus, Harald Asmus, Finn Mielck, Anja Kamp, Rainer Sieger, and Karen H. Wiltshire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The Sylt Roads TS (Wadden Sea, NS) is illustrated. Since 1984, the water temperature has risen by 1.1 °C, while pH and salinity decreased by 0.2 and 0.3 units. Nutrients (P, N) displayed a period of high eutrophication till 1998 followed by a decrease since 1999 while silicate showed in parallel an increase. Chlorophyll did not mirror these changes probably due a switch in nutrient limitation: Until 1998, the algae were primarily limited by Si, and since 1999 P limitation became more important.
Yves Quilfen, Jean-François Piolle, and Bertrand Chapron
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1493–1512,Short summary
Satellite sea surface heights (SSHs) are key observations used to monitor ocean dynamics. For each satellite altimeter mission, differing noise mixes with SSH signals preclude analysis of the smallest ocean scales. Using an adaptive filter, a new data set is produced for three altimeters, showing that SSH variability in the mesoscale 30–120 km wavelength band can now be more consistently resolved. For the first time, global small-scale ocean kinetic energy distributions are precisely monitored.
Cori Pegliasco, Antoine Delepoulle, Evan Mason, Rosemary Morrow, Yannice Faugère, and Gérald Dibarboure
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1087–1107,Short summary
The new global Mesoscale Eddy Trajectory Atlases (META3.1exp) provide eddy identification and trajectories from altimetry maps. These atlases comprise an improvement to and continuation of the historical META2.0 product. Changes in the detection parameters and tracking were tested by comparing the eddies from the different datasets. In particular, the eddy contours available in META3.1exp are an asset for multi-disciplinary studies.
Martin Horwath, Benjamin D. Gutknecht, Anny Cazenave, Hindumathi Kulaiappan Palanisamy, Florence Marti, Ben Marzeion, Frank Paul, Raymond Le Bris, Anna E. Hogg, Inès Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Petra Döll, Denise Cáceres, Hannes Müller Schmied, Johnny A. Johannessen, Jan Even Øie Nilsen, Roshin P. Raj, René Forsberg, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Valentina R. Barletta, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Per Knudsen, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Heidi Ranndal, Stine K. Rose, Christopher J. Merchant, Claire R. Macintosh, Karina von Schuckmann, Kristin Novotny, Andreas Groh, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 411–447,Short summary
Global mean sea-level change observed from 1993 to 2016 (mean rate of 3.05 mm yr−1) matches the combined effect of changes in water density (thermal expansion) and ocean mass. Ocean-mass change has been assessed through the contributions from glaciers, ice sheets, and land water storage or directly from satellite data since 2003. Our budget assessments of linear trends and monthly anomalies utilise new datasets and uncertainty characterisations developed within ESA's Climate Change Initiative.
Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, Antonio Turiel, Verónica González-Gambau, Marta Umbert, Nina Hoareau, Cristina González-Haro, Estrella Olmedo, Manuel Arias, Rafael Catany, Laurent Bertino, Roshin P. Raj, Jiping Xie, Roberto Sabia, and Diego Fernández
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 307–323,Short summary
Measuring salinity from space is challenging since the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to sea surface salinity is low, but the retrieval of SSS in cold waters is even more challenging. In 2019, the ESA launched a specific initiative called Arctic+Salinity to produce an enhanced Arctic SSS product with better quality and resolution than the available products. This paper presents the methodologies used to produce the new enhanced Arctic SMOS SSS product.
Florence Marti, Alejandro Blazquez, Benoit Meyssignac, Michaël Ablain, Anne Barnoud, Robin Fraudeau, Rémi Jugier, Jonathan Chenal, Gilles Larnicol, Julia Pfeffer, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 229–249,Short summary
The Earth energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere due to the increase in greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations is responsible for the accumulation of energy in the climate system. With its high thermal inertia, the ocean accumulates most of this energy excess in the form of heat. The estimation of the global ocean heat content through space geodetic observations allows monitoring of the energy imbalance with realistic uncertainties to better understand the Earth’s warming climate.
