Articles | Volume 10, issue 1
13 Mar 2018
13 Mar 2018
Altimetry, gravimetry, GPS and viscoelastic modeling data for the joint inversion for glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica (ESA STSE Project REGINA)
Ingo Sasgen et al.
No articles found.
F. Dahle, J. Tanke, B. Wouters, and R. Lindenbergh
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-2-2022, 237–244,
Stephen J. Chuter, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Jonathan Rougier, Geoffrey Dawson, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 16, 1349–1367,Short summary
We find the Antarctic Peninsula to have a mean mass loss of 19 ± 1.1 Gt yr−1 over the 2003–2019 period, driven predominantly by changes in ice dynamic flow like due to changes in ocean forcing. This long-term record is crucial to ascertaining the region’s present-day contribution to sea level rise, with the understanding of driving processes enabling better future predictions. Our statistical approach enables us to estimate this previously poorly surveyed regions mass balance more accurately.
Tom Mitcham, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 16, 883–901,Short summary
We modelled the response of the Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS) and its tributary glaciers to the calving of the A68 iceberg and validated our results with observations. We found that the impact was limited, confirming that mostly passive ice was calved. Through further calving experiments we quantified the total buttressing provided by the LCIS and found that over 80 % of the buttressing capacity is generated in the first 5 km of the ice shelf downstream of the grounding line.
Reyko Schachtschneider, Jan Saynisch-Wagner, Volker Klemann, Meike Bagge, and Maik Thomas
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 29, 53–75,Short summary
Glacial isostatic adjustment is the delayed reaction of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle to changing mass loads of ice sheets or water. The deformation behaviour of the Earth's surface depends on the ability of the Earth's mantle to flow, i.e. its viscosity. It can be estimated from sea level observations, and in our study, we estimate mantle viscosity using sea level observations from the past. This knowledge is essential for understanding current sea level changes due to melting ice.
Vasaw Tripathi, Andreas Groh, Martin Horwath, and RAAJ Ramsankaran
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
GRACE/GRACE-FO provided global observations of water storage change since 2002. Scaling is a common approach to compensate for the spatial filtering inherent to the results. However, for complex hydrological basins, the compatibility of scaling with the characteristics of regional hydrology has been rarely assessed. We assess traditional scaling approaches and a new scaling approach for the Indus basin. Our results will help users with regional focus understand implications of scaling choices.
Tian Li, Geoffrey J. Dawson, Stephen J. Chuter, and Jonathan L. Bamber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 535–557,Short summary
Accurate knowledge of the Antarctic grounding zone is important for mass balance calculation, ice sheet stability assessment, and ice sheet model projections. Here we present the first ICESat-2-derived high-resolution grounding zone product of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, including three important boundaries. This new data product will provide more comprehensive insights into ice sheet instability, which is valuable for both the cryosphere and sea level science communities.
Martin Horwath, Benjamin D. Gutknecht, Anny Cazenave, Hindumathi Kulaiappan Palanisamy, Florence Marti, Ben Marzeion, Frank Paul, Raymond Le Bris, Anna E. Hogg, Inès Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Petra Döll, Denise Cáceres, Hannes Müller Schmied, Johnny A. Johannessen, Jan Even Øie Nilsen, Roshin P. Raj, René Forsberg, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Valentina R. Barletta, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Per Knudsen, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Heidi Ranndal, Stine K. Rose, Christopher J. Merchant, Claire R. Macintosh, Karina von Schuckmann, Kristin Novotny, Andreas Groh, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 411–447,Short summary
Global mean sea-level change observed from 1993 to 2016 (mean rate of 3.05 mm yr−1) matches the combined effect of changes in water density (thermal expansion) and ocean mass. Ocean-mass change has been assessed through the contributions from glaciers, ice sheets, and land water storage or directly from satellite data since 2003. Our budget assessments of linear trends and monthly anomalies utilise new datasets and uncertainty characterisations developed within ESA's Climate Change Initiative.
Sam Royston, Rory J. Bingham, and Jonathan L. Bamber
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
Decadal sea-level variability masks longer-term changes and increases uncertainty in observed trend and acceleration estimates. We use numerical ocean models to determine the magnitude of decadal variability we might expect in sea-level trends at coastal locations around the world, resulting from natural, internal variability. A good proportion of that variability can be replicated from known climate modes, giving projection uncertainty for short- to mid-term regional sea-level trend.
Fanny Lehmann, Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma, and Jonathan Bamber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 35–54,Short summary
Many data sources are available to evaluate components of the water cycle (precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and terrestrial water storage). Despite this variety, it remains unclear how different combinations of datasets satisfy the conservation of mass. We conducted the most comprehensive analysis of water budget closure on a global scale to date. Our results can serve as a basis to select appropriate datasets for regional hydrological studies.
Jan Bouke Pronk, Tobias Bolch, Owen King, Bert Wouters, and Douglas I. Benn
The Cryosphere, 15, 5577–5599,Short summary
About 10 % of Himalayan glaciers flow directly into lakes. This study finds, using satellite imagery, that such glaciers show higher flow velocities than glaciers without ice–lake contact. In particular near the glacier tongue the impact of a lake on the glacier flow can be dramatic. The development of current and new meltwater bodies will influence the flow of an increasing number of Himalayan glaciers in the future, a scenario not currently considered in regional ice loss projections.
