Articles | Volume 6, issue 1
03 Jan 2014
03 Jan 2014
A spatial database of wildfires in the United States, 1992-2011
K. C. Short
Related subject area
Biosphere – BiogeosciencesA satellite-derived database for stand-replacing windthrow events in boreal forests of European Russia in 1986–2017Drainage of organic soils and GHG emissions: validation with country dataElement and radionuclide concentrations in soils and wildlife from forests in north-eastern England with a focus on species representative of the ICRP's Reference Animals and PlantsApparent ecosystem carbon turnover time: uncertainties and robust featuresSeabed video and still images from the northern Weddell Sea and the western flanks of the Powell BasinA comprehensive dataset of vegetation states, fluxes of matter and energy, weather, agricultural management, and soil properties from intensively monitored crop sites in western GermanyProduction and application of manure nitrogen and phosphorus in the United States since 1860The fortedata R package: open-science datasets from a manipulative experiment testing forest resilienceDecomposability of soil organic matter over time: the Soil Incubation Database (SIDb, version 1.0) and guidance for incubation proceduresCarbon Monitoring System Flux Net Biosphere Exchange 2020 (CMS-Flux NBE 2020)The PROFOUND Database for evaluating vegetation models and simulating climate impacts on European forestsHigh resolution bed level change and synchronized biophysical data from 10 tidal flats in northwestern EuropeA daily, 250 m, and real-time gross primary productivity product (2000–present) covering the Contiguous United StatesA spatially downscaled sun-induced fluorescence global product for enhanced monitoring of vegetation productivitySpatial and temporal patterns of global soil heterotrophic respiration in terrestrial ecosystemsObservations of late-winter marine microbial activity in an ice-covered fjord, west GreenlandMapping the yields of lignocellulosic bioenergy crops from observations at the global scaleA spatially explicit database of wind disturbances in European forests over the period 2000–2018Standardised soil profile data to support global mapping and modelling (WoSIS snapshot 2019)The global long-term microwave Vegetation Optical Depth Climate Archive (VODCA)A taxonomically harmonized and temporally standardized fossil pollen dataset from Siberia covering the last 40 kyrA review of biomass equations for China's tree speciesGlobal variability in belowground autotrophic respiration in terrestrial ecosystemsMonthly gridded data product of northern wetland methane emissions based on upscaling eddy covariance observationsA leaf area index data set acquired in Sahelian rangelands of Gourma in Mali over the 2005–2017 periodThe Global Fire Atlas of individual fire size, duration, speed and directionIncreased nitrogen enrichment and shifted patterns in the world's grassland: 1860–2016Global Carbon Budget 2018Mapping the vegetation of the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia, using Google Earth imagesGeneration and analysis of a new global burned area product based on MODIS 250 m reflectance bands and thermal anomaliesRadiocarbon measurements of ecosystem respiration and soil pore-space CO2 in Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AlaskaA global compilation of coccolithophore calcification ratesA weekly, continually updated dataset of the probability of large wildfires across western US forests and woodlandsBiophysics and vegetation cover change: a process-based evaluation framework for confronting land surface models with satellite observationsGlobal radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and the diffuse component dataset of China, 1981–2010Historical nitrogen fertilizer use in agricultural ecosystems of the contiguous United States during 1850–2015: application rate, timing, and fertilizer typesSeasonal evolution of soil and plant parameters on the agricultural Gebesee test site: a database for the set-up and validation of EO-LDAS and satellite-aided retrieval modelsGross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992–2015)Webcam network and image database for studies of phenological changes of vegetation and snow cover in Finland, image time series from 2014 to 2016Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiencyAnthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene – HYDE 3.2Global fire emissions estimates during 1997–2016Global manure nitrogen production and application in cropland during 1860–2014: a 5 arcmin gridded global dataset for Earth system modelingGlobal nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century: shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalanceReconstruction of spatially detailed global map of NH4+ and NO3− application in synthetic nitrogen fertilizerAn explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the AmazonBiogeochemical data from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in a periglacial catchment, West GreenlandGlobal Carbon Budget 2015Global carbon budget 2014Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment
Andrey N. Shikhov, Alexander V. Chernokulsky, Igor O. Azhigov, and Anastasia V. Semakina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3489–3513,Short summary
Severe winds are among the main causes of forest disturbances in Russia. However, compared to other European countries, windthrows in Russian forests remain substantially understudied. In this study, we compiled a new spatial database of stand-replacing (total) windthrows in the forest zone of European Russia for 1986–2017. Windthrows were delineated mainly with Landsat images. The total area of windthrows was estimated to be 2966 km2 (0.19 % of the total forest-covered area).
