Articles | Volume 13, issue 11
05 Nov 2021
Review article | 05 Nov 2021
BAWLD-CH4: a comprehensive dataset of methane fluxes from boreal and arctic ecosystems
McKenzie A. Kuhn et al.
No articles found.
Stefano Potter, Sol Cooperdock, Sander Veraverbeke, Xanthe Walker, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, Jennifer Baltzer, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Arden Burrell, Catherine Dieleman, Nancy French, Stijn Hantson, Elizabeth E. Hoy, Liza Jenkins, Jill F. Johnstone, Evan S. Kane, Susan M. Natali, James T. Randerson, Merritt R. Turetsky, Ellen Whitman, Elizabeth Wiggins, and Brendan M. Rogers
Here we developed a new burned area detection algorithm between 2001–2019 across Alaska and Canada at 500 m resolution. We estimate 2.37 million hectares burned annually between 2001–2019 over the domain emitting 79.3 Tg C per year, with a mean combustion rate of 3.13 kg C m-2. We found larger fire years were generally associated with greater mean combustion. The burned area and combustion data sets described here can be used for local to continental-scale applications of boreal fire science.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Matthew J. McGrath, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Aki Tsuruta, Dominik Brunner, Matthias Kuhnert, Bradley Matthews, Paul I. Palmer, Oksana Tarasova, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Wilfried Winiwarter, Giuseppe Etiope, Tuula Aalto, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Vladislav Bastrikov, Antoine Berchet, Patrick Brockmann, Giancarlo Ciotoli, Giulia Conchedda, Monica Crippa, Frank Dentener, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Diego Guizzardi, Dirk Günther, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Massaer Kouyate, Adrian Leip, Antti Leppänen, Emanuele Lugato, Manon Maisonnier, Alistair J. Manning, Tiina Markkanen, Joe McNorton, Marilena Muntean, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Prabir K. Patra, Lucia Perugini, Isabelle Pison, Maarit T. Raivonen, Marielle Saunois, Arjo J. Segers, Pete Smith, Efisio Solazzo, Hanqin Tian, Francesco N. Tubiello, Timo Vesala, Chris Wilson, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This study updates the state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK synthesised in Petrescu et al. (2021a). The data integrates the most recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Liam Heffernan, Maria A. Cavaco, Maya P. Bhatia, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 19, 3051–3071,Short summary
Permafrost thaw in peatlands leads to waterlogged conditions, a favourable environment for microbes producing methane (CH4) and high CH4 emissions. High CH4 emissions in the initial decades following thaw are due to a vegetation community that produces suitable organic matter to fuel CH4-producing microbes, along with warm and wet conditions. High CH4 emissions after thaw persist for up to 100 years, after which environmental conditions are less favourable for microbes and high CH4 emissions.
Sparkle L. Malone, Youmi Oh, Kyle A. Arndt, George Burba, Roisin Commane, Alexandra R. Contosta, Jordan P. Goodrich, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr, and Ruth K. Varner
Biogeosciences, 19, 2507–2522,Short summary
To understand the CH4 flux potential of natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in the United States of America, a multi-scale CH4 observation network focused on CH4 flux rates, processes, and scaling methods is required. This can be achieved with a network of ground-based observations that are distributed based on climatic regions and land cover.
David Olefeldt, Mikael Hovemyr, McKenzie A. Kuhn, David Bastviken, Theodore J. Bohn, John Connolly, Patrick Crill, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Sarah A. Finkelstein, Hélène Genet, Guido Grosse, Lorna I. Harris, Liam Heffernan, Manuel Helbig, Gustaf Hugelius, Ryan Hutchins, Sari Juutinen, Mark J. Lara, Avni Malhotra, Kristen Manies, A. David McGuire, Susan M. Natali, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Aleksi Räsänen, Christina Schädel, Oliver Sonnentag, Maria Strack, Suzanne E. Tank, Claire Treat, Ruth K. Varner, Tarmo Virtanen, Rebecca K. Warren, and Jennifer D. Watts
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5127–5149,Short summary
Wetlands, lakes, and rivers are important sources of the greenhouse gas methane to the atmosphere. To understand current and future methane emissions from northern regions, we need maps that show the extent and distribution of specific types of wetlands, lakes, and rivers. The Boreal–Arctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD) provides maps of five wetland types, seven lake types, and three river types for northern regions and will improve our ability to predict future methane emissions.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Lydia Stolpmann, Caroline Coch, Anne Morgenstern, Julia Boike, Michael Fritz, Ulrike Herzschuh, Kathleen Stoof-Leichsenring, Yury Dvornikov, Birgit Heim, Josefine Lenz, Amy Larsen, Katey Walter Anthony, Benjamin Jones, Karen Frey, and Guido Grosse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3917–3936,Short summary
Our new database summarizes DOC concentrations of 2167 water samples from 1833 lakes in permafrost regions across the Arctic to provide insights into linkages between DOC and environment. We found increasing lake DOC concentration with decreasing permafrost extent and higher DOC concentrations in boreal permafrost sites compared to tundra sites. Our study shows that DOC concentration depends on the environmental properties of a lake, especially permafrost extent, ecoregion, and vegetation.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Chris M. DeBeer, Howard S. Wheater, John W. Pomeroy, Alan G. Barr, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Jill F. Johnstone, Merritt R. Turetsky, Ronald E. Stewart, Masaki Hayashi, Garth van der Kamp, Shawn Marshall, Elizabeth Campbell, Philip Marsh, Sean K. Carey, William L. Quinton, Yanping Li, Saman Razavi, Aaron Berg, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Christopher Spence, Warren D. Helgason, Andrew M. Ireson, T. Andrew Black, Mohamed Elshamy, Fuad Yassin, Bruce Davison, Allan Howard, Julie M. Thériault, Kevin Shook, Michael N. Demuth, and Alain Pietroniro
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1849–1882,Short summary
This article examines future changes in land cover and hydrological cycling across the interior of western Canada under climate conditions projected for the 21st century. Key insights into the mechanisms and interactions of Earth system and hydrological process responses are presented, and this understanding is used together with model application to provide a synthesis of future change. This has allowed more scientifically informed projections than have hitherto been available.
Frederic Thalasso, Katey Walter Anthony, Olya Irzak, Ethan Chaleff, Laughlin Barker, Peter Anthony, Philip Hanke, and Rodrigo Gonzalez-Valencia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 6047–6058,Short summary
Methane (CH4) seepage is the steady or episodic flow of gaseous hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs that has been identified as a significant source of atmospheric CH4. The monitoring of these emissions is important and despite several available methods, large macroseeps are still difficult to measure due to a lack of a lightweight and inexpensive method deployable in remote environments. Here, we report the development of a mobile chamber for measuring intense CH4 macroseepage in lakes.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 17, 5849–5860,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas that can accelerate climate change and offset mitigation efforts. A key assumption embedded in many large-scale climate models is that ecosystem CH4 emissions can be estimated by fixed temperature relations. Here, we demonstrate that CH4 emissions cannot be parameterized by emergent temperature response alone due to variability driven by microbial and abiotic interactions. We also provide mechanistic understanding for observed CH4 emission hysteresis.
Samuel T. Wilson, Alia N. Al-Haj, Annie Bourbonnais, Claudia Frey, Robinson W. Fulweiler, John D. Kessler, Hannah K. Marchant, Jana Milucka, Nicholas E. Ray, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Brett F. Thornton, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Thomas S. Weber, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Heather M. Benway, Daniele Bianchi, Alberto V. Borges, Bonnie X. Chang, Patrick M. Crill, Daniela A. del Valle, Laura Farías, Samantha B. Joye, Annette Kock, Jabrane Labidi, Cara C. Manning, John W. Pohlman, Gregor Rehder, Katy J. Sparrow, Philippe D. Tortell, Tina Treude, David L. Valentine, Bess B. Ward, Simon Yang, and Leonid N. Yurganov
Biogeosciences, 17, 5809–5828,Short summary
The oceans are a net source of the major greenhouse gases; however there has been little coordination of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements. The scientific community has recently embarked on a series of capacity-building exercises to improve the interoperability of dissolved methane and nitrous oxide measurements. This paper derives from a workshop which discussed the challenges and opportunities for oceanic methane and nitrous oxide research in the near future.