Rajashree Tri Datta and Bert Wouters
The Cryosphere, 15, 5115–5132,Short summary
The ICESat-2 laser altimeter can detect the surface and bottom of a supraglacial lake. We introduce the Watta algorithm, automatically calculating lake surface, corrected bottom, and (sub-)surface ice at high resolution adapting to signal strength. ICESat-2 depths constrain full lake depths of 46 lakes over Jakobshavn glacier using multiple sources of imagery, including very high-resolution Planet imagery, used for the first time to extract supraglacial lake depths empirically using ICESat-2.
Bas Altena, Andreas Kääb, and Bert Wouters
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Repeat overflights of satellites are used to estimate surface displacements. However, such products lack a simple error description for individual measurements. But variation in precision occur since calculation is based on similarity of texture. Fortunately, variation in precision manifests itself in the correlation peak, which is used for the displacement calculation. This spread is used to make a connection to measurement precision. Which can be of great use for model inversion.
Lukas Müller, Martin Horwath, Mirko Scheinert, Christoph Mayer, Benjamin Ebermann, Dana Floricioiu, Lukas Krieger, Ralf Rosenau, and Saurabh Vijay
The Cryosphere, 15, 3355–3375,Short summary
Harald Moltke Bræ, a marine-terminating glacier in north-western Greenland, undergoes remarkable surges of episodic character. Our data show that a recent surge from 2013 to 2019 was initiated at the glacier front and exhibits a pronounced seasonality with flow velocities varying by 1 order of magnitude, which has not been observed at Harald Moltke Bræ in this way before. These findings are crucial for understanding surge mechanisms at Harald Moltke Bræ and other marine-terminating glaciers.
Maurice van Tiggelen, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, Carleen H. Reijmer, Bert Wouters, Jakob F. Steiner, Emile J. Nieuwstraten, Walter W. Immerzeel, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 15, 2601–2621,Short summary
We developed a method to estimate the aerodynamic properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet surface using either UAV or ICESat-2 elevation data. We show that this new method is able to reproduce the important spatiotemporal variability in surface aerodynamic roughness, measured by the field observations. The new maps of surface roughness can be used in atmospheric models to improve simulations of surface turbulent heat fluxes and therefore surface energy and mass balance over rough ice worldwide.
Mirko Scheinert, Christoph Mayer, Martin Horwath, Matthias Braun, Anja Wendt, and Daniel Steinhage
Polarforschung, 89, 57–64,Short summary
Ice sheets, glaciers and further ice-covered areas with their changes as well as interactions with the solid Earth and the ocean are subject of intensive research, especially against the backdrop of global climate change. The resulting questions are of concern to scientists from various disciplines such as geodesy, glaciology, physical geography and geophysics. Thus, the working group "Polar Geodesy and Glaciology", founded in 2013, offers a forum for discussion and stimulating exchange.
Xavier Fettweis, Stefan Hofer, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, Charles Amory, Teruo Aoki, Constantijn J. Berends, Andreas Born, Jason E. Box, Alison Delhasse, Koji Fujita, Paul Gierz, Heiko Goelzer, Edward Hanna, Akihiro Hashimoto, Philippe Huybrechts, Marie-Luise Kapsch, Michalea D. King, Christoph Kittel, Charlotte Lang, Peter L. Langen, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Glen E. Liston, Gerrit Lohmann, Sebastian H. Mernild, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Kameswarrao Modali, Ruth H. Mottram, Masashi Niwano, Brice Noël, Jonathan C. Ryan, Amy Smith, Jan Streffing, Marco Tedesco, Willem Jan van de Berg, Michiel van den Broeke, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Leo van Kampenhout, David Wilton, Bert Wouters, Florian Ziemen, and Tobias Zolles
The Cryosphere, 14, 3935–3958,Short summary
We evaluated simulated Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance from 5 kinds of models. While the most complex (but expensive to compute) models remain the best, the faster/simpler models also compare reliably with observations and have biases of the same order as the regional models. Discrepancies in the trend over 2000–2012, however, suggest that large uncertainties remain in the modelled future SMB changes as they are highly impacted by the meltwater runoff biases over the current climate.
Tian Li, Geoffrey J. Dawson, Stephen J. Chuter, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 14, 3629–3643,Short summary
Accurate knowledge of the Antarctic grounding zone is critical for the understanding of ice sheet instability and the evaluation of mass balance. We present a new, fully automated method to map the grounding zone from ICESat-2 laser altimetry. Our results of Larsen C Ice Shelf demonstrate the efficiency, density, and high spatial accuracy with which ICESat-2 can image complex grounding zones.