Manuel Bensi, Vedrana Kovačević, Federica Donda, Philip Edward O'Brien, Linda Armbrecht, and Leanne Kay Armand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 65–78,Short summary
The Totten Glacier (Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica) has undergone significant retreat in recent years, underlining its sensitivity to climate change and its potential contribution to global sea-level rise. The melting process is strongly influenced by ocean dynamics and the spatial distribution of water masses appears to be linked to the complex morpho-bathymetry of the area, supporting the hypothesis that downwelling processes contribute to shaping the architecture of the continental margin.
Matthew A. Chamberlain, Peter R. Oke, Russell A. S. Fiedler, Helen M. Beggs, Gary B. Brassington, and Prasanth Divakaran
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5663–5688,Short summary
BRAN2020 is a dynamical reconstruction of the ocean, combining observations with a high-resolution global ocean model. BRAN2020 currently spans January 1993 to December 2019, assimilating in situ temperature and salinity, as well as satellite-based sea level and sea surface temperature. A new multiscale approach to data assimilation constrains the broad-scale ocean properties and turbulent mesoscale dynamics in two steps, showing closer agreement to observations than all previous versions.
Pierre Prandi, Jean-Christophe Poisson, Yannice Faugère, Amandine Guillot, and Gérald Dibarboure
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5469–5482,Short summary
We investigate how mapping sea level in the Arctic Ocean can benefit from combining data from three satellite radar altimeters: CryoSat-2, Sentinel-3A and SARAL/AltiKa. A dedicated processing for SARAL/AltiKa provides a baseline for the cross-referencing of CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3A before mapping. We show that by combining measurements coming from three missions, we are able to increase the resolution of gridded sea level fields in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
Zhan Hu, Simei Lian, Huaiyu Wei, Yulong Li, Marcel Stive, and Tomohiro Suzuki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4987–4999,Short summary
The process of wave attenuation in vegetation is important as it is related to the coastal protection service of these coastal ecosystems. In intertidal environments, waves often propagate into vegetation fields with underlying tidal currents, but the effect of these currents on the wave attenuation is often overlooked, and the relevant dataset is rarely available. Here, we present a dataset of wave propagation through vegetation with following and opposing currents to assist further studies.
Petra Zemunik, Jadranka Šepić, Havu Pellikka, Leon Ćatipović, and Ivica Vilibić
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4121–4132,Short summary
A new global dataset – MISELA (Minute Sea-Level Analysis) – has been developed and contains quality-checked sea-level records from 331 tide gauges worldwide for a period from 2004 to 2019. The dataset is appropriate for research on atmospherically induced high-frequency sea-level oscillations. Research on these oscillations is important, as they can, like all sea-level extremes, seriously threaten coastal zone infrastructure and populations.
Michael G. Hart-Davis, Gaia Piccioni, Denise Dettmering, Christian Schwatke, Marcello Passaro, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3869–3884,Short summary
Ocean tides are an extremely important process for a variety of oceanographic applications, particularly in understanding coastal sea-level rise. Tidal signals influence satellite altimetry estimations of the sea surface, which has resulted in the development of ocean tide models to account for such signals. The EOT20 ocean tide model has been developed at DGFI-TUM using residual analysis of satellite altimetry, with the focus on improving the estimation of ocean tides in the coastal region.
Denise Dettmering, Felix L. Müller, Julius Oelsmann, Marcello Passaro, Christian Schwatke, Marco Restano, Jérôme Benveniste, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3733–3753,Short summary
In this study, a new gridded altimetry-based regional sea level dataset for the North Sea is presented, named North SEAL. It is based on long-term multi-mission cross-calibrated altimetry data consistently preprocessed with coastal dedicated algorithms. On a 6–8 km wide triangular mesh, North SEAL provides time series of monthly sea level anomalies as well as sea level trends and amplitudes of the mean annual sea level cycle for the period 1995–2019 for various applications.