Roger Seco, Thomas Holst, Mikkel Sillesen Matzen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Tao Li, Tihomir Simin, Joachim Jansen, Patrick Crill, Thomas Friborg, Janne Rinne, and Riikka Rinnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13399–13416,Short summary
Northern ecosystems exchange climate-relevant trace gases with the atmosphere, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We measured VOC fluxes from a subarctic permafrost-free fen and its adjacent lake in northern Sweden. The graminoid-dominated fen emitted mainly isoprene during the peak of the growing season, with a pronounced response to increasing temperatures stronger than assumed by biogenic emission models. The lake was a sink of acetone and acetaldehyde during both periods measured.
Scott Zolkos, Suzanne E. Tank, Robert G. Striegl, Steven V. Kokelj, Justin Kokoszka, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 17, 5163–5182,Short summary
High-latitude warming thaws permafrost, exposing minerals to weathering and fluvial transport. We studied the effects of abrupt thaw and associated weathering on carbon cycling in western Canada. Permafrost collapse affected < 1 % of the landscape yet enabled carbonate weathering associated with CO2 degassing in headwaters and increased bicarbonate export across watershed scales. Weathering may become a driver of carbon cycling in ice- and mineral-rich permafrost terrain across the Arctic.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
David Bastviken, Jonatan Nygren, Jonathan Schenk, Roser Parellada Massana, and Nguyen Thanh Duc
Biogeosciences, 17, 3659–3667,Short summary
This study presents a low-cost way to measure methane emissions applicable in nature and society. This facilitates widespread and affordable methane measurements, which are greatly needed for verifying that greenhouse gas mitigation is effective and for improved quantification of fluxes and how they are regulated. The paper also describes an open-source do-it-yourself methane–carbon dioxide–humidity–temperature logger, to increase the distributed capacity to measure greenhouse gases.
Nguyen Thanh Duc, Samuel Silverstein, Martin Wik, Patrick Crill, David Bastviken, and Ruth K. Varner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3417–3430,Short summary
Under rapid ongoing climate change, accurate quantification of natural greenhouse gas emissions in aquatic environments such as lakes and ponds is needed to understand regulation and feedbacks. Building on the rapid development in wireless communication, sensors, and computation technology, we present a low-cost, open-source, automated and remotely accessed and controlled device for carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from open-water environments along with tests showing their potential.
Joachim Jansen, Brett F. Thornton, Alicia Cortés, Jo Snöälv, Martin Wik, Sally MacIntyre, and Patrick M. Crill
Biogeosciences, 17, 1911–1932,Short summary
Lakes are important emitters of the greenhouse gas methane. We use field observations and a model to evaluate the importance of known drivers of methane production and release. Fast and slow changes of the diffusive flux were governed by wind speed and sediment temperature, respectively. Increased turbulence enhanced release, but storms depleted the lakes of gas and limited emissions. Our findings may inform model studies on the effects of weather and climate change on lake methane emissions.
Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Patrick M. Crill, Brett Thornton, Philippe Bousquet, Thibaud Thonat, Thomas Hocking, Joël Thanwerdas, Jean-Daniel Paris, and Marielle Saunois
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3987–3998,Short summary
Methane isotopes in the atmosphere can help us differentiate between emission processes. A large variety of natural and anthropogenic emission types are active in the Arctic and are unsatisfactorily understood and documented up to now. A ship-based campaign was carried out in summer 2014, providing a unique dataset of isotopic measurements in the Arctic Ocean. Using a chemistry-transport model, we link these measurements to circumpolar emissions and retrieve information about their signature.
Christian G. Andresen, David M. Lawrence, Cathy J. Wilson, A. David McGuire, Charles Koven, Kevin Schaefer, Elchin Jafarov, Shushi Peng, Xiaodong Chen, Isabelle Gouttevin, Eleanor Burke, Sarah Chadburn, Duoying Ji, Guangsheng Chen, Daniel Hayes, and Wenxin Zhang
The Cryosphere, 14, 445–459,Short summary
Widely-used land models project near-surface drying of the terrestrial Arctic despite increases in the net water balance driven by climate change. Drying was generally associated with increases of active-layer depth and permafrost thaw in a warming climate. However, models lack important mechanisms such as thermokarst and soil subsidence that will change the hydrological regime and add to the large uncertainty in the future Arctic hydrological state and the associated permafrost carbon feedback.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Thomas Hocking, Brett F. Thornton, Patrick M. Crill, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12141–12161,Short summary
This paper discusses the methane isotopic signals that could be detected at instrumental surface sites in the northern high latitudes using a 3–D chemistry transport model. Isotopic signals may be used in atmospheric inverse systems to better characterize methane emissions and changes. We show that depending on the source magnitude and the location of the site, detecting isotopic signals of specific individual sources may be challenging for the new generation of methane isotope instruments.
William Quinton, Aaron Berg, Michael Braverman, Olivia Carpino, Laura Chasmer, Ryan Connon, James Craig, Élise Devoie, Masaki Hayashi, Kristine Haynes, David Olefeldt, Alain Pietroniro, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Robert Schincariol, and Oliver Sonnentag
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2015–2039,Short summary
This paper synthesizes nearly three decades of eco-hydrological field and modelling studies at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada, highlighting the key insights into the major water flux and storage processes operating within and between the major land cover types of this wetland-dominated region of discontinuous permafrost. It also examines the rate and pattern of permafrost-thaw-induced land cover change and how such changes will affect the hydrology and water resources of the region.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, Virginia I. Rich, and Scott R. Saleska
The Cryosphere, 13, 647–663,Short summary
Permafrost peatlands store large amounts of carbon potentially vulnerable to decomposition under changing climate. We estimated effects of climate forcing biases on carbon cycling at a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden. Our results indicate that many climate reanalysis products are cold and wet biased in our study region, leading to erroneous active layer depth and carbon budget estimates. Future studies should recognize the effects of climate forcing uncertainty on carbon cycling.
Alistair Grinham, Simon Albert, Nathaniel Deering, Matthew Dunbabin, David Bastviken, Bradford Sherman, Catherine E. Lovelock, and Christopher D. Evans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5281–5298,Short summary
Artificial water bodies are a major source of methane and an important contributor to flooded land greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies focussed on large water supply or hydropower reservoirs with small artificial water bodies (ponds) almost completely ignored. This regional study demonstrated ponds accounted for one-third of flooded land surface area and emitted over 1.6 million t CO2 eq. yr−1 (10 % of land use sector emissions). Ponds should be included in regional GHG inventories.
Marcus Klaus, Erik Geibrink, Anders Jonsson, Ann-Kristin Bergström, David Bastviken, Hjalmar Laudon, Jonatan Klaminder, and Jan Karlsson
Biogeosciences, 15, 5575–5594,Short summary
Forest management is widely used to mitigate climate change. However, forest greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets neglect to consider that clear-cuts often release carbon and nitrogen into streams and lakes and may affect aquatic GHG emissions. Here, we show that such emissions remain unaffected by experimental boreal forest clear-cutting despite increased groundwater carbon dioxide and methane concentrations, highlighting that riparian zones or in-stream processes may have buffered clear-cut leachates.
Katheryn Burd, Suzanne E. Tank, Nicole Dion, William L. Quinton, Christopher Spence, Andrew J. Tanentzap, and David Olefeldt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4455–4472,Short summary
In this study we investigated whether climate change and wildfires are likely to alter water quality of streams in western boreal Canada, a region that contains large permafrost-affected peatlands. We monitored stream discharge and water quality from early snowmelt to fall in two streams, one of which drained a recently burned landscape. Wildfire increased the stream delivery of phosphorous and possibly increased the release of old natural organic matter previously stored in permafrost soils.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Anne Ojala, David Bastviken, Tobias Biermann, Jouni J. Heiskanen, Anders Lindroth, Olli Peltola, Miitta Rantakari, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 15, 429–445,Short summary
Global estimates of freshwater greenhouse gas emissions are usually based on simple gas transfer models that underestimate the emissions. Thus, comparison of different gas transfer models is required for evaluating the uncertainties. This study compares three commonly used methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions over lakes. We conclude that simple gas transfer models underestimate the emissions and more recent models should be used for global freshwater greenhouse gas emission estimates.