Michael Kern, Robert Cullen, Bruno Berruti, Jerome Bouffard, Tania Casal, Mark R. Drinkwater, Antonio Gabriele, Arnaud Lecuyot, Michael Ludwig, Rolv Midthassel, Ignacio Navas Traver, Tommaso Parrinello, Gerhard Ressler, Erik Andersson, Cristina Martin-Puig, Ole Andersen, Annett Bartsch, Sinead Farrell, Sara Fleury, Simon Gascoin, Amandine Guillot, Angelika Humbert, Eero Rinne, Andrew Shepherd, Michiel R. van den Broeke, and John Yackel
The Cryosphere, 14, 2235–2251,Short summary
The Copernicus Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter will provide high-resolution sea ice thickness and land ice elevation measurements and the capability to determine the properties of snow cover on ice to serve operational products and services of direct relevance to the polar regions. This paper describes the mission objectives, identifies the key contributions the CRISTAL mission will make, and presents a concept – as far as it is already defined – for the mission payload.
Geoffrey J. Dawson and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 14, 2071–2086,Short summary
The grounding zone is where grounded ice begins to float and is the boundary at which the ocean has the most significant influence on the inland ice sheet. Here, we present the results of mapping the grounding zone of Antarctic ice shelves from CryoSat-2 radar altimetry. We found good agreement with previous methods that mapped the grounding zone. We also managed to map areas of Support Force Glacier and the Doake Ice Rumples (Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf), which were previously incompletely mapped.
Marco Meloni, Jerome Bouffard, Tommaso Parrinello, Geoffrey Dawson, Florent Garnier, Veit Helm, Alessandro Di Bella, Stefan Hendricks, Robert Ricker, Erica Webb, Ben Wright, Karina Nielsen, Sanggyun Lee, Marcello Passaro, Michele Scagliola, Sebastian Bjerregaard Simonsen, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, David Brockley, Steven Baker, Sara Fleury, Jonathan Bamber, Luca Maestri, Henriette Skourup, René Forsberg, and Loretta Mizzi
The Cryosphere, 14, 1889–1907,Short summary
This manuscript aims to describe the evolutions which have been implemented in the new CryoSat Ice processing chain Baseline-D and the validation activities carried out in different domains such as sea ice, land ice and hydrology. This new CryoSat processing Baseline-D will maximise the uptake and use of CryoSat data by scientific users since it offers improved capability for monitoring the complex and multiscale changes over the cryosphere.
Brice Noël, Leonardus van Kampenhout, Willem Jan van de Berg, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Bert Wouters, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 14, 1425–1435,Short summary
We present a reconstruction of historical (1950–2014) surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet using the Community Earth System Model (CESM2; ~111 km) to force a high-resolution regional climate model (RACMO2; ~11 km), which is further refined to 1 km spatial resolution. For the first time, an Earth-system-model-based product, assimilating no observations, can reconstruct realistic historical ice sheet surface mass balance as well as the mass loss acceleration that started in the 1990s.
Junjie Wang, Nigel T. Penna, Peter J. Clarke, and Machiel S. Bos
Solid Earth, 11, 185–197,Short summary
Changes in the Earth's elastic strength at increasing timescales of deformation affect predictions of its response to the shifting weight of the oceans caused by tides. We show that these changes are detectable using GPS and must be accounted for but that 3-D or locally-tuned models of the Earth's behaviour around the East China Sea provide only slightly better predictions than a simpler model which varies only with depth. Use of this model worldwide will improve precise positioning by GPS.
Matthias O. Willen, Martin Horwath, Ludwig Schröder, Andreas Groh, Stefan R. M. Ligtenberg, Peter Kuipers Munneke, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 14, 349–366,
Michael A. Cooper, Thomas M. Jordan, Dustin M. Schroeder, Martin J. Siegert, Christopher N. Williams, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 13, 3093–3115,
Qing Liu, Michael Schmidt, Roland Pail, and Martin Willberg
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Regularization is indispensable in regional gravity field modelling. In this paper, we propose two new approaches for the regularization parameter determination, which combine the L-curve method and variance component estimation (VCE). The performance of each method is studied for combining heterogeneous observations using spherical radial basis functions. The results show that our newly proposed methods are decent and stable for regularization parameter determination.
Ludwig Schröder, Martin Horwath, Reinhard Dietrich, Veit Helm, Michiel R. van den Broeke, and Stefan R. M. Ligtenberg
The Cryosphere, 13, 427–449,Short summary
We developed an approach to combine measurements of seven satellite altimetry missions over the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Our resulting monthly grids of elevation changes between 1978 and 2017 provide unprecedented details of the long-term and interannual variation. Derived mass changes agree well with contemporaneous data of surface mass balance and satellite gravimetry and show which regions were responsible for the significant accelerations of mass loss in recent years.
Michalea D. King, Ian M. Howat, Seongsu Jeong, Myoung J. Noh, Bert Wouters, Brice Noël, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 12, 3813–3825,Short summary
We derive the first continuous record of total ice discharged from all large Greenland outlet glaciers over the 2000–2016 period, resolving a distinct pattern of seasonal variability. We compare these results to glacier retreat and meltwater runoff and find that while runoff has a limited impact on ice discharge in summer, long-term changes in discharge are highly correlated to retreat. These results help to better understand Greenland outlet glacier sensitivity over a range of timescales.