Robert Hagen, Andreas Plüß, Romina Ihde, Janina Freund, Norman Dreier, Edgar Nehlsen, Nico Schrage, Peter Fröhle, and Frank Kösters
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2573–2594,Short summary
We established an open-access, integrated marine data collection for 1996 to 2015 in the German Bight as a database of scientific, economic, and governmental interest. This paper presents data for tidal elevation, depth-averaged current velocity, bottom shear stress, depth-averaged salinity, and wave parameters and spectra at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Data are additionally processed into meaningful parameters (i.e., tidal characteristic values, e.g., tidal range) for accessibility.
Mengmeng Cao, Kebiao Mao, Yibo Yan, Jiancheng Shi, Han Wang, Tongren Xu, Shu Fang, and Zijin Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2111–2134,Short summary
We constructed a temperature depth and observation time correction model to eliminate the sampling depth and temporal differences among different data. Then, we proposed a reconstructed spatial model that filters and removes missing pixels and low-quality pixels contaminated by clouds from raw SST images and retrieves real sea surface temperatures under cloud coverage based on multisource data to generate a high-quality unified global SST product with long-term spatiotemporal continuity.
Frédéric Cyr and Peter S. Galbraith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1807–1828,Short summary
Climate indices are often regarded as simple ways to relate mean environmental conditions to the state of an ecosystem. Such indices are often used to inform fisheries scientists and managers or used in fisheries resource assessments and ecosystem studies. The Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) climate index aims to describe the environmental conditions on the NL shelf and in the Northwest Atlantic as a whole. It consists of annual normalized anomalies of 10 subindices relevant for the NL shelf.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1759–1790,Short summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwestern tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Filippo Nelli, Luke G. Bennetts, Katrin G. Hessner, Keith MacHutchon, Konny Reichert, Lotfi Aouf, Salman Khan, and Alessandro Toffoli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1189–1209,Short summary
The Southern Ocean has a profound impact on the Earth's climate system. Its strong winds, intense currents, and fierce waves are critical components of the air–sea interface. The scarcity of observations in this remote region hampers the comprehension of fundamental physics, the accuracy of satellite sensors, and the capabilities of prediction models. To fill this gap, a unique data set of simultaneous observations of winds, surface currents, and ocean waves in the Southern Ocean is presented.
Estrella Olmedo, Cristina González-Haro, Nina Hoareau, Marta Umbert, Verónica González-Gambau, Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, and Antonio Turiel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 857–888,Short summary
After more than 10 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) European mission is still a unique, high-quality instrument for providing soil moisture over land and sea surface salinity (SSS) over the oceans. At the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC), a new reprocessing of 9 years (2011–2019) of global SMOS SSS maps has been generated. This work presents the algorithms used in the generation of the BEC global SMOS SSS product v2.0, as well as an extensive quality assessment.
Tiago S. Dotto, Mauricio M. Mata, Rodrigo Kerr, and Carlos A. E. Garcia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 671–696,Short summary
A novel seasonal three-dimensional high-resolution hydrographic gridded data set for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (NAP) based on measurements obtained from 1990–2019 by the ship-based Argo profilers and tagged marine mammals is presented. The main oceanographic features of the NAP are well represented, with the final product having many advantages compared to low-resolution climatologies. In addition, new information on the regional water mass pathways and their characteristics is unveiled.
Jonathan M. Lilly and Paula Pérez-Brunius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 645–669,Short summary
A large set of historical surface drifter data from the Gulf of Mexico are processed and assimilated into a spatially and temporally gridded dataset called GulfFlow, forming a significant resource for studying the circulation and variability in this important region. The uniformly processed historical drifter data interpolated to hourly resolution from all publicly available sources are also distributed in a separate product. A greatly improved map of the mean circulation is presented.
Michele Mossa, Elvira Armenio, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Maria Francesca Bruno, Diana De Padova, and Francesca De Serio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 599–607,Short summary
Two fixed stations have been installed in the Mar Grande and Mar Piccolo of Taranto, one of the most complex marine ecosystem models. Although typical trends in the water circulation and exchanges have been studied by models developed for the seas of Taranto, more monitoring actions and numerical modelling are still necessary to better understand the most significant hydrodynamic–biological variability in this coastal basin. The results of this study can be applied to similar zones.