Mathilde Jammet, Sigrid Dengel, Ernesto Kettner, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Martin Wik, Patrick Crill, and Thomas Friborg
Biogeosciences, 14, 5189–5216,Short summary
The quantitative importance of northern lakes in terrestrial carbon budgets is uncertain, as year-round observations of carbon fluxes are rare. We measured CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a subarctic lake and nearby fen during 2.5 years with one eddy covariance system. We identified drivers of seasonal variability in lake fluxes and show the importance of winter and spring for annual carbon exchange in both ecosystems. The lake as a source of atmospheric carbon partially compensates the fen carbon sink.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Patrick M. Crill, Brett F. Thornton, David Bastviken, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Nikita Zimov, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Ove Hermansen, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8371–8394,Short summary
Atmospheric methane simulations in the Arctic have been made for 2012 and compared to continuous observations at six measurement sites. All methane sources significantly affect the measurements at all stations, at least at the synoptic scale, except for biomass burning. An appropriate modelling framework combined with continuous observations of atmospheric methane enables us to gain knowledge on regional methane sources, including those which are usually poorly represented, such as freshwater.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Wenli Wang, Annette Rinke, John C. Moore, Duoying Ji, Xuefeng Cui, Shushi Peng, David M. Lawrence, A. David McGuire, Eleanor J. Burke, Xiaodong Chen, Bertrand Decharme, Charles Koven, Andrew MacDougall, Kazuyuki Saito, Wenxin Zhang, Ramdane Alkama, Theodore J. Bohn, Philippe Ciais, Christine Delire, Isabelle Gouttevin, Tomohiro Hajima, Gerhard Krinner, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Paul A. Miller, Benjamin Smith, Tetsuo Sueyoshi, and Artem B. Sherstiukov
The Cryosphere, 10, 1721–1737,Short summary
The winter snow insulation is a key process for air–soil temperature coupling and is relevant for permafrost simulations. Differences in simulated air–soil temperature relationships and their modulation by climate conditions are found to be related to the snow model physics. Generally, models with better performance apply multilayer snow schemes.
Michael Gonsior, Juliana Valle, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Norbert Hertkorn, David Bastviken, Jenna Luek, Mourad Harir, Wanderley Bastos, and Alex Enrich-Prast
Biogeosciences, 13, 4279–4290,Short summary
We present in this study a highly diverse and complex chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Amazon Basin analyzed by modern ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and optical property analyses. DOM within the Rio Madeira (white water), Rio Negro (black water) and Rio Tapajós (clear water) area showed a large overlap of thousands of molecular formulae, but also unique signatures were apparent for each region, with significant correlations to colored DOM.
Kimberley L. Davies, Richard D. Pancost, Mary E. Edwards, Katey M. Walter Anthony, Peter G. Langdon, and Lidia Chaves Torres
Biogeosciences, 13, 2611–2621,
Norbert Pirk, Mikhail Mastepanov, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Magnus Lund, Patrick Crill, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 13, 903–912,Short summary
The exchange of greenhouse gases between the land and the atmosphere is often measured by monitoring the gas concentrations inside a chamber which is placed on the ground. We investigated different ways to calculate the gas exchange rate and identified several different processes which influence the gas exchange measurement.
W. Wang, A. Rinke, J. C. Moore, X. Cui, D. Ji, Q. Li, N. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhang, D. M. Lawrence, A. D. McGuire, W. Zhang, C. Delire, C. Koven, K. Saito, A. MacDougall, E. Burke, and B. Decharme
The Cryosphere, 10, 287–306,Short summary
We use a model-ensemble approach for simulating permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau. We identify the uncertainties across models (state-of-the-art land surface models) and across methods (most commonly used methods to define permafrost).
We differentiate between uncertainties stemming from climatic driving data or from physical process parameterization, and show how these uncertainties vary seasonally and inter-annually, and how estimates are subject to the definition of permafrost used.
We differentiate between uncertainties stemming from climatic driving data or from physical process parameterization, and show how these uncertainties vary seasonally and inter-annually, and how estimates are subject to the definition of permafrost used.
S. Peng, P. Ciais, G. Krinner, T. Wang, I. Gouttevin, A. D. McGuire, D. Lawrence, E. Burke, X. Chen, B. Decharme, C. Koven, A. MacDougall, A. Rinke, K. Saito, W. Zhang, R. Alkama, T. J. Bohn, C. Delire, T. Hajima, D. Ji, D. P. Lettenmaier, P. A. Miller, J. C. Moore, B. Smith, and T. Sueyoshi
The Cryosphere, 10, 179–192,Short summary
Soil temperature change is a key indicator of the dynamics of permafrost. Using nine process-based ecosystem models with permafrost processes, a large spread of soil temperature trends across the models. Air temperature and longwave downward radiation are the main drivers of soil temperature trends. Based on an emerging observation constraint method, the total boreal near-surface permafrost area decrease comprised between 39 ± 14 × 103 and 75 ± 14 × 103 km2 yr−1 from 1960 to 2000.
P. R. Lindgren, G. Grosse, K. M. Walter Anthony, and F. J. Meyer
Biogeosciences, 13, 27–44,Short summary
We mapped and characterized methane ebullition bubbles trapped in lake ice, and estimated whole-lake methane emission using high-resolution aerial images of a lake acquired following freeze-up. We identified the location and relative sizes of high- and low-flux seepage zones within the lake. A large number of seeps showed spatiotemporal stability over our study period. Our approach is applicable to other regions to improve the estimation of methane emission from lakes at the regional scale.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, W. B. Bowden, I. Laurion, W. F. Vincent, P. Alekseychik, M. Amyot, M. F. Billet, J. Canário, R. M. Cory, B. N. Deshpande, M. Helbig, M. Jammet, J. Karlsson, J. Larouche, G. MacMillan, M. Rautio, K. M. Walter Anthony, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 7129–7167,Short summary
In this review, we give an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding how permafrost thaw affects aquatic systems. We describe the general impacts of thaw on aquatic ecosystems, pathways of organic matter and contaminant release and degradation, resulting emissions and burial, and effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. We conclude with an overview of potential climate effects and recommendations for future research.
A. Lorke, P. Bodmer, C. Noss, Z. Alshboul, M. Koschorreck, C. Somlai-Haase, D. Bastviken, S. Flury, D. F. McGinnis, A. Maeck, D. Müller, and K. Premke
Biogeosciences, 12, 7013–7024,Short summary
Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams and provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in these systems. The study clearly shows that drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber, while anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes.
M. S. Torn, A. Chabbi, P. Crill, P. J. Hanson, I. A. Janssens, Y. Luo, C. H. Pries, C. Rumpel, M. W. I. Schmidt, J. Six, M. Schrumpf, and B. Zhu
SOIL, 1, 575–582,
K. Martinez-Cruz, A. Sepulveda-Jauregui, K. Walter Anthony, and F. Thalasso
Biogeosciences, 12, 4595–4606,Short summary
We assessed the importance of aerobic CH4 oxidation in Alaskan lakes. We conducted field measurement of dissolved CH4 and O2 together with determination of the CH4 oxidation rate. We found that during winter, CH4 oxidation was limited by O2 concentration and during summer, by CH4 concentration. In addition to seasonal variations, the type of permafrost on which the lakes were located was identified as a key factor, indicating that landscape processes play an important role in lake CH4 cycling.