Jiangjun Ran, Miren Vizcaino, Pavel Ditmar, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Twila Moon, Christian R. Steger, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Bert Wouters, Brice Noël, Catharina H. Reijmer, Roland Klees, Min Zhong, Lin Liu, and Xavier Fettweis
The Cryosphere, 12, 2981–2999,Short summary
To accurately predict future sea level rise, the mechanisms driving the observed mass loss must be better understood. Here, we combine data from the satellite gravimetry, surface mass balance, and ice discharge to analyze the mass budget of Greenland at various temporal scales. This study, for the first time, suggests the existence of a substantial meltwater storage during summer, with a peak value of 80–120 Gt in July. We highlight its importance for understanding ice sheet mass variability
Thomas M. Jordan, Christopher N. Williams, Dustin M. Schroeder, Yasmina M. Martos, Michael A. Cooper, Martin J. Siegert, John D. Paden, Philippe Huybrechts, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 12, 2831–2854,Short summary
Here, via analysis of radio-echo sounding data, we place a new observational constraint upon the basal water distribution beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet. In addition to the outlet glaciers, we demonstrate widespread water storage in the northern and eastern ice-sheet interior, a notable feature being a "corridor" of basal water extending from NorthGRIP to Petermann Glacier. The basal water distribution and its relationship with basal temperature provides a new constraint for numerical models.
Milena Latinović, Volker Klemann, Christopher Irrgang, Meike Bagge, Sebastian Specht, and Maik Thomas
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
By using geological samples we are trying to validate the models that are reconstructing the sea level in the past 20 000 years. We applied proposed statistical method using 4 types of shells that were found in the area of the Hudson Bay on 140 members of model ensemble. After the comparison of the the results with studies from this area, we concluded that the method is suitable for validation of model ensemble based sea-level change caused by land movement of the Earth due to ice-age burden.
Thomas Slater, Andrew Shepherd, Malcolm McMillan, Alan Muir, Lin Gilbert, Anna E. Hogg, Hannes Konrad, and Tommaso Parrinello
The Cryosphere, 12, 1551–1562,Short summary
We present a new digital elevation model of Antarctica derived from 6 years of elevation measurements acquired by ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeter. We compare our elevation model to an independent set of NASA IceBridge airborne laser altimeter measurements and find the overall accuracy to be 9.5 m – a value comparable to or better than that of other models derived from satellite altimetry. The new CryoSat-2 digital elevation model of Antarctica will be made freely available.
Jan Melchior van Wessem, Willem Jan van de Berg, Brice P. Y. Noël, Erik van Meijgaard, Charles Amory, Gerit Birnbaum, Constantijn L. Jakobs, Konstantin Krüger, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Stef Lhermitte, Stefan R. M. Ligtenberg, Brooke Medley, Carleen H. Reijmer, Kristof van Tricht, Luke D. Trusel, Lambertus H. van Ulft, Bert Wouters, Jan Wuite, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 12, 1479–1498,Short summary
We present a detailed evaluation of the latest version of the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3p2 (1979-2016) over the Antarctic ice sheet. The model successfully reproduces the present-day climate and surface mass balance (SMB) when compared with an extensive set of observations and improves on previous estimates of the Antarctic climate and SMB. This study shows that the latest version of RACMO2 can be used for high-resolution future projections over the AIS.
Andrew J. Tedstone, Jonathan L. Bamber, Joseph M. Cook, Christopher J. Williamson, Xavier Fettweis, Andrew J. Hodson, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 11, 2491–2506,Short summary
The bare ice albedo of the south-west Greenland ice sheet varies dramatically between years. The reasons are unclear but likely involve darkening by inorganic particulates, cryoconite and ice algae. We use satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics and climate model outputs to find likely climatological controls. Outcropping particulates can explain the spatial extent of dark ice, but the darkening itself is likely due to ice algae growth controlled by meltwater and light availability.
Thomas M. Jordan, Michael A. Cooper, Dustin M. Schroeder, Christopher N. Williams, John D. Paden, Martin J. Siegert, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 11, 1247–1264,Short summary
Using radio-echo sounding data from northern Greenland, we demonstrate that subglacial roughness exhibits self-affine (fractal) scaling behaviour. This enables us to assess topographic control upon the bed-echo waveform, and explain the spatial distribution of the degree of scattering (specular and diffuse reflections). Via comparison with a prediction for the basal thermal state (thawed and frozen regions of the bed) we discuss the consequences of our study for basal water discrimination.
Ludwig Schröder, Andreas Richter, Denis V. Fedorov, Lutz Eberlein, Evgeny V. Brovkov, Sergey V. Popov, Christoph Knöfel, Martin Horwath, Reinhard Dietrich, Alexey Y. Matveev, Mirko Scheinert, and Valery V. Lukin
The Cryosphere, 11, 1111–1130,Short summary
The paper describes the processing of kinematic GNSS data observed over nine seasons in East Antarctica. The obtained surface elevation profiles are used to validate several data sets of satellite altimetry. Thus, we find a clear recommendation that processing versions provide the highest accuracy and precision. The profiles are used to derive a new set of ICESat laser campaign biases and finally, to evaluate several DEMs.