Giulia Conchedda and Francesco N. Tubiello
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3113–3137,Short summary
This paper describes the FAO methodology used to globally assess areas of drained organic soils and peatlands due to agriculture over the period 1990–2019. We overlay geospatial information of soil type, land cover, agro-climatic zones, livestock distribution and IPCC coefficients, then aggregate it at national level for over 200 countries and territories. Results are compared to inventory data reported to UNFCCC, showing good agreement between the FAO estimates and country data.
Catherine L. Barnett, Nicholas A. Beresford, Michael D. Wood, Maria Izquierdo, Lee A. Walker, and Ross Fawkes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3021–3038,Short summary
This paper describes data from a study conducted in 2015–2016 to sample terrestrial wildlife, soil and water from two forests in north-eastern England. Sampling was targeted towards species representative of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) terrestrial Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs): Wild Grass, Pine Tree, Earthworm, Bee, Rat, Deer and Frog. The dataset comprises stable-element and radionuclide activity concentrations.
Naixin Fan, Sujan Koirala, Markus Reichstein, Martin Thurner, Valerio Avitabile, Maurizio Santoro, Bernhard Ahrens, Ulrich Weber, and Nuno Carvalhais
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2517–2536,Short summary
The turnover time of terrestrial carbon (τ) controls the global carbon cycle–climate feedback. In this study, we provide a new, updated ensemble of diagnostic terrestrial carbon turnover times and associated uncertainties on a global scale. Despite the large variation in both magnitude and spatial patterns of τ, we identified robust features in the spatial patterns of τ which could contribute to uncertainty reductions in future projections of the carbon cycle–climate feedback.
Autun Purser, Simon Dreutter, Huw Griffiths, Laura Hehemann, Kerstin Jerosch, Axel Nordhausen, Dieter Piepenburg, Claudio Richter, Henning Schröder, and Boris Dorschel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This data set comprises 26 megapixel seafloor Images collected from below ice and steeply sloped regions of the Southern Ocean (the western Weddell Sea, the Powell Basin and the rapidly shallowing, iceberg scoured Nachtigaller Shoal). These data were collected with the Ocean Floor Observation and Bathymetry System (OFOBS), an advanced towed camera platform incorporating various sonar devices to aid in hazard avoidance and seafloor mapping, allowing use in challenging, high relief seafloor Areas.
Tim G. Reichenau, Wolfgang Korres, Marius Schmidt, Alexander Graf, Gerhard Welp, Nele Meyer, Anja Stadler, Cosimo Brogi, and Karl Schneider
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2333–2364,
Zihao Bian, Hanqin Tian, Qichun Yang, Rongting Xu, Shufen Pan, and Bowen Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Estimating the production and application of manure nutrient can promote the efficiently use of manure nutrient while minimize environmental impact. This study developed four manure nitrogen and phosphorus datasets with high spatial resolution and long time period. Manure nutrient production in the U.S. increased since 1860, driven by increased livestock numbers and weights. The datasets provide useful information for stakeholders and scientists who focus on agriculture and biogeochemical cycle.
Jeff W. Atkins, Elizabeth Agee, Alexandra Barry, Kyla M. Dahlin, Kalyn Dorheim, Maxim S. Grigri, Lisa T. Haber, Laura J. Hickey, Aaron G. Kamoske, Kayla Mathes, Catherine McGuigan, Evan Paris, Stephanie C. Pennington, Carly Rodriguez, Autym Shafer, Alexey Shiklomanov, Jason Tallant, Christopher M. Gough, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The fortedata R package is an open data notebook from the Forest Resilience Threshold Experiment (FoRTE) – a modeling and manipulative field experiment that tests the effects of disturbance severity and disturbance type on carbon cycling dynamics in a temperate forest. The data included help to interpret how carbon cycling processes respond over time to disturbance.