M. A. Rawlins, A. D. McGuire, J. S. Kimball, P. Dass, D. Lawrence, E. Burke, X. Chen, C. Delire, C. Koven, A. MacDougall, S. Peng, A. Rinke, K. Saito, W. Zhang, R. Alkama, T. J. Bohn, P. Ciais, B. Decharme, I. Gouttevin, T. Hajima, D. Ji, G. Krinner, D. P. Lettenmaier, P. Miller, J. C. Moore, B. Smith, and T. Sueyoshi
Biogeosciences, 12, 4385–4405,Short summary
We used outputs from nine models to better understand land-atmosphere CO2 exchanges across Northern Eurasia over the period 1960-1990. Model estimates were assessed against independent ground and satellite measurements. We find that the models show a weakening of the CO2 sink over time; the models tend to overestimate respiration, causing an underestimate in NEP; the model range in regional NEP is twice the multimodel mean. Residence time for soil carbon decreased, amid a gain in carbon storage.
J. K. Heslop, K. M. Walter Anthony, A. Sepulveda-Jauregui, K. Martinez-Cruz, A. Bondurant, G. Grosse, and M. C. Jones
Biogeosciences, 12, 4317–4331,Short summary
The relative magnitude of thermokarst lake CH4 production in surface sediments vs. deeper-thawed permafrost is not well understood. We assessed CH4 production potentials from a lake sediment core and adjacent permafrost tunnel in interior Alaska. CH4 production was highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments and recently thawed permafrost at the bottom of the talik, implying CH4 production is highly variable and that both modern and ancient OM are important to lake CH4 production.
D. Bastviken, I. Sundgren, S. Natchimuthu, H. Reyier, and M. Gålfalk
Biogeosciences, 12, 3849–3859,Short summary
Measurements of concentrations and fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) are fundamental to our understanding of carbon cycling and greenhouse gas balances. We are currently limited by the high cost of such measurements, making it difficult to properly investigate variability in space and time. This study presents measurement approaches that are very resource efficient in terms of equipment cost and measurement labor time, opening new opportunities to advance our knowledge of CO2 across landscapes.
A. Sepulveda-Jauregui, K. M. Walter Anthony, K. Martinez-Cruz, S. Greene, and F. Thalasso
Biogeosciences, 12, 3197–3223,Short summary
This study of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission modes from 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska revealed that thermokarst lakes formed in Pleistocene-aged icy, organic-rich yedoma-type permafrost had the highest emissions. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. Accounting for the global warming potentials of the gases, the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2.
J. Tang, P. A. Miller, A. Persson, D. Olefeldt, P. Pilesjö, M. Heliasz, M. Jackowicz-Korczynski, Z. Yang, B. Smith, T. V. Callaghan, and T. R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 12, 2791–2808,
M. Langer, S. Westermann, K. Walter Anthony, K. Wischnewski, and J. Boike
Biogeosciences, 12, 977–990,Short summary
Methane production rates of Arctic ponds during the freezing period within a typical tundra landscape in northern Siberia are presented. Production rates were inferred by inverse modeling based on measured methane concentrations in the ice cover. Results revealed marked differences in early winter methane production among ponds showing different stages of shore degradation. This suggests that shore erosion can increase methane production of Arctic ponds by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.
A. W. King, R. J. Andres, K. J. Davis, M. Hafer, D. J. Hayes, D. N. Huntzinger, B. de Jong, W. A. Kurz, A. D. McGuire, R. Vargas, Y. Wei, T. O. West, and C. W. Woodall
Biogeosciences, 12, 399–414,
S. Greene, K. M. Walter Anthony, D. Archer, A. Sepulveda-Jauregui, and K. Martinez-Cruz
Biogeosciences, 11, 6791–6811,Short summary
Methane (CH4) bubbles emitted from the anoxic sediments of northern lakes constitute a significant methane flux to the atmosphere, but entrapment by seasonal lake ice impedes bubble release to the atmosphere. Using numerical modeling and field measurement of a lake in Alaska, we found that 80% of CH4 in ice-trapped bubbles dissolves into the water column. Microbes consume half of that CH4. Emission by bubbling is greatest in summer but continues in winter through some open holes in lake ice.
Y. He, Q. Zhuang, J. W. Harden, A. D. McGuire, Z. Fan, Y. Liu, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 11, 4477–4491,
E. Podgrajsek, E. Sahlée, D. Bastviken, J. Holst, A. Lindroth, L. Tranvik, and A. Rutgersson
Biogeosciences, 11, 4225–4233,
M. Engram, K. W. Anthony, F. J. Meyer, and G. Grosse
The Cryosphere, 7, 1741–1752,
M. Gonsior, P. Schmitt-Kopplin, and D. Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 10, 6945–6956,
D. Olefeldt, K. J. Devito, and M. R. Turetsky
Biogeosciences, 10, 6247–6265,
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global late Quaternary pollen dataset of 2831 records with standardized chronologiesIndividual tree point clouds and tree measurements from multi-platform laser scanning in German forestsGlobal climate-related predictors at kilometre resolution for the past and futureA 30 m annual maize phenology dataset from 1985 to 2020 in ChinaOptical and biogeochemical properties of diverse Belgian inland and coastal watersForest structure and individual tree inventories of north-eastern Siberia along climatic gradientsComparing national greenhouse gas budgets reported in UNFCCC inventories against atmospheric inversionsEuropean pollen-based REVEALS land-cover reconstructions for the Holocene: methodology, mapping and potentialsGlobal GOSAT, OCO-2, and OCO-3 solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence datasetsThe Reading Palaeofire Database: an expanded global resource to document changes in fire regimes from sedimentary charcoal recordsVODCA2GPP – a new, global, long-term (1988–2020) gross primary 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Hannah Adams, Jane Ye, Bhaleka D. Persaud, Stephanie Slowinski, Homa Kheyrollah Pour, and Philippe Van Cappellen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5139–5156,Short summary
Climate warming and land-use changes are altering the environmental factors that control the algal
productivityin lakes. To predict how environmental factors like nutrient concentrations, ice cover, and water temperature will continue to influence lake productivity in this changing climate, we created a dataset of chlorophyll-a concentrations (a compound found in algae), associated water quality parameters, and solar radiation that can be used to for a wide range of research questions.
Mathew Lipson, Sue Grimmond, Martin Best, Winston T. L. Chow, Andreas Christen, Nektarios Chrysoulakis, Andrew Coutts, Ben Crawford, Stevan Earl, Jonathan Evans, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Bert G. Heusinkveld, Je-Woo Hong, Jinkyu Hong, Leena Järvi, Sungsoo Jo, Yeon-Hee Kim, Simone Kotthaus, Keunmin Lee, Valéry Masson, Joseph P. McFadden, Oliver Michels, Wlodzimierz Pawlak, Matthias Roth, Hirofumi Sugawara, Nigel Tapper, Erik Velasco, and Helen Claire Ward
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5157–5178,Short summary
We describe a new openly accessible collection of atmospheric observations from 20 cities around the world, capturing 50 site years. The observations capture local meteorology (temperature, humidity, wind, etc.) and the energy fluxes between the land and atmosphere (e.g. radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes). These observations can be used to improve our understanding of urban climate processes and to test the accuracy of urban climate models.
Keyang He, Houyuan Lu, Jianping Zhang, and Can Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4777–4791,Short summary
Here we presented the first quantitative spatiotemporal cropping patterns spanning the Neolithic and Bronze ages in northern China. Temporally, millet agriculture underwent a dramatic transition from low-yield broomcorn to high-yield foxtail millet around 6000 cal. a BP under the influence of climate and population. Spatially, millet agriculture spread westward and northward from the mid-lower Yellow River (MLY) to the agro-pastoral ecotone (APE) around 6000 cal. a BP and diversified afterwards.
Kailiang Yu, Johan van den Hoogen, Zhiqiang Wang, Colin Averill, Devin Routh, Gabriel Reuben Smith, Rebecca E. Drenovsky, Kate M. Scow, Fei Mo, Mark P. Waldrop, Yuanhe Yang, Weize Tang, Franciska T. De Vries, Richard D. Bardgett, Peter Manning, Felipe Bastida, Sara G. Baer, Elizabeth M. Bach, Carlos García, Qingkui Wang, Linna Ma, Baodong Chen, Xianjing He, Sven Teurlincx, Amber Heijboer, James A. Bradley, and Thomas W. Crowther
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4339–4350,Short summary
We used a global-scale dataset for the surface topsoil (>3000 distinct observations of abundance of soil fungi versus bacteria) to generate the first quantitative map of soil fungal proportion across terrestrial ecosystems. We reveal striking latitudinal trends. Fungi dominated in regions with low mean annual temperature (MAT) and net primary productivity (NPP) and bacteria dominated in regions with high MAT and NPP.