Christopher N. Williams, Stephen L. Cornford, Thomas M. Jordan, Julian A. Dowdeswell, Martin J. Siegert, Christopher D. Clark, Darrel A. Swift, Andrew Sole, Ian Fenty, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 11, 363–380,Short summary
Knowledge of ice sheet bed topography and surrounding sea floor bathymetry is integral to the understanding of ice sheet processes. Existing elevation data products for Greenland underestimate fjord bathymetry due to sparse data availability. We present a new method to create physically based synthetic fjord bathymetry to fill these gaps, greatly improving on previously available datasets. This will assist in future elevation product development until further observations become available.
Michiel R. van den Broeke, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Ian M. Howat, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Brice P. Y. Noël, Willem Jan van de Berg, Erik van Meijgaard, and Bert Wouters
The Cryosphere, 10, 1933–1946,Short summary
We present recent (1958–2015) mass balance time series for the Greenland ice sheet. We show that recent mass loss is caused by a combination of increased surface meltwater runoff and solid ice discharge. Most meltwater above 2000 m a.s.l. refreezes in the cold firn and does not leave the ice sheet, but this goes at the expense of firn heating and densifying. In spite of a temporary rebound in 2013, it appears that the ice sheet remains in a state of persistent mass loss.
T. M. Jordan, J. L. Bamber, C. N. Williams, J. D. Paden, M. J. Siegert, P. Huybrechts, O. Gagliardini, and F. Gillet-Chaulet
The Cryosphere, 10, 1547–1570,Short summary
Ice penetrating radar enables determination of the basal properties of ice sheets. Existing algorithms assume stationarity in the attenuation rate, which is not justifiable at an ice sheet scale. We introduce the first ice-sheet-wide algorithm for radar attenuation that incorporates spatial variability, using the temperature field from a numerical model as an initial guess. The study is a step toward ice-sheet-wide data products for basal properties and evaluation of model temperature fields.
André Düsterhus, Alessio Rovere, Anders E. Carlson, Benjamin P. Horton, Volker Klemann, Lev Tarasov, Natasha L. M. Barlow, Tom Bradwell, Jorie Clark, Andrea Dutton, W. Roland Gehrels, Fiona D. Hibbert, Marc P. Hijma, Nicole Khan, Robert E. Kopp, Dorit Sivan, and Torbjörn E. Törnqvist
Clim. Past, 12, 911–921,Short summary
This review/position paper addresses problems in creating new interdisciplinary databases for palaeo-climatological sea-level and ice-sheet data and gives an overview on new advances to tackle them. The focus therein is to define and explain strategies and highlight their importance to allow further progress in these fields. It also offers important insights into the general problem of designing competitive databases which are also applicable to other communities within the palaeo-environment.
Ioana S. Muresan, Shfaqat A. Khan, Andy Aschwanden, Constantine Khroulev, Tonie Van Dam, Jonathan Bamber, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Bert Wouters, Peter Kuipers Munneke, and Kurt H. Kjær
The Cryosphere, 10, 597–611,Short summary
We use a regional 3-D outlet glacier model to simulate the behaviour of Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) during 1990–2014. The model simulates two major accelerations in 1998 and 2003 that are consistent with observations. We find that most of the JI retreat during the simulated period is driven by the ocean parametrization used, and the glacier's subsequent response, which is largely governed by bed geometry. The study shows progress in modelling the temporal variability of the flow at JI.
N. Schoen, A. Zammit-Mangion, J. C. Rougier, T. Flament, F. Rémy, S. Luthcke, and J. L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 9, 805–819,Short summary
This paper provides a proof of concept approach for combining multiple observations and inferences to provide rigorous, error-bounded estimates of mass trends and surface processes for the Antarctic ice sheet. Here we apply the method to West Antarctica, using a time-invariant solution by way of proof of concept. Subsequent work will utilise a time evolving approach to the whole ice sheet.