Christina Schädel, Jeffrey Beem-Miller, Mina Aziz Rad, Susan E. Crow, Caitlin E. Hicks Pries, Jessica Ernakovich, Alison M. Hoyt, Alain Plante, Shane Stoner, Claire C. Treat, and Carlos A. Sierra
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1511–1524,Short summary
Carbon loss to the atmosphere via microbial decomposition is often assessed by laboratory soil incubation studies that measure greenhouse gases released from soils under controlled conditions. Here, we introduce the Soil Incubation Database (SIDb) version 1.0, a compilation of time series data from incubations, structured into a new, publicly available, open-access database of carbon dioxide and methane flux. We also provide guidance for database entry and the required variables.
Junjie Liu, Latha Baskaran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carroll, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatii, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney, and Steven Wofsy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320,Short summary
Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database provides a wide range of empirical data to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale to support systematic model intercomparisons and model development in Europe.
Zhan Hu, Pim W. J. M. Willemsen, Bas W. Borsje, Chen Wang, Heng Wang, Daphne van der Wal, Zhenchang Zhu, Bas Oteman, Vincent Vuik, Ben Evans, Iris Möller, Jean-Philippe Belliard, Alexander Van Braeckel, Stijn Temmerman, and Tjeerd J. Bouma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Erosion and accretion processes govern the eco-geomorphic evolution of intertidal ecosystems (marshes and bare flats), and hence substantially affect their valuable ecosystem services. By applying a novel sensor, we obtained unique high-resolution daily bed-level change data sets from 10 salt marsh sites in northwestern Europe. This dataset has revealed diverse spatial bed-level change patterns over daily to seasonal scales, which are valuable to theoretical and model development.
Chongya Jiang, Kaiyu Guan, Genghong Wu, Bin Peng, and Sheng Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Photosynthesis, quantified by gross primary production (GPP), is a key process of earth system. To date, there is a lack of high-spatiotemporal-resolution, real-time, and observation-based GPP dataset. This work addresses this gap by developing a SatelLite Only Photosynthesis Estimation (SLOPE) model and generating a new GPP product, which is advanced in spatial and temporal resolutions, instantaneity, and quantitative uncertainty. The dataset will benefit a range of research and applications.
Gregory Duveiller, Federico Filipponi, Sophia Walther, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, Luis Guanter, and Alessandro Cescatti
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1101–1116,Short summary
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a valuable indicator of vegetation productivity, but our capacity to measure it from space using satellite remote techniques has been hampered by a lack of spatial detail. Based on prior knowledge of how ecosystems should respond to growing conditions in some modelling along with ancillary satellite observations, we provide here a new enhanced dataset with higher spatial resolution that better represents the spatial patterns of vegetation growth over land.
Xiaolu Tang, Shaohui Fan, Manyi Du, Wenjie Zhang, Sicong Gao, Shibin Liu, Guo Chen, Zhen Yu, and Wunian Yang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1037–1051,Short summary
Global soil heterotrophic respiration (RH) was modelled using Random Forest by linking published observations and globally gridded environmental variables. Globally, RH increased from 55.8 to 58.3 Pg C a−1 with an increasing trend of 0.036 ± 0.007 Pg C a−2 and an annual mean RH of 57.2 ± 0.6 Pg C a−1 over 1980–2016. The developed RH dataset has great potential to serve as a benchmark to constrain global vegetation models.
David Chandler and Shona Mackie
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 897–906,Short summary
The activity of microorganisms at the bottom of the marine food chain has rarely been measured under sea ice in winter. We present the first observations of Arctic winter microbial activity under sea ice in a west Greenland fjord. By measuring changes in the oxygen concentration of seawater under the ice, we found low but significant levels of activity, suggesting these microbial communities may constitute an important part of the winter marine ecosystem.
Wei Li, Philippe Ciais, Elke Stehfest, Detlef van Vuuren, Alexander Popp, Almut Arneth, Fulvio Di Fulvio, Jonathan Doelman, Florian Humpenöder, Anna B. Harper, Taejin Park, David Makowski, Petr Havlik, Michael Obersteiner, Jingmeng Wang, Andreas Krause, and Wenfeng Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 789–804,Short summary
We generated spatially explicit bioenergy crop yields based on field measurements with climate, soil condition and remote-sensing variables as explanatory variables and the machine-learning method. We further compared our yield maps with the maps from three integrated assessment models (IAMs; IMAGE, MAgPIE and GLOBIOM) and found that the median yields in our maps are > 50 % higher than those in the IAM maps.