Juha Lemmetyinen, Juval Cohen, Anna Kontu, Juho Vehviläinen, Henna-Reetta Hannula, Ioanna Merkouriadi, Stefan Scheiblauer, Helmut Rott, Thomas Nagler, Elisabeth Ripper, Kelly Elder, Hans-Peter Marshall, Reinhard Fromm, Marc Adams, Chris Derksen, Joshua King, Adriano Meta, Alex Coccia, Nick Rutter, Melody Sandells, Giovanni Macelloni, Emanuele Santi, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Richard Essery, Cecile Menard, and Michael Kern
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3915–3945,Short summary
The manuscript describes airborne, dual-polarised X and Ku band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected over several campaigns over snow-covered terrain in Finland, Austria and Canada. Colocated snow and meteorological observations are also presented. The data are meant for science users interested in investigating X/Ku band radar signatures from natural environments in winter conditions.
Shaoyang He, Yongqiang Zhang, Ning Ma, Jing Tian, Dongdong Kong, and Changming Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This study developed a daily, 500 m evapotranspiration and gross primary production product (PML-V2 (China)) using a locally calibrated water-carbon coupled model, PML-V2, which was well-calibrated against observations at 26 flux sites across 9 land cover types. PML-V2 (China) performs satisfactorily in cross-validation and in the plot- and basin-scale evaluations compared to other mainstream products. It Improved intra-annual ET and GPP dynamics, particularly in the cropland ecosystem.
Alejandro Miranda, Rayén Mentler, Ítalo Moletto-Lobos, Gabriela Alfaro, Leonardo Aliaga, Dana Balbontín, Maximiliano Barraza, Susanne Baumbach, Patricio Calderón, Fernando Cárdenas, Iván Castillo, Gonzalo Contreras, Felipe de la Barra, Mauricio Galleguillos, Mauro E. González, Carlos Hormazábal, Antonio Lara, Ian Mancilla, Francisca Muñoz, Cristian Oyarce, Francisca Pantoja, Rocío Ramírez, and Vicente Urrutia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3599–3613,Short summary
Achieving a local understanding of fire regimes requires high-resolution, systematic and dynamic data. High-quality information can help to transform evidence into decision-making. Taking advantage of big-data and remote sensing technics we developed a flexible workflow to reconstruct burned area and fire severity data for more than 8000 individual fires in Chile. The framework developed for the database can be applied anywhere in the world with minimal adaptation.
Han Ma, Shunlin Liang, Changhao Xiong, Qian Wang, and Aolin Jia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation is one of the essential climate variables, this study generated a global land surface FAPAR product with a 250-m resolution based on a deep learning model that takes advantage of the existing FAPAR products and MODIS time-series observation information. Direct validation and intercomparisons revealed that our product has higher percentage for meeting user requirement and a greater spatiotemporal continuity than other existing products.
Agustín Sarquis, Ignacio Andrés Siebenhart, Amy Theresa Austin, and Carlos A. Sierra
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3471–3488,Short summary
Plant litter breakdown in aridlands is driven by processes different from those in more humid ecosystems. A better understanding of these processes will allow us to make better predictions of future carbon cycling. We have compiled aridec, a database of plant litter decomposition studies in aridlands and tested some modeling applications for potential users. Aridec is open for use and collaboration, and we hope it will help answer newer and more important questions as the database develops.
Ulrike Herzschuh, Chenzhi Li, Thomas Böhmer, Alexander K. Postl, Birgit Heim, Andrei A. Andreev, Xianyong Cao, Mareike Wieczorek, and Jian Ni
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3213–3227,Short summary
Pollen preserved in environmental archives such as lake sediments and bogs are extensively used for reconstructions of past vegetation and climate. Here we present LegacyPollen 1.0, a dataset of 2831 fossil pollen records from all over the globe that were collected from publicly available databases. We harmonized the names of the pollen taxa so that all datasets can be jointly investigated. LegacyPollen 1.0 is available as an open-access dataset.
Hannah Weiser, Jannika Schäfer, Lukas Winiwarter, Nina Krašovec, Fabian E. Fassnacht, and Bernhard Höfle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2989–3012,Short summary
3D point clouds, acquired by laser scanning, allow us to retrieve information about forest structure and individual tree properties. We conducted airborne, UAV-borne and terrestrial laser scanning in German mixed forests, resulting in overlapping point clouds with different characteristics. From these, we generated a comprehensive database of individual tree point clouds and corresponding tree metrics. Our dataset may serve as a benchmark dataset for algorithms in forestry research.
Philipp Brun, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Chantal Hari, Loïc Pellissier, and Dirk N. Karger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Using mechanistic downscaling, we developed CHELSA-BIOCLIM+, a set of 15 biologically relevant, climate-related variables at unprecedented resolution, as a basis for environmental analyses. It includes monthly time series for 38+ years and 30-year-averages for three future periods and three emission scenarios. Estimates matched well with station measurements, but few biases existed. The data allow for detailed assessments of climate-change impact on ecosystems and their services to societies.
Quandi Niu, Xuecao Li, Jianxi Huang, Hai Huang, Xianda Huang, Wei Su, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2851–2864,Short summary
In this paper we generated the first national maize phenology product with a fine spatial resolution (30 m) and a long temporal span (1985–2020) in China, using Landsat images. The derived phenological indicators agree with in situ observations and provide more spatial details than moderate resolution phenology products. The extracted maize phenology dataset can support precise yield estimation and deepen our understanding of the response of agroecosystem to global warming in the future.
Alexandre Castagna, Luz Amadei Martínez, Margarita Bogorad, Ilse Daveloose, Renaat Dasseville, Heidi Melita Dierssen, Matthew Beck, Jonas Mortelmans, Héloïse Lavigne, Ana Dogliotti, David Doxaran, Kevin Ruddick, Wim Vyverman, and Koen Sabbe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2697–2719,Short summary
Here we describe a dataset of optical measurements paired with the concentration and composition of dissolved and particulate components of water systems in Belgium. Sampling was performed over eight lakes, a coastal lagoon, an estuary, and coastal waters, covering the period of 2017 to 2019. The data cover a broad range of conditions and can be useful for development and evaluation of hyperspectral methods in hydrology optics and remote sensing.
Timon Miesner, Ulrike Herzschuh, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Mareike Wieczorek, Evgenii S. Zakharov, Alexei I. Kolmogorov, Paraskovya V. Davydova, and Stefan Kruse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We present data which were collected on expeditions to the north-east of the Russian Federation: One table describes the 226 locations we visited during those expeditions, and the other one describes 40,2895 trees which we recorded at these locations. We found out that important information on the forest cannot be predicted precisely from satellites. Thus, for anyone interested in distant forests, it is important to go to there and take measurements, or use data like the ones we present here.