R. T. W. L. Hurkmans, J. L. Bamber, C. H. Davis, I. R. Joughin, K. S. Khvorostovsky, B. S. Smith, and N. Schoen
The Cryosphere, 8, 1725–1740,
T. Howard, A. K. Pardaens, J. L. Bamber, J. Ridley, G. Spada, R. T. W. L. Hurkmans, J. A. Lowe, and D. Vaughan
Ocean Sci., 10, 473–483,
T. Howard, J. Ridley, A. K. Pardaens, R. T. W. L. Hurkmans, A. J. Payne, R. H. Giesen, J. A. Lowe, J. L. Bamber, T. L. Edwards, and J. Oerlemans
Ocean Sci., 10, 485–500,
I. Sasgen, H. Konrad, E. R. Ivins, M. R. Van den Broeke, J. L. Bamber, Z. Martinec, and V. Klemann
The Cryosphere, 7, 1499–1512,
I. Joughin, S. B. Das, G. E. Flowers, M. D. Behn, R. B. Alley, M. A. King, B. E. Smith, J. L. Bamber, M. R. van den Broeke, and J. H. van Angelen
The Cryosphere, 7, 1185–1192,
M. Tedesco, X. Fettweis, T. Mote, J. Wahr, P. Alexander, J. E. Box, and B. Wouters
The Cryosphere, 7, 615–630,
C. L. Vernon, J. L. Bamber, J. E. Box, M. R. van den Broeke, X. Fettweis, E. Hanna, and P. Huybrechts
The Cryosphere, 7, 599–614,
J. L. Bamber, J. A. Griggs, R. T. W. L. Hurkmans, J. A. Dowdeswell, S. P. Gogineni, I. Howat, J. Mouginot, J. Paden, S. Palmer, E. Rignot, and D. Steinhage
The Cryosphere, 7, 499–510,
P. Fretwell, H. D. Pritchard, D. G. Vaughan, J. L. Bamber, N. E. Barrand, R. Bell, C. Bianchi, R. G. Bingham, D. D. Blankenship, G. Casassa, G. Catania, D. Callens, H. Conway, A. J. Cook, H. F. J. Corr, D. Damaske, V. Damm, F. Ferraccioli, R. Forsberg, S. Fujita, Y. Gim, P. Gogineni, J. A. Griggs, R. C. A. Hindmarsh, P. Holmlund, J. W. Holt, R. W. Jacobel, A. Jenkins, W. Jokat, T. Jordan, E. C. King, J. Kohler, W. Krabill, M. Riger-Kusk, K. A. Langley, G. Leitchenkov, C. Leuschen, B. P. Luyendyk, K. Matsuoka, J. Mouginot, F. O. Nitsche, Y. Nogi, O. A. Nost, S. V. Popov, E. Rignot, D. M. Rippin, A. Rivera, J. Roberts, N. Ross, M. J. Siegert, A. M. Smith, D. Steinhage, M. Studinger, B. Sun, B. K. Tinto, B. C. Welch, D. Wilson, D. A. Young, C. Xiangbin, and A. Zirizzotti
The Cryosphere, 7, 375–393,
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Václav Vavryčuk, Petra Adamová, Jana Doubravová, and Josef Horálek
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2179–2194,Short summary
We present a unique catalogue of more than 5100 highly accurate seismic moment tensors of earthquakes that occurred in West Bohemia, Czech Republic, in the period 2008–2018. The catalogue covers a long period of seismicity with several prominent earthquake swarms. The dataset is ideal for being utilized by a large community of researchers for various seismological purposes such as for studies of migration of foci, spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity, tectonic stress, or fluid flow on faults.
Domenico Di Giacomo and Dmitry A. Storchak
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 393–409,Short summary
The surface wave magnitude Ms is the only magnitude type that can be computed since the dawn of modern observational seismology (beginning of the last century) for most shallow earthquakes worldwide. As a result of a 10+ year effort to digitize pre-1971 measurements of surface wave amplitudes and periods from printed bulletins, we are able to recompute Ms using a large set of stations and obtain it for the first time for several hundred earthquakes.
Mark Jessell, Jiateng Guo, Yunqiang Li, Mark Lindsay, Richard Scalzo, Jérémie Giraud, Guillaume Pirot, Ed Cripps, and Vitaliy Ogarko
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 381–392,Short summary
To robustly train and test automated methods in the geosciences, we need to have access to large numbers of examples where we know
the answer. We present a suite of synthetic 3D geological models with their gravity and magnetic responses that allow researchers to test their methods on a whole range of geologically plausible models, thus overcoming one of the fundamental limitations of automation studies.
Alberto Michelini, Spina Cianetti, Sonja Gaviano, Carlo Giunchi, Dario Jozinović, and Valentino Lauciani
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5509–5544,Short summary
We present a dataset consisting of seismic waveforms and associated metadata to be used primarily for seismologically oriented machine-learning (ML) studies. The dataset includes about 1.3 M three-component seismograms of fixed 120 s length, sampled at 100 Hz and recorded by more than 600 stations in Italy. The dataset is subdivided into seismograms deriving from earthquakes (~ 1.2 M) and from seismic noise (~ 130 000). The ~ 54 000 earthquakes range in magnitude from 0 to 6.5 from 2005 to 2020.
Ulysse Lebrec, Victorien Paumard, Michael J. O'Leary, and Simon C. Lang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5191–5212,Short summary
This paper presents an integrated workflow that builds on satellite images and 3D seismic surveys, integrated with historical depth soundings, to generate regional high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The workflow was applied to the North West Shelf of Australia and led to the creation of new DEMs, with a resolution of 10 × 10 m in nearshore areas and 30 × 30 m elsewhere over an area of nearly 1 000 000 km2. This constitutes a major improvement of the pre-existing 250 × 250 m DEM.
Xiangjin Meng, Kebiao Mao, Fei Meng, Jiancheng Shi, Jiangyuan Zeng, Xinyi Shen, Yaokui Cui, Lingmei Jiang, and Zhonghua Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3239–3261,Short summary
In order to improve the accuracy of China's regional agricultural drought monitoring and climate change research, we produced a long-term series of soil moisture products by constructing a time and depth correction model for three soil moisture products with the help of ground observation data. The spatial resolution is improved by building a spatial weight decomposition model, and validation indicates that the new product can meet application needs.
Alexis Neven, Pradip Kumar Maurya, Anders Vest Christiansen, and Philippe Renard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2743–2752,Short summary
The shallow underground is constituted of sediments that present high spatial variability. This upper layer is the most extensively used for resource exploitation (groundwater, geothermal heat, construction materials, etc.). Understanding and modeling the spatial variability of these deposits is crucial. We present a high-resolution electrical resistivity dataset that covers the upper Aare Valley in Switzerland. These data can help develop methods to characterize these geological formations.
