Articles | Volume 13, issue 6
Data description paper
08 Jun 2021
Data description paper | 08 Jun 2021
CASCADE – The Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE
Jannik Martens et al.
Francesco Muschitiello, Matt O'Regan, Jannik Martens, Gabriel West, Örjan Gustafsson, and Martin Jakobsson
Geochronology, 2, 81–91,Short summary
In this study we present a new marine chronology of the last ~30 000 years for a sediment core retrieved from the central Arctic Ocean. Our new chronology reveals substantially faster sedimentation rates during the end of the last glacial cycle, the Last Glacial Maximum, and deglaciation than previously reported, thus implying a substantial re-interpretation of paleoceanographic reconstructions from this sector of the Arctic Ocean.
Dirk J. Jong, Lisa Bröder, Tommaso Tesi, Kirsi H. Keskitalo, Nikita Zimov, Anna Davydova, Philip Pika, Negar Haghipour, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Jorien E. Vonk
With this study, we want to highlight the importance of studying both land and ocean together, and water and sediment together, as these systems function as a continuum and determine how organic carbon derived from permafrost is broken down, and its effect on global warming. While on one hand it appears that organic carbon is removed from sediments along the pathway of transport from river to ocean, it also appears to remain relatively ‘fresh’, despite this removal and its very old age.
Martine Lizotte, Bennet Juhls, Atsushi Matsuoka, Philippe Massicotte, Gaëlle Mével, David Obie James Anikina, Sofia Antonova, Guislain Bécu, Marine Béguin, Simon Bélanger, Thomas Bossé-Demers, Lisa Bröder, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwénaëlle Chaillou, Jérôme Comte, Raoul-Marie Couture, Emmanuel Devred, Gabrièle Deslongchamps, Thibaud Dezutter, Miles Dillon, David Doxaran, Aude Flamand, Frank Fell, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Michael Fritz, Thomas J. Gordon, Caroline Guilmette, Andrea Hilborn, Rachel Hussherr, Charlotte Irish, Fabien Joux, Lauren Kipp, Audrey Laberge-Carignan, Hugues Lantuit, Edouard Leymarie, Antonio Mannino, Juliette Maury, Paul Overduin, Laurent Oziel, Colin Stedmon, Crystal Thomas, Lucas Tisserand, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Jorien Vonk, Dustin Whalen, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Permafrost thaw in the Mackenzie Delta region results in the release of organic matter into the coastal marine environment. What happens to this carbon-rich organic matter as it transits along the fresh to salty aquatic environments is still under-documented. Four expeditions were conducted from April to September 2019 in the coastal area of the Beaufort Sea to study the fate of organic matter. This paper describes a rich set of data characterizing the composition and sources of organic matter.
Frédérique M. S. A. Kirkels, Huub M. Zwart, Muhammed O. Usman, Suning Hou, Camilo Ponton, Liviu Giosan, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Francien Peterse
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) that is transferred to the ocean by rivers forms a long-term sink of atmospheric CO2 upon burial on the ocean floor. We here test if certain bacterial membrane lipids can be used to trace SOC through the monsoon-fed Godavari River basin in India. We find that these lipids trace the mobilisation and transport of SOC in the wet season, but that these lipids are not transferred far into the sea. This suggests that the burial of SOC on the sea floor is limited here.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Gabriella M. Weiss, Julie Lattaud, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, and Timothy I. Eglinton
Clim. Past, 18, 233–248,Short summary
Here we study the elemental signatures of plant wax compounds as well as molecules from algae and bacteria to understand how water sources changed over the last 11 000 years in the northeastern part of Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea. Our results show diversity in plant and aquatic microorganisms following the melting of the large ice sheet that covered northern Europe as the regional climate continued to warm. A shift in water source from ice melt to rain also occurred around the same time.
Blanca Ausín, Negar Haghipour, Elena Bruni, and Timothy Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 19, 613–627,Short summary
The preservation and distribution of alkenones – organic molecules produced by marine algae – in marine sediments allows us to reconstruct past variations in sea surface temperature, primary productivity and CO2. Here, we explore the impact of remobilization and lateral transport of sedimentary alkenones on their fate in marine sediments. We demonstrate the pervasive influence of these processes on alkenone-derived environmental signals, compromising the reliability of related paleorecords.
Jaclyn Clement Kinney, Karen M. Assmann, Wieslaw Maslowski, Göran Björk, Martin Jakobsson, Sara Jutterström, Younjoo J. Lee, Robert Osinski, Igor Semiletov, Adam Ulfsbo, Irene Wåhlström, and Leif G. Anderson
Ocean Sci., 18, 29–49,Short summary
We use data crossing Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea collected in 2008 and 2014 together with numerical modelling to investigate the circulation in the western Chukchi Sea. A large fraction of water from the Chukchi Sea enters the East Siberian Sea south of Wrangel Island and circulates in an anticyclonic direction around the island. To assess the differences between years, we use numerical modelling results, which show that high-frequency variability dominates the flow in Herald Canyon.
Niek Jesse Speetjens, George Tanski, Victoria Martin, Julia Wagner, Andreas Richter, Gustaf Hugelius, Chris Boucher, Rachele Lodi, Christian Knoblauch, Boris P. Koch, Urban Wünsch, Hugues Lantuit, and Jorien E. Vonk
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Climate change and warming in the Arctic exceed global averages. As a result, permanently frozen soils (permafrost) which store vast quantities of carbon in the form of dead plant material (organic matter) are thawing. Our study shows that as permafrost landscapes degrade, high concentrations of organic matter are released. Partly, this organic matter is degraded rapidly upon release while another significant fraction enters stream networks and enters the Arctic Ocean.