Giovanni Forzieri, Matteo Pecchi, Marco Girardello, Achille Mauri, Marcus Klaus, Christo Nikolov, Marius Rüetschi, Barry Gardiner, Julián Tomaštík, David Small, Constantin Nistor, Donatas Jonikavicius, Jonathan Spinoni, Luc Feyen, Francesca Giannetti, Rinaldo Comino, Alessandro Wolynski, Francesco Pirotti, Fabio Maistrelli, Ionut Savulescu, Stéphanie Wurpillot-Lucas, Stefan Karlsson, Karolina Zieba-Kulawik, Paulina Strejczek-Jazwinska, Martin Mokroš, Stefan Franz, Lukas Krejci, Ionel Haidu, Mats Nilsson, Piotr Wezyk, Filippo Catani, Yi-Ying Chen, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Gherardo Chirici, Alessandro Cescatti, and Pieter S. A. Beck
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 257–276,Short summary
Strong winds may uproot and break trees and represent a risk for forests. Despite the importance of this natural disturbance and possible intensification in view of climate change, spatial information about wind-related impacts is currently missing on a pan-European scale. We present a new database of wind disturbances in European forests comprised of more than 80 000 records over the period 2000–2018. Our database is a unique spatial source for the study of forest disturbances at large scales.
Niels H. Batjes, Eloi Ribeiro, and Ad van Oostrum
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 299–320,Short summary
This dataset provides quality-assessed and standardised soil data to support digital soil mapping and environmental applications at broadscale levels. The underpinning soil profiles were shared by a wide range of data providers. Special attention was paid to the standardisation of soil property definitions, analytical method descriptions and property values. We present measures for geographic accuracy and a first approximation for the uncertainty associated with the various analytical methods.
Leander Moesinger, Wouter Dorigo, Richard de Jeu, Robin van der Schalie, Tracy Scanlon, Irene Teubner, and Matthias Forkel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 177–196,Short summary
Vegetation optical depth (VOD) is measured by satellites and is related to the density of vegetation and its water content. VOD has a wide range of uses, including drought, wildfire danger, biomass, and carbon stock monitoring. For the past 30 years there have been various VOD data sets derived from space-borne microwave sensors, but biases between them prohibit a combined use. We removed these biases and merged the data to create the global long-term VOD Climate Archive (VODCA).
Xianyong Cao, Fang Tian, Andrei Andreev, Patricia M. Anderson, Anatoly V. Lozhkin, Elena Bezrukova, Jian Ni, Natalia Rudaya, Astrid Stobbe, Mareike Wieczorek, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 119–135,Short summary
Pollen percentages in spectra cannot be utilized to indicate past plant abundance directly because of the different pollen productivities among plants. In this paper, we applied relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) to calibrate plant abundances during the last 40 kyr using pollen counts from 203 pollen spectra in northern Asia. Results indicate the vegetation are generally stable during the Holocene and that climate change is the primary factor.
Yunjian Luo, Xiaoke Wang, Zhiyun Ouyang, Fei Lu, Liguo Feng, and Jun Tao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 21–40,Short summary
How to accurately estimate tree and forest biomass a concern worldwide. Biomass equations are the most commonly used method. China is one of the most important ecoregions of the world. Here, we develop a tree biomass equation dataset for China via literature retrieval. This dataset consists of 5924 equations for nearly 200 tree species, showing sound geographical, climatic and forest coverage across China. Furthermore, multiple potential avenues for future research are identified.
Xiaolu Tang, Shaohui Fan, Wenjie Zhang, Sicong Gao, Guo Chen, and Leilei Shi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1839–1852,Short summary
We estimated the missing global carbon flux component – global belowground autotrophic respiration (RA), using global published observations with the linkage of global variables with random forest. Globally, annual mean RA was 43.8 ± 0.4 Pg C yr-1, with a temporally increasing trend of 0.025 ± 0.006 Pg C yr-2 in 1980–2012. Precipitation dominated 56 % of global areas of the spatial pattern of RA. The RA database also has great potential to serve as a benchmark for future data–model comparisons.
Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, Yao Gao, Olle Räty, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Bogdan Chojnicki, Ankur R. Desai, Albertus J. Dolman, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Mathias Göckede, Manuel Helbig, Elyn Humphreys, Robert B. Jackson, Georg Jocher, Fortunat Joos, Janina Klatt, Sara H. Knox, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Sebastian Lienert, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Daniel F. Nadeau, Mats B. Nilsson, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Thomas Pypker, William Quinton, Janne Rinne, Torsten Sachs, Mateusz Samson, Hans Peter Schmid, Oliver Sonnentag, Christian Wille, Donatella Zona, and Tuula Aalto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1263–1289,Short summary
Here we develop a monthly gridded dataset of northern (> 45 N) wetland methane (CH4) emissions. The data product is derived using a random forest machine-learning technique and eddy covariance CH4 fluxes from 25 wetland sites. Annual CH4 emissions from these wetlands calculated from the derived data product are comparable to prior studies focusing on these areas. This product is an independent estimate of northern wetland CH4 emissions and hence could be used, e.g. for process model evaluation.