Angela Saraò, Monica Sugan, Gianni Bressan, Gianfranco Renner, and Andrea Restivo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2245–2258,Short summary
Focal mechanisms describe the orientation of the fault on which an earthquake occurs and the slip direction. They are necessary to understand seismotectonic processes and for seismic hazard analysis. We present a focal mechanism catalogue of 772 selected earthquakes of 1.8 ≤ M ≤ 6.5 that occurred in the southeastern Alps and surrounding areas from 1928 to 2019. For each earthquake, we report focal mechanisms from the literature and newly computed solutions, and we suggest a preferred one.
Pavol Zahorec, Juraj Papčo, Roman Pašteka, Miroslav Bielik, Sylvain Bonvalot, Carla Braitenberg, Jörg Ebbing, Gerald Gabriel, Andrej Gosar, Adam Grand, Hans-Jürgen Götze, György Hetényi, Nils Holzrichter, Edi Kissling, Urs Marti, Bruno Meurers, Jan Mrlina, Ema Nogová, Alberto Pastorutti, Corinne Salaun, Matteo Scarponi, Josef Sebera, Lucia Seoane, Peter Skiba, Eszter Szűcs, and Matej Varga
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2165–2209,Short summary
The gravity field of the Earth expresses the overall effect of the distribution of different rocks at depth with their distinguishing densities. Our work is the first to present the high-resolution gravity map of the entire Alpine orogen, for which high-quality land and sea data were reprocessed with the exact same calculation procedures. The results reflect the local and regional structure of the Alpine lithosphere in great detail. The database is hereby openly shared to serve further research.
Natalia Sergeyeva, Alexei Gvishiani, Anatoly Soloviev, Lyudmila Zabarinskaya, Tamara Krylova, Mikhail Nisilevich, and Roman Krasnoperov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1987–1999,Short summary
The K index is the classical, commonly used parameter of geomagnetic activity that serves as the measure of local magnetic field variations. This paper presents a unique collection of historical K index values that was formed at the World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics in Moscow. It includes the results of the K index determination at 41 geomagnetic observatories of the former USSR for the period from July 1957 to the early 1990s.
Domenico Di Giacomo, James Harris, and Dmitry A. Storchak
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1957–1985,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive overview of the content in terms of moment magnitude (Mw) in the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre (ISC). Mw is the preferred magnitude to characterize earthquakes in various research topics (e.g. Earth seismicity rates) and other applications (e.g. seismic hazard). We describe first the contribution of global agencies and agencies operating at a regional scale and then discuss features of Mw via different sets of comparisons.
Irene DeFelipe, Juan Alcalde, Monika Ivandic, David Martí, Mario Ruiz, Ignacio Marzán, Jordi Diaz, Puy Ayarza, Imma Palomeras, Jose-Luis Fernandez-Turiel, Cecilia Molina, Isabel Bernal, Larry Brown, Roland Roberts, and Ramon Carbonell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1053–1071,Short summary
Seismic data provide critical information about the structure of the lithosphere, and their preservation is essential for innovative research reusing data. The Seismic DAta REpository (SeisDARE) comprises legacy and recently acquired seismic data in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. This database has been built by a network of different institutions that promote multidisciplinary research. We aim to make seismic data easily available to the research, industry, and educational communities.
Anna L. Morozova, Paulo Ribeiro, and M. Alexandra Pais
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 809–825,Short summary
The Coimbra Magnetic Observatory (COI), Portugal, established in 1866, has provided nearly continuous records of the geomagnetic field for more than 150 years. However, during its long lifetime inevitable changes to the instruments and measurement procedures and even the relocation of the observatory have taken place. Such changes affect the quality of the measurements, introducing false (artificial) variations. We analyzed COI historical data to find and correct such artificial variations.
Abdelrazek Elnashar, Linjiang Wang, Bingfang Wu, Weiwei Zhu, and Hongwei Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 447–480,Short summary
Based on a site-pixel validation and comparison of different global evapotranspiration (ET) products, this paper aims to produce a synthesized ET which has a minimum level of uncertainty over as many conditions as possible from 1982 to 2019. Through a high-quality flux eddy covariance (EC) covering the globe, PML, SSEBop, MOD16A2105, and NTSG ET products were chosen to create the new dataset. It agreed well with flux EC ET and can be used without other datasets or further assessments.
Jana Lasser, Joanna M. Nield, and Lucas Goehring
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2881–2898,Short summary
The publication presents six data sets that describe the surface and subsurface characteristics of salt deserts in southern California. The data were collected during two field studies in 2016 and 2018 and are used to investigate the origins of the eye-catching hexagonal salt ridge patterns that emerge in such deserts. It is important to understand how these salt crusts grow since these deserts and their dynamic surface structure play a major role in the emission of dust into the atmosphere.