Zhu Deng, Philippe Ciais, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, Marielle Saunois, Chunjing Qiu, Chang Tan, Taochun Sun, Piyu Ke, Yanan Cui, Katsumasa Tanaka, Xin Lin, Rona L. Thompson, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Atul K. Jain, Xiaoming Xu, Ana Bastos, Stephen Sitch, Paul I. Palmer, Thomas Lauvaux, Alexandre d'Aspremont, Clément Giron, Antoine Benoit, Benjamin Poulter, Jinfeng Chang, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Steven J. Davis, Zhu Liu, Giacomo Grassi, Clément Albergel, Francesco N. Tubiello, Lucia Perugini, Wouter Peters, and Frédéric Chevallier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1639–1675,Short summary
In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, we proposed a method for reconciling the results of global atmospheric inversions with data from UNFCCC national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs). Here, based on a new global harmonized database that we compiled from the UNFCCC NGHGIs and a comprehensive framework presented in this study to process the results of inversions, we compared their results of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Esther Githumbi, Ralph Fyfe, Marie-Jose Gaillard, Anna-Kari Trondman, Florence Mazier, Anne-Birgitte Nielsen, Anneli Poska, Shinya Sugita, Jessie Woodbridge, Julien Azuara, Angelica Feurdean, Roxana Grindean, Vincent Lebreton, Laurent Marquer, Nathalie Nebout-Combourieu, Miglė Stančikaitė, Ioan Tanţău, Spassimir Tonkov, Lyudmila Shumilovskikh, and LandClimII data contributors
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1581–1619,Short summary
Reconstruction of past land cover is necessary for the study of past climate–land cover interactions and the evaluation of climate models and land-use scenarios. We used 1128 available pollen records from across Europe covering the last 11 700 years in the REVEALS model to calculate percentage cover and associated standard errors for 31 taxa, 12 plant functional types and 3 land-cover types. REVEALS results are reliant on the quality of the input datasets.
Russell Doughty, Thomas P. Kurosu, Nicholas Parazoo, Philipp Köhler, Yujie Wang, Ying Sun, and Christian Frankenberg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1513–1529,Short summary
We describe and compare solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data produced by NASA from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) and OCO-3 platforms.
Sandy P. Harrison, Roberto Villegas-Diaz, Esmeralda Cruz-Silva, Daniel Gallagher, David Kesner, Paul Lincoln, Yicheng Shen, Luke Sweeney, Daniele Colombaroli, Adam Ali, Chéïma Barhoumi, Yves Bergeron, Tatiana Blyakharchuk, Přemysl Bobek, Richard Bradshaw, Jennifer L. Clear, Sambor Czerwiński, Anne-Laure Daniau, John Dodson, Kevin J. Edwards, Mary E. Edwards, Angelica Feurdean, David Foster, Konrad Gajewski, Mariusz Gałka, Michelle Garneau, Thomas Giesecke, Graciela Gil Romera, Martin P. Girardin, Dana Hoefer, Kangyou Huang, Jun Inoue, Eva Jamrichová, Nauris Jasiunas, Wenying Jiang, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek, Piotr Kołaczek, Niina Kuosmanen, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Martin Lavoie, Fang Li, Jianyong Li, Olga Lisitsyna, José Antonio López-Sáez, Reyes Luelmo-Lautenschlaeger, Gabriel Magnan, Eniko Katalin Magyari, Alekss Maksims, Katarzyna Marcisz, Elena Marinova, Jenn Marlon, Scott Mensing, Joanna Miroslaw-Grabowska, Wyatt Oswald, Sebastián Pérez-Díaz, Ramón Pérez-Obiol, Sanna Piilo, Anneli Poska, Xiaoguang Qin, Cécile C. Remy, Pierre J. H. Richard, Sakari Salonen, Naoko Sasaki, Hieke Schneider, William Shotyk, Migle Stancikaite, Dace Šteinberga, Normunds Stivrins, Hikaru Takahara, Zhihai Tan, Liva Trasune, Charles E. Umbanhowar, Minna Väliranta, Jüri Vassiljev, Xiayun Xiao, Qinghai Xu, Xin Xu, Edyta Zawisza, Yan Zhao, Zheng Zhou, and Jordan Paillard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1109–1124,Short summary
We provide a new global data set of charcoal preserved in sediments that can be used to examine how fire regimes have changed during past millennia and to investigate what caused these changes. The individual records have been standardised, and new age models have been constructed to allow better comparison across sites. The data set contains 1681 records from 1477 sites worldwide.
Benjamin Wild, Irene Teubner, Leander Moesinger, Ruxandra-Maria Zotta, Matthias Forkel, Robin van der Schalie, Stephen Sitch, and Wouter Dorigo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1063–1085,Short summary
Gross primary production (GPP) describes the conversion of CO2 to carbohydrates and can be seen as a filter for our atmosphere of the primary greenhouse gas CO2. We developed VODCA2GPP, a GPP dataset that is based on vegetation optical depth from microwave remote sensing and temperature. Thus, it is mostly independent from existing GPP datasets and also available in regions with frequent cloud coverage. Analysis showed that VODCA2GPP is able to complement existing state-of-the-art GPP datasets.
Jakob J. Assmann, Jesper E. Moeslund, Urs A. Treier, and Signe Normand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 823–844,Short summary
In 2014 and 2015, the Danish government scanned the whole of Denmark using laser scanners on planes. The information can help biologists learn more about Denmark's natural environment. To make it easier to access the outputs from the scan, we divided the country into 10 m x 10 m squares and summed up the information most relevant to biologists for each square. The result is a set of 70 maps describing the three-dimensional architecture of the Danish landscape and vegetation.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Arial J. Shogren, Jay P. Zarnetske, Benjamin W. Abbott, Samuel Bratsman, Brian Brown, Michael P. Carey, Randy Fulweber, Heather E. Greaves, Emma Haines, Frances Iannucci, Joshua C. Koch, Alexander Medvedeff, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Leika Patch, Brett A. Poulin, Tanner J. Williamson, and William B. Bowden
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 95–116,Short summary
Rapidly sampling multiple points in an entire river network provides a high-resolution snapshot in time that can reveal where nutrients and carbon are being taken up and released. Here, we describe two such datasets of river network chemistry in six Arctic watersheds in northern Alaska. We describe how these repeated snapshots can be used as an indicator of ecosystem response to climate change and to improve predictions of future release of carbon, nutrient, and other solutes.
Lore T. Verryckt, Sara Vicca, Leandro Van Langenhove, Clément Stahl, Dolores Asensio, Ifigenia Urbina, Romà Ogaya, Joan Llusià, Oriol Grau, Guille Peguero, Albert Gargallo-Garriga, Elodie A. Courtois, Olga Margalef, Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Philippe Ciais, Michael Obersteiner, Lucia Fuchslueger, Laynara F. Lugli, Pere-Roc Fernandez-Garberí, Helena Vallicrosa, Melanie Verlinden, Christian Ranits, Pieter Vermeir, Sabrina Coste, Erik Verbruggen, Laëtitia Bréchet, Jordi Sardans, Jérôme Chave, Josep Peñuelas, and Ivan A. Janssens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5–18,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive dataset of vertical profiles of photosynthesis and important leaf traits, including leaf N and P concentrations, from two 3-year, large-scale nutrient addition experiments conducted in two tropical rainforests in French Guiana. These data present a unique source of information to further improve model representations of the roles of N and P, and other leaf nutrients, in photosynthesis in tropical forests.
Xianjin He, Laurent Augusto, Daniel S. Goll, Bruno Ringeval, Yingping Wang, Julian Helfenstein, Yuanyuan Huang, Kailiang Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Yongchuan Yang, and Enqing Hou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5831–5846,Short summary
Our database of globally distributed natural soil total P (STP) concentration showed concentration ranged from 1.4 to 9630.0 (mean 570.0) mg kg−1. Global predictions of STP concentration increased with latitude. Global STP stocks (excluding Antarctica) were estimated to be 26.8 and 62.2 Pg in the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Our global map of STP concentration can be used to constrain Earth system models representing the P cycle and to inform quantification of global soil P availability.
Luis Guanter, Cédric Bacour, Andreas Schneider, Ilse Aben, Tim A. van Kempen, Fabienne Maignan, Christian Retscher, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, Joanna Joiner, and Yongguang Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5423–5440,Short summary
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is an electromagnetic signal emitted by plants in the red and far-red parts of the spectrum. It has a functional link to photosynthesis and can be measured by satellite instruments, which makes it an important variable for the remote monitoring of the photosynthetic activity of vegetation ecosystems around the world. In this contribution we present a SIF dataset derived from the new Sentinel-5P TROPOMI missions.