Eric Mougin, Mamadou Oumar Diawara, Nogmana Soumaguel, Ali Amadou Maïga, Valérie Demarez, Pierre Hiernaux, Manuela Grippa, Véronique Chaffard, and Abdramane Ba
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 675–686,Short summary
The leaf area index of Sahelian rangelands was measured between 2005 and 2017 in northern Mali. These observations collected over more than a decade, in a remote and not very accessible region, provide a relevant and unique data set that can be used for a better understanding of the Sahelian vegetation response to the current rainfall changes. The collected data can also be used for satellite product evaluation and land surface model validation.
Niels Andela, Douglas C. Morton, Louis Giglio, Ronan Paugam, Yang Chen, Stijn Hantson, Guido R. van der Werf, and James T. Randerson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 529–552,Short summary
Natural and human-ignited fires affect all major biomes, and satellite observations provide evidence for rapid changes in global fire activity. The Global Fire Atlas of individual fire size, duration, speed, and direction is the first global data product on individual fire behavior. Moving towards a global understanding of individual fire behavior is a critical next step in fire research, required to understand how global fire regimes are changing in response to land management and climate.
Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Shufen Pan, Shree R. S. Dangal, Jian Chen, Jinfeng Chang, Yonglong Lu, Ute Maria Skiba, Francesco N. Tubiello, and Bowen Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 175–187,Short summary
We provide three gridded datasets of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and manure N inputs in global pastures and rangelands at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° for the period 1860–2016 (i.e., annual manure N deposition (by grazing animals) rate, synthetic N fertilizer use rate and manure N application rate). These three datasets could fill data gaps of N inputs in global and regional grasslands and serve as input drivers for earth system models.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Chuangye Song, Lisanework Nigatu, Yibrah Beneye, Abdurezak Abdulahi, Lin Zhang, and Dongxiu Wu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2033–2041,
Emilio Chuvieco, Joshua Lizundia-Loiola, Maria Lucrecia Pettinari, Ruben Ramo, Marc Padilla, Kevin Tansey, Florent Mouillot, Pierre Laurent, Thomas Storm, Angelika Heil, and Stephen Plummer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2015–2031,Short summary
We present a new global burned area product, generated from MODIS information and thermal anomalies data, providing the highest spatial resolution (approx. 250 m) global product to date. The dataset comprises the 2001–2016 time series of the MODIS archive, and includes two types of BA products: monthly full-resolution continental tiles and biweekly global grid files at a degraded resolution of 0.25 °, supplemented with several auxiliary variables useful for different applications.
Lydia J. S. Vaughn and Margaret S. Torn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1943–1957,Short summary
This paper discusses radiocarbon in CO2 and soil organic carbon from Arctic Alaska. From soil chamber measurements, we observed strong seasonal and spatial patterns in 14C of ecosystem respiration, which declined throughout the summer and differed among permafrost features. Radiocarbon in pore-space CO2 indicated decomposition of carbon as old as 3000 years near the permafrost table. Together, these data reveal different rates of old carbon decomposition from distinct permafrost features.
Chris J. Daniels, Alex J. Poulton, William M. Balch, Emilio Marañón, Tim Adey, Bruce C. Bowler, Pedro Cermeño, Anastasia Charalampopoulou, David W. Crawford, Dave Drapeau, Yuanyuan Feng, Ana Fernández, Emilio Fernández, Glaucia M. Fragoso, Natalia González, Lisa M. Graziano, Rachel Heslop, Patrick M. Holligan, Jason Hopkins, María Huete-Ortega, David A. Hutchins, Phoebe J. Lam, Michael S. Lipsen, Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Socratis Loucaides, Adrian Marchetti, Kyle M. J. Mayers, Andrew P. Rees, Cristina Sobrino, Eithne Tynan, and Toby Tyrrell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1859–1876,Short summary
Calcifying marine algae (coccolithophores) are key to oceanic biogeochemical processes, such as calcium carbonate production and export. We compile a global database of calcium carbonate production from field samples (n = 2756), alongside primary production rates and coccolithophore abundance. Basic statistical analysis highlights global distribution, average surface and integrated rates, patterns with depth and the importance of considering cell-normalised rates as a simple physiological index.