Roman Krasnoperov, Dmitry Peregoudov, Renata Lukianova, Anatoly Soloviev, and Boris Dzeboev
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 555–561,Short summary
The paper presents a collection of magnetic field measurements performed by early Soviet magnetic satellite missions Kosmos-49 (1964) and Kosmos-321 (1970). These data were used as initial data for analysis of the structure of the Earth’s magnetic field sources and for compilation of a series of its analytical models. The most notable model that employed Kosmos-49 data was the first generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for epoch 1965.0.
Tony Alfredo Stabile, Vincenzo Serlenga, Claudio Satriano, Marco Romanelli, Erwan Gueguen, Maria Rosaria Gallipoli, Ermann Ripepi, Jean-Marie Saurel, Serena Panebianco, Jessica Bellanova, and Enrico Priolo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 519–538,Short summary
This paper presents data collected by a seismic network developed in the framework of the INSIEME project aimed to study induced seismicity processes. The network is composed of eight stations deployed around two clusters of induced microearthquakes in the High Agri Valley (southern Italy). The solutions for reducing the background noise level are presented and the quality of acquired data is discussed. Such open-access data can be used by the scientific community for different applications.
Konstantinos Lentas, Domenico Di Giacomo, James Harris, and Dmitry A. Storchak
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 565–578,Short summary
In this article we try to make the broad geoscience community and especially the seismological community aware of the availability of earthquake source mechanisms in the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and encourage researchers to make use of this data set in future research. Moreover, we acknowledge the data providers, and we encourage others to routinely submit their source mechanism solutions to the ISC.
Xuanmei Fan, Gianvito Scaringi, Guillem Domènech, Fan Yang, Xiaojun Guo, Lanxin Dai, Chaoyang He, Qiang Xu, and Runqiu Huang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 35–55,Short summary
Large earthquakes cause major disturbances to mountain landscapes. They trigger many landslides that can form deposits of debris on steep slopes and channels. Rainfall can remobilise these deposits and generate large and destructive flow-like landslides and floods. We release two datasets that track a decade of landsliding following the 2008 7.9 magnitude Wenchuan earthquake in China. These data are useful for quantifying the role of major earthquakes in shaping mountain landscapes.
Domenico Di Giacomo, E. Robert Engdahl, and Dmitry A. Storchak
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1877–1899,Short summary
We outline work done to improve and extend the new reference catalogue of global earthquakes instrumentally recorded since 1904, the ISC-GEM Catalogue. We have added thousands of earthquakes between 1904 and 1959 and in recent years compared to the 2013 release. As earthquake catalogues are widely used for different aspects of research, we believe that this dataset will be instrumental for years to come for researchers involved in studies on seismic hazard and patterns of the Earth's seismicity.
Laura Sánchez, Christof Völksen, Alexandr Sokolov, Herbert Arenz, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1503–1526,Short summary
We provide a surface-kinematics model for the Alpine region based on high-level data analysis of 300 geodetic stations continuously operating over 12.4 years. This model includes a deformation model, a continuous velocity field, and a strain field consistently assessed for the entire Alpine mountain belt. Horizontal and vertical motion patterns are clearly identified and supported by uncertainties better than ±0.2 mm a−1 and ±0.3 mm a−1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively.
Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen, Reimer Wilhelm Weinrebe, Jørgen Bendtsen, Anders Anker Bjørk, and Kurt Henrik Kjær
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 589–600,Short summary
Here we present bathymetric and hydrographic measurements from two fjords in southeastern Greenland surveyed in 2014, leading to improved knowledge of the fjord morphology and an assessment of the variability in water masses in the fjords systems. Data were collected as part of a larger field campaign in which we targeted marine and terrestrial observations to assess the long-term behavior of the Greenland ice sheet and provide linkages to modern observations.
Johannes Petrone, Gustav Sohlenius, Emma Johansson, Tobias Lindborg, Jens-Ove Näslund, Mårten Strömgren, and Lars Brydsten
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 663–677,Short summary
This paper presents data and resulting models of spatial distributions of maximum active layer thickness and sediment thickness and their connection to surface vegetation and topography from the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland. The data set constitutes geometrical information and will be used in coupled hydrological and biogeochemical modeling together with previous published hydrological data (doi:10.5194/essd-7-93-2015, 2015) and biogeochemical data (doi:10.5194/essd-8-439-2016, 2016).
B. K. Biskaborn, J.-P. Lanckman, H. Lantuit, K. Elger, D. A. Streletskiy, W. L. Cable, and V. E. Romanovsky
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 245–259,Short summary
This paper introduces the new database of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) on permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data. It describes the operability of the Data Management System and the data quality. By applying statistics on GTN-P metadata, we analyze the spatial sample representation of permafrost monitoring sites. Comparison with environmental variables and climate projection data enable identification of potential future research locations.
P. Arason, G. N. Petersen, and H. Bjornsson
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We present a collection of data sets, consisting of surface-elevation rates for Antarctic ice sheet from a combination of Envisat and ICESat, bedrock uplift rates for 118 GPS sites in Antarctica, and optimally filtered GRACE gravity field rates. We provide viscoelastic response functions to a disc load forcing for Earth structures present in East and West Antarctica. This data collection enables a joint inversion for present-day ice-mass changes and glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica.
We present a collection of data sets, consisting of surface-elevation rates for Antarctic ice...