Yi-Wei Zhang, Yanpei Guo, Zhiyao Tang, Yuhao Feng, Xinrong Zhu, Wenting Xu, Yongfei Bai, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie, and Jingyun Fang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5337–5351,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are limiting nutrients for ecosystem productivity. For the first time, we mapped N and P densities of living plants, litter, and soil in forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems across China using random forest models based on a dataset of 4868 field sites. Our results depicted the spatial distribution pattern, the total pool, and the allocation among ecosystem components of N and P, which could benefit a more precise prediction of the carbon cycle.
Simon Besnard, Sujan Koirala, Maurizio Santoro, Ulrich Weber, Jacob Nelson, Jonas Gütter, Bruno Herault, Justin Kassi, Anny N'Guessan, Christopher Neigh, Benjamin Poulter, Tao Zhang, and Nuno Carvalhais
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4881–4896,Short summary
Forest age can determine the capacity of a forest to uptake carbon from the atmosphere. Yet, a lack of global diagnostics that reflect the forest stage and associated disturbance regimes hampers the quantification of age-related differences in forest carbon dynamics. In this paper, we introduced a new global distribution of forest age inferred from forest inventory, remote sensing and climate data in support of a better understanding of the global dynamics in the forest water and carbon cycles.
Gunta Kalvāne, Andis Kalvāns, and Andris Ģērmanis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4621–4633,Short summary
A phenological (seasonal occurrences) data set in Latvia, northern Europe, is presented. It includes phenological phases of eight taxonomic groups such as timing of leaf unfolding, bird migration, and leaf senescence as well as weather phenomena and agrarian activities from 1979 to 2018. The data provide direct and compelling evidence of climate change like earlier spring blossom and delayed autumn phases of some migratory birds and plants in recent years.
Yuanyuan Huang, Phillipe Ciais, Maurizio Santoro, David Makowski, Jerome Chave, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Rose Z. Abramoff, Daniel S. Goll, Hui Yang, Ye Chen, Wei Wei, and Shilong Piao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4263–4274,Short summary
Roots play a key role in our Earth system. Here we combine 10 307 field measurements of forest root biomass worldwide with global observations of forest structure, climatic conditions, topography, land management and soil characteristics to derive a spatially explicit global high-resolution (~ 1 km) root biomass dataset. In total, 142 ± 25 (95 % CI) Pg of live dry-matter biomass is stored belowground, representing a global average root : shoot biomass ratio of 0.25 ± 0.10.
Sebastian Doetterl, Rodrigue K. Asifiwe, Geert Baert, Fernando Bamba, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Benjamin Bukombe, Georg Cadisch, Matthew Cooper, Landry N. Cizungu, Alison Hoyt, Clovis Kabaseke, Karsten Kalbitz, Laurent Kidinda, Annina Maier, Moritz Mainka, Julia Mayrock, Daniel Muhindo, Basile B. Mujinya, Serge M. Mukotanyi, Leon Nabahungu, Mario Reichenbach, Boris Rewald, Johan Six, Anna Stegmann, Laura Summerauer, Robin Unseld, Bernard Vanlauwe, Kristof Van Oost, Kris Verheyen, Cordula Vogel, Florian Wilken, and Peter Fiener
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4133–4153,Short summary
The African Tropics are hotspots of modern-day land use change and are of great relevance for the global carbon cycle. Here, we present data collected as part of the DFG-funded project TropSOC along topographic, land use, and geochemical gradients in the eastern Congo Basin and the Albertine Rift. Our database contains spatial and temporal data on soil, vegetation, environmental properties, and land management collected from 136 pristine tropical forest and cropland plots between 2017 and 2020.
Maurizio Santoro, Oliver Cartus, Nuno Carvalhais, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Valerio Avitabile, Arnan Araza, Sytze de Bruin, Martin Herold, Shaun Quegan, Pedro Rodríguez-Veiga, Heiko Balzter, João Carreiras, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Mikhail Korets, Masanobu Shimada, Takuya Itoh, Álvaro Moreno Martínez, Jura Cavlovic, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Polyanna da Conceição Bispo, Nasheta Dewnath, Nicolas Labrière, Jingjing Liang, Jeremy Lindsell, Edward T. A. Mitchard, Alexandra Morel, Ana Maria Pacheco Pascagaza, Casey M. Ryan, Ferry Slik, Gaia Vaglio Laurin, Hans Verbeeck, Arief Wijaya, and Simon Willcock
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3927–3950,Short summary
Forests play a crucial role in Earth’s carbon cycle. To understand the carbon cycle better, we generated a global dataset of forest above-ground biomass, i.e. carbon stocks, from satellite data of 2010. This dataset provides a comprehensive and detailed portrait of the distribution of carbon in forests, although for dense forests in the tropics values are somewhat underestimated. This dataset will have a considerable impact on climate, carbon, and socio-economic modelling schemes.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Lennart Nilsen, Hans Tømmervik, and Elisabeth J. Cooper
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3593–3606,Short summary
Satellites provide a global overview of Earth's ecosystems, but they have coarse resolutions and low revisit times. Small-scale vegetation patterns and sudden shifts in plant growth can easily be missed. In this paper, we show how to fill these gaps with vegetation indices obtained with ordinary time-lapse cameras deployed across a valley on Svalbard. We show how to adjust for unwanted camera movement and that vegetation indices from ordinary cameras compare well to those used by satellites.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Muhammed Usman, Daniel Montluçon, Thomas Loeffler, Maria Luisa Tavagna, Nicolas Gruber, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2135–2146,Short summary
Ocean sediments form the largest and longest-term storage of organic carbon. Despite their global importance, information on these sediments is often scattered, incomplete or inaccessible. Here we present MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon, mosaic.ethz.ch), a (radio)carbon-centric database that addresses this information gap. This database provides a platform for assessing the transport, deposition and storage of carbon in ocean surface sediments.
Zhen Zhang, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Katherine Jensen, Kyle McDonald, Gustaf Hugelius, Thomas Gumbricht, Mark Carroll, Catherine Prigent, Annett Bartsch, and Benjamin Poulter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2001–2023,Short summary
The spatiotemporal distribution of wetlands is one of the important and yet uncertain factors determining the time and locations of methane fluxes. The Wetland Area and Dynamics for Methane Modeling (WAD2M) dataset describes the global data product used to quantify the areal dynamics of natural wetlands and how global wetlands are changing in response to climate.
Esteban Alonso-González and Víctor Fernández-García
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1925–1938,Short summary
We present the first global burn severity database (MOSEV database), which is based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance and burned area products. The database inludes monthly scenes with the dNBR, RdNBR and post-burn NBR spectral indices at 500 m spatial resolution from November 2000 onwards. Moreover, in this work we show that there is a close relationship between the burn severity metrics included in MOSEV and the same ones obtained from Landsat-8.
William R. Wieder, Derek Pierson, Stevan Earl, Kate Lajtha, Sara G. Baer, Ford Ballantyne, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Sharon A. Billings, Laurel M. Brigham, Stephany S. Chacon, Jennifer Fraterrigo, Serita D. Frey, Katerina Georgiou, Marie-Anne de Graaff, A. Stuart Grandy, Melannie D. Hartman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Chris Johnson, Jason Kaye, Emily Kyker-Snowman, Marcy E. Litvak, Michelle C. Mack, Avni Malhotra, Jessica A. M. Moore, Knute Nadelhoffer, Craig Rasmussen, Whendee L. Silver, Benjamin N. Sulman, Xanthe Walker, and Samantha Weintraub
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1843–1854,Short summary
Data collected from research networks present opportunities to test theories and develop models about factors responsible for the long-term persistence and vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM). Here we present the SOils DAta Harmonization database (SoDaH), a flexible database designed to harmonize diverse SOM datasets from multiple research networks.
Mario Guevara, Michela Taufer, and Rodrigo Vargas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1711–1735,Short summary
Soil moisture is key for understanding soil–plant–atmosphere interactions. We provide a machine learning approach to increase the spatial resolution of satellite-derived soil moisture information. The outcome is a dataset of gap-free global mean annual soil moisture predictions and associated uncertainty for 28 years (1991–2018) across 15 km grids. This dataset has higher agreement with in situ soil moisture and precipitation measurements. Results show a decline of global annual soil moisture.