Jaime Pitarch, Marco Bellacicco, Salvatore Marullo, and Hendrik J. van der Woerd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 481–490,Short summary
Ocean monitoring is crucial to understand the regular seasonality and the drift induced by climate change. Satellites offer a possibility to monitor the complete surface of the Earth within a few days with a harmonized methodology, reaching resolutions of few kilometres. We revisit traditional ship survey optical parameters such as the
Secchi disk depthand the
Forel–Ule indexand derive them from satellite observations. Our time series is 21 years long and has global coverage.
Carine G. van der Boog, J. Otto Koetsier, Henk A. Dijkstra, Julie D. Pietrzak, and Caroline A. Katsman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 43–61,Short summary
Thermohaline staircases are stepped structures in the ocean that contain enhanced diapycnal salt and heat transport. In this study, we present a global dataset of thermohaline staircases derived from 487 493 observations of Argo profiling floats and Ice-Tethered Profilers using a novel detection algorithm.
Dagmar Hainbucher, Marta Álvarez, Blanca Astray Uceda, Giancarlo Bachi, Vanessa Cardin, Paolo Celentano, Spyros Chaikalis, Maria del Mar Chaves Montero, Giuseppe Civitarese, Noelia M. Fajar, Francois Fripiat, Lennart Gerke, Alexandra Gogou, Elisa F. Guallart, Birte Gülk, Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Nico Lange, Andrea Rochner, Chiara Santinelli, Tobias Steinhoff, Toste Tanhua, Lidia Urbini, Dimitrios Velaoras, Fabian Wolf, and Andreas Welsch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2747–2763,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea (MSM72, March 2018). The main objective of the cruise was to contribute to the understanding of long-term changes and trends in physical and biogeochemical parameters, such as the anthropogenic carbon uptake, and further assess the hydrographical situation after the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Transients. Multidisciplinary measurements were conducted on a predominantly zonal section throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
Ricardo A. Scrosati, Julius A. Ellrich, and Matthew J. Freeman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2695–2703,Short summary
We measured temperature every half hour during a period of 5.5 years (2014–2019) at nine wave-exposed rocky intertidal locations along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We summarize the main properties of this data set by focusing on location-wise values of daily maximum and minimum temperature and daily SST.
Sylvain Watelet, Øystein Skagseth, Vidar S. Lien, Helge Sagen, Øivind Østensen, Viktor Ivshin, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2447–2457,Short summary
We present here a seasonal atlas of the Barents Sea including both temperature and salinity for the period 1965–2016. This atlas is curated using several in situ data sources interpolated thanks to the tool DIVA minimizing the expected errors. The results show a recent "Atlantification" of the Barents Sea, i.e., a general increase in both temperature and salinity, while its density remains stable. The atlas is made freely accessible (https://doi.org/10.21335/NMDC-2058021735).
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Guillaume Dodet, Jean-François Piolle, Yves Quilfen, Saleh Abdalla, Mickaël Accensi, Fabrice Ardhuin, Ellis Ash, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Christine Gommenginger, Gwendal Marechal, Marcello Passaro, Graham Quartly, Justin Stopa, Ben Timmermans, Ian Young, Paolo Cipollini, and Craig Donlon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1929–1951,Short summary
Sea state data are of major importance for climate studies, marine engineering, safety at sea and coastal management. However, long-term sea state datasets are sparse and not always consistent. The CCI is a program of the European Space Agency, whose objective is to realize the full potential of global Earth Observation archives in order to contribute to the ECV database. This paper presents the implementation of the first release of the Sea State CCI dataset.
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Hart, D. J., de Young, B., and Foley, J.: Observations of Currents, Temperature and Salinity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland 1998-9, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, 1999.
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Fortune Bay (Canada) is a large fjord-like embayment that hosts aquaculture (salmon) industries, lobster fisheries and wild salmon runs. To better understand the ecological pressure of human-related activities, an important oceanographic program was undertaken to provide basic knowledge of the physical environment. The program ran for 2 consecutive years and successfully obtained data on water temperature, salinity, oxygen, ocean currents, tides and meteorological forcing (e.g. wind).
Fortune Bay (Canada) is a large fjord-like embayment that hosts aquaculture (salmon) industries,...