Miranda E. Gray, Luke J. Zachmann, and Brett G. Dickson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1715–1727,Short summary
There is broad consensus that wildfire activity is likely to increase in western US forests and woodlands over the next century. Therefore, spatial predictions of the potential for large wildfires have immediate and growing relevance to near and long-term research, planning, and management objectives. The dataset described here is a weekly time series of images (250 m resolution) from 2005 to 2017 that depicts the probability of large fire across western US forests and woodlands.
Gregory Duveiller, Giovanni Forzieri, Eddy Robertson, Wei Li, Goran Georgievski, Peter Lawrence, Andy Wiltshire, Philippe Ciais, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Almut Arneth, and Alessandro Cescatti
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1265–1279,Short summary
Changing the vegetation cover of the Earth's surface can alter the local energy balance, which can result in a local warming or cooling depending on the specific vegetation transition, its timing and location, as well as on the background climate. While models can theoretically simulate these effects, their skill is not well documented across space and time. Here we provide a dedicated framework to evaluate such models against measurements derived from satellite observations.
Xiaoli Ren, Honglin He, Li Zhang, and Guirui Yu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1217–1226,Short summary
A spatial radiation dataset of China from 1981 to 2010, including global radiation, diffuse radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and diffuse PAR, is generated and shared based on several estimation models and observations of the China Meteorology Administration and the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. This is an integral and consistent radiation dataset for ecological modeling and the analysis of the effects of diffuse radiation on terrestrial ecosystem productivity.
Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun Lu, and Zhen Yu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 969–984,Short summary
A long-term N fertilizer use history is important for both field investigators and modeling community to examine the cumulative impacts of N fertilizer uses. We developed a spatially explicit time-series data set of nitrogen fertilizer use in agricultural land of the continental US during 1850–2015 at a resolution of 5 km × 5 km based on multiple data sources and historical cropland maps. It contains nitrogen fertilizer use rate, application timing, and ammonium and nitrate form fertilizer use.
Sina C. Truckenbrodt and Christiane C. Schmullius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 525–548,Short summary
A comprehensive ground reference database for the set-up and validation of models for the satellite-aided retrieval of crop characteristics is presented. Data on the evolution of biophysical and biochemical plant parameters were collected for seven crop types on the Gebesee test site (central Germany) in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out on a weekly basis and close to satellite acquisitions. The data reflects spatial heterogeneity and interannual phenological variability.
Wei Li, Natasha MacBean, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Defourny, Céline Lamarche, Sophie Bontemps, Richard A. Houghton, and Shushi Peng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 219–234,Short summary
We evaluated the land cover changes based on plant functional types (PFTs) derived from the newly released annual ESA land cover maps. We addressed the geographical distributions and temporal trends of the translated PFT maps and compared with other datasets commonly used by the land surface model community. Different choices of these datasets for the applications in land surface models are proposed depending on the research purposes.
Mikko Peltoniemi, Mika Aurela, Kristin Böttcher, Pasi Kolari, John Loehr, Jouni Karhu, Maiju Linkosalmi, Cemal Melih Tanis, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, and Ali Nadir Arslan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 173–184,Short summary
Monitoring ecosystems using low-cost time lapse cameras has gained wide interest among researchers worldwide. Quantitative information stored in image pixels can be analysed automatically to track time-dependent phenomena, e.g. seasonal course of leaves in the canopies or snow on ground. As such, cameras can provide valuable ground references to earth observation. Here we document the ecosystem camera network we established to Finland and publish time series of images recorded between 2014–2016.
Fei Lun, Junguo Liu, Philippe Ciais, Thomas Nesme, Jinfeng Chang, Rong Wang, Daniel Goll, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, and Michael Obersteiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1–18,Short summary
We quantified in detail the P budgets in agricultural systems and PUE on global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils, with the rest lost to bodies of water. There are great differences in P budgets and PUE in agricultural systems on global, regional, and national scales. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution and P in fertilizer and food among countries.
Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arthur Beusen, Jonathan Doelman, and Elke Stehfest
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 927–953,Short summary
This is an update of HYDE, which is an internally consistent combination of historical population estimates and time-dependent land use allocation algorithms for 10 000 BCE–2015 CE. Categories include cropland, separated into irrigated and rain-fed rice and non-rice crops. Grazing lands are divided into more intensely used pasture and less intensively used rangelands. Population includes total, urban, and rural population and population density and built-up area.
Guido R. van der Werf, James T. Randerson, Louis Giglio, Thijs T. van Leeuwen, Yang Chen, Brendan M. Rogers, Mingquan Mu, Margreet J. E. van Marle, Douglas C. Morton, G. James Collatz, Robert J. Yokelson, and Prasad S. Kasibhatla
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 697–720,Short summary
Fires occur in many vegetation types and are sometimes natural but often ignited by humans for various purposes. We have estimated how much area they burn globally and what their emissions are. Total burned area is roughly equivalent to the size of the EU with most fires burning in tropical savannas. Their emissions vary substantially from year to year and contribute to the atmospheric burdens of many trace gases and aerosols. The 20-year dataset is mostly suited for large-scale assessments.
Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Shree R. S. Dangal, Jia Yang, and Shufen Pan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 667–678,Short summary
This work addressed how manure nitrogen (N) production and application to cropland have changed over time and space. The 5 arcmin gridded global dataset of manure nitrogen production generated from this study could be used as an input for global or regional land surface and ecosystem models to evaluate the impacts of manure nitrogen on key biogeochemical processes and water quality.
Chaoqun Lu and Hanqin Tian
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 181–192,Short summary
This work has addressed how agricultural nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer use has changed over time and space. The final product covers global agricultural land, spanning from 1961 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° latitude by longitude. It can serve as an important input driver for regional and global assessment and Earth system modeling of agricultural productivity, crop yield, greenhouse gas balance, global nutrient budget, and ecosystem feedback to climate.
Kazuya Nishina, Akihiko Ito, Naota Hanasaki, and Seiji Hayashi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 149–162,Short summary
Available historical global N fertilizer map as an input data to global biogeochemical model is still limited and existing maps were not considered NH4+ and NO3− in the fertilizer application rates. In our products, by utilizing national fertilizer species consumption data in FAOSTAT database, we succeeded to estimate the ratio of NH4+ to NO3− in the N fertilizer map. The products could be widely utilized for global N cycling studies.
Eduardo Venticinque, Bruce Forsberg, Ronaldo Barthem, Paulo Petry, Laura Hess, Armando Mercado, Carlos Cañas, Mariana Montoya, Carlos Durigan, and Michael Goulding
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 651–661,Short summary
Despite large-scale infrastructure development in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. In this data article, we present a GIS framework that was developed for the analysis, management and monitoring of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin.
Tobias Lindborg, Johan Rydberg, Mats Tröjbom, Sten Berglund, Emma Johansson, Anders Löfgren, Peter Saetre, Sara Nordén, Gustav Sohlenius, Eva Andersson, Johannes Petrone, Micke Borgiel, Ulrik Kautsky, and Hjalmar Laudon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 439–459,Short summary
This paper presents a biogeochemical and ecological data set from the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland. The data set is used to conceptualize and model terrestrial and limnic ecosystems as well as the land–lake linkage. Both biotic and abiotic data is presented and will be used for biogeochemical mass-balance and transport calculations. The data set constitutes an important source in order to understand and describe accumulation and flow of matter within periglacial landscapes.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O'Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396,Short summary
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. We describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on a range of data and models and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, G. P. Peters, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. D. Jones, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, T. A. Boden, L. Bopp, Y. Bozec, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, F. Chevallier, C. E. Cosca, I. Harris, M. Hoppema, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, T. Johannessen, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, C. S. Landa, P. Landschützer, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, G. Marland, J. T. Mathis, N. Metzl, Y. Nojiri, A. Olsen, T. Ono, S. Peng, W. Peters, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. E. Salisbury, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, J. Segschneider, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, G. R. van der Werf, N. Viovy, Y.-P. Wang, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 47–85,Short summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities (burning fossil fuels and cement production, deforestation and other land-use change) are set to rise again in 2014. This study (updated yearly) makes an accurate assessment of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their redistribution between the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in order to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change.
B. Seo, C. Bogner, P. Poppenborg, E. Martin, M. Hoffmeister, M. Jun, T. Koellner, B. Reineking, C. L. Shope, and J. Tenhunen
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