Francesco N. Tubiello, Giulia Conchedda, Nathan Wanner, Sandro Federici, Simone Rossi, and Giacomo Grassi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1681–1691,Short summary
This paper presents the first estimates of forest carbon fluxes (1990–2020) based on the new Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2020. We document for the first time in the literature forest carbon fluxes for the last decade 2011–2020. Results show that carbon losses from net forest conversion (3.1 billion tonnes of CO2) were counterbalanced by carbon gains on forest land (−3.3 billion tonnes of CO2), resulting in the world's forests acting overall as a small carbon sink in the past decade.
Linqing Yang and Asko Noormets
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1461–1475,Short summary
We present a flux seasonality metrics database (FSMD) depicting a set of standardized metrics of ecosystem biogeochemical fluxes of CO2, water, and energy, including transition dates, phase lengths, and rates of change with uncertainty estimates. FSMD allows assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in developmental dynamics, validation of novel aspects of phenology product, and process models. It is calculated from FLUXNET2015 data product and will be updated with new FLUXNET data releases.
Raphaël d'Andrimont, Astrid Verhegghen, Michele Meroni, Guido Lemoine, Peter Strobl, Beatrice Eiselt, Momchil Yordanov, Laura Martinez-Sanchez, and Marijn van der Velde
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1119–1133,Short summary
The Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) is a regular in situ land cover and land use ground survey exercise that extends over the whole of the European Union. A new LUCAS module specifically tailored to Earth observation was introduced in 2018: the LUCAS Copernicus module. This paper summarizes the LUCAS Copernicus survey and provides the unique resulting data: 58 426 polygons with level-3 land cover (66 specific classes including crop type) and land use (38 classes).
Jeff W. Atkins, Elizabeth Agee, Alexandra Barry, Kyla M. Dahlin, Kalyn Dorheim, Maxim S. Grigri, Lisa T. Haber, Laura J. Hickey, Aaron G. Kamoske, Kayla Mathes, Catherine McGuigan, Evan Paris, Stephanie C. Pennington, Carly Rodriguez, Autym Shafer, Alexey Shiklomanov, Jason Tallant, Christopher M. Gough, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 943–952,Short summary
The fortedata R package is an open data notebook from the Forest Resilience Threshold Experiment (FoRTE) – a modeling and manipulative field experiment that tests the effects of disturbance severity and disturbance type on carbon cycling dynamics in a temperate forest. The data included help to interpret how carbon cycling processes respond over time to disturbance.
Autun Purser, Simon Dreutter, Huw Griffiths, Laura Hehemann, Kerstin Jerosch, Axel Nordhausen, Dieter Piepenburg, Claudio Richter, Henning Schröder, and Boris Dorschel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 609–615,Short summary
This dataset comprises 26-megapixel seafloor images collected from below ice and steeply sloped regions of the Southern Ocean (the western Weddell Sea; the Powell Basin; and the rapidly shallowing, iceberg-scoured Nachtigaller Shoal). These data were collected with the Ocean Floor Observation and Bathymetry System (OFOBS), an advanced towed camera platform incorporating various sonar devices to aid in hazard avoidance and seafloor mapping, for use in challenging, high-relief seafloor areas.
Zihao Bian, Hanqin Tian, Qichun Yang, Rongting Xu, Shufen Pan, and Bowen Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 515–527,Short summary
The estimation of manure nutrient production and application is critical for the efficient use of manure nutrients. This study developed four manure nitrogen and phosphorus datasets with high spatial resolution and a long time period (1860–2017) in the US. The datasets can provide useful information for stakeholders and scientists who focus on agriculture, nutrient budget, and biogeochemical cycle.
Zhan Hu, Pim W. J. M. Willemsen, Bas W. Borsje, Chen Wang, Heng Wang, Daphne van der Wal, Zhenchang Zhu, Bas Oteman, Vincent Vuik, Ben Evans, Iris Möller, Jean-Philippe Belliard, Alexander Van Braeckel, Stijn Temmerman, and Tjeerd J. Bouma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 405–416,Short summary
Erosion and accretion processes govern the ecogeomorphic evolution of intertidal (salt marsh and tidal flat) ecosystems and hence substantially affect their valuable ecosystem services. By applying a novel sensor, we obtained unique high-resolution daily bed-level change datasets from 10 marsh–mudflat sites in northwestern Europe. This dataset has revealed diverse spatial bed-level change patterns over daily to seasonal scales, which are valuable to theoretical and model development.
Junjie Liu, Latha Baskaran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carroll, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatti, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney, and Steven Wofsy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 299–330,Short summary
On average, the terrestrial biosphere carbon sink is equivalent to ~ 20 % of fossil fuel emissions. Understanding where and why the terrestrial biosphere absorbs carbon from the atmosphere is pivotal to any mitigation policy. Here we present a regionally resolved satellite-constrained net biosphere exchange (NBE) dataset with corresponding uncertainties between 2010–2018: CMS-Flux NBE 2020. The dataset provides a unique perspective on monitoring regional contributions to the CO2 growth rate.
Chongya Jiang, Kaiyu Guan, Genghong Wu, Bin Peng, and Sheng Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 281–298,Short summary
Photosynthesis, quantified by gross primary production (GPP), is a key Earth system process. To date, there is a lack of a high-spatiotemporal-resolution, real-time and observation-based GPP dataset. This work addresses this gap by developing a SatelLite Only Photosynthesis Estimation (SLOPE) model and generating a new GPP product, which is advanced in spatial and temporal resolutions, instantaneity, and quantitative uncertainty. The dataset will benefit a range of research and applications.
Andrey N. Shikhov, Alexander V. Chernokulsky, Igor O. Azhigov, and Anastasia V. Semakina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3489–3513,Short summary
Severe winds are among the main causes of forest disturbances in Russia. However, compared to other European countries, windthrows in Russian forests remain substantially understudied. In this study, we compiled a new spatial database of stand-replacing (total) windthrows in the forest zone of European Russia for 1986–2017. Windthrows were delineated mainly with Landsat images. The total area of windthrows was estimated to be 2966 km2 (0.19 % of the total forest-covered area).
Aben, R. C., Barros, N., Van Donk, E., Frenken, T., Hilt, S., Kazanjian, G., Lamers, L. P., Peeters, E. T., Roelofs, J. G., de Senerpont Domis, L. N., and Stephan, S.: Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change, Nat. Commun., 8, 1682, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01535-y, 2017.
Andersen, R., Poulin, M., Borcard, D., Laiho, R., Laine, J., Vasander, H., and Tuittila, E. T.: Environmental control and spatial structures in peatland vegetation, J. Veg. Sci., 22, 878–890, 2011.
Bäckstrand, K., Crill, P. M., Mastepanov, M., Christensen, T. R., and Bastviken, D.: Total hydrocarbon flux dynamics at a subarctic mire in northern Sweden, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 113, G03026, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000703, 2008.
Bartlett, K. B., Crill, P. M., Sass, R. L., Harriss, R. C., and Dise, N. B.: Methane emissions from tundra environments in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 97, 16645–16660, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD00610, 1992.
Bastviken, D., Ejlertsson, J., and Tranvik, L.: Measurement of methane oxidation in lakes: a comparison of methods, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 3354–3361, https://doi.org/10.1021/es010311p, 2002.
Bastviken, D., Tranvik, L. J., Downing, J. A., Crill, P. M., and Enrich-Prast, A.: Freshwater methane fluxes offset the continental carbon sink, Science, 331, 50–50, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1196808, 2011.
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Methane (CH4) emissions from the boreal–Arctic region are globally significant, but the current magnitude of annual emissions is not well defined. Here we present a dataset of surface CH4 fluxes from northern wetlands, lakes, and uplands that was built alongside a compatible land cover dataset, sharing the same classifications. We show CH4 fluxes can be split by broad land cover characteristics. The dataset is useful for comparison against new field data and model parameterization or validation.
Methane (CH4) emissions from the boreal–Arctic region are globally significant, but the current...