Caroline Welte, Jens Fohlmeister, Melina Wertnik, Lukas Wacker, Bodo Hattendorf, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Christoph Spötl
Clim. Past, 17, 2165–2177,Short summary
Stalagmites are valuable climate archives, but unlike other proxies the use of stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) is still difficult. A stalagmite from the Austrian Alps was analyzed using a new laser ablation method for fast radiocarbon (14C) analysis. This allowed 14C and δ13C to be combined, showing that besides soil and bedrock a third source is contributing during periods of warm, wet climate: old organic matter.
Franziska A. Lechleitner, Christopher C. Day, Oliver Kost, Micah Wilhelm, Negar Haghipour, Gideon M. Henderson, and Heather M. Stoll
Clim. Past, 17, 1903–1918,Short summary
Soil respiration is a critical but poorly constrained component of the global carbon cycle. We analyse the effect of changing soil respiration rates on the stable carbon isotope ratio of speleothems from northern Spain covering the last deglaciation. Using geochemical analysis and forward modelling we quantify the processes affecting speleothem stable carbon isotope ratios and extract a signature of increasing soil respiration synchronous with deglacial warming.
Elena T. Bruni, Richard F. Ott, Vincenzo Picotti, Negar Haghipour, Karl W. Wegmann, and Sean F. Gallen
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 771–793,Short summary
The Klados River catchment contains seemingly overlarge, well-preserved alluvial terraces and fans. Unlike previous studies, we argue that the deposits formed in the Holocene based on their position relative to a paleoshoreline uplifted in 365 CE and seven radiocarbon dates. We also find that constant sediment supply from high-lying landslide deposits disconnected the valley from regional tectonics and climate controls, which resulted in fan and terrace formation guided by stochastic events.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Muhammed Usman, Daniel Montluçon, Thomas Loeffler, Maria Luisa Tavagna, Nicolas Gruber, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2135–2146,Short summary
Ocean sediments form the largest and longest-term storage of organic carbon. Despite their global importance, information on these sediments is often scattered, incomplete or inaccessible. Here we present MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon, mosaic.ethz.ch), a (radio)carbon-centric database that addresses this information gap. This database provides a platform for assessing the transport, deposition and storage of carbon in ocean surface sediments.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Ove H. Meisel, Joshua F. Dean, Jorien E. Vonk, Lukas Wacker, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2241–2258,Short summary
Arctic permafrost lakes form thaw bulbs of unfrozen soil (taliks) beneath them where carbon degradation and greenhouse gas production are increased. We analyzed the stable carbon isotopes of Alaskan talik sediments and their porewater dissolved organic carbon and found that the top layers of these taliks are likely more actively degraded than the deeper layers. This in turn implies that these top layers are likely also more potent greenhouse gas producers than the underlying deeper layers.
Alix G. Cage, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Anne Jennings, Karen Luise Knudsen, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
J. Micropalaeontol., 40, 37–60,Short summary
Morphologically similar benthic foraminifera taxa are difficult to separate, resulting in incorrect identifications, complications understanding species-specific ecological preferences, and flawed reconstructions of past environments. Here we provide descriptions and illustrated guidelines on how to separate some key Arctic–North Atlantic species to circumvent taxonomic confusion, improve understanding of ecological affinities, and work towards more accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
Hannah Gies, Frank Hagedorn, Maarten Lupker, Daniel Montluçon, Negar Haghipour, Tessa Sophia van der Voort, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 18, 189–205,Short summary
Understanding controls on the persistence of organic matter in soils is essential to constrain its role in the carbon cycle. Emerging concepts suggest that the soil carbon pool is predominantly comprised of stabilized microbial residues. To test this hypothesis we isolated microbial membrane lipids from two Swiss soil profiles and measured their radiocarbon age. We find that the ages of these compounds are in the range of millenia and thus provide evidence for stabilized microbial mass in soils.
Michael Sarnthein, Kevin Küssner, Pieter M. Grootes, Blanca Ausin, Timothy Eglinton, Juan Muglia, Raimund Muscheler, and Gordon Schlolaut
Clim. Past, 16, 2547–2571,Short summary
The dating technique of 14C plateau tuning uses U/Th-based model ages, refinements of the Lake Suigetsu age scale, and the link of surface ocean carbon to the globally mixed atmosphere as basis of age correlation. Our synthesis employs data of 20 sediment cores from the global ocean and offers a coherent picture of global ocean circulation evolving over glacial-to-deglacial times on semi-millennial scales to be compared with climate records stored in marine sediments, ice cores, and speleothems.
Leticia G. Luz, Thiago P. Santos, Timothy I. Eglinton, Daniel Montluçon, Blanca Ausin, Negar Haghipour, Silvia M. Sousa, Renata H. Nagai, and Renato S. Carreira
Clim. Past, 16, 1245–1261,Short summary
Two sediment cores retrieved from the SE Brazilian continental margin were studied using multiple organic (alkenones) and inorganic (oxygen isotopes in carbonate shells and water) proxies to reconstruct the sea surface temperature (SST) over the last 50 000 years. The findings indicate the formation of strong thermal gradients in the region during the last climate transition, a feature that may become more frequent in the future scenario of global water circulation changes.
Florian Mekhaldi, Markus Czymzik, Florian Adolphi, Jesper Sjolte, Svante Björck, Ala Aldahan, Achim Brauer, Celia Martin-Puertas, Göran Possnert, and Raimund Muscheler
Clim. Past, 16, 1145–1157,Short summary
Due to chronology uncertainties within paleoclimate archives, it is unclear how climate oscillations from different records relate to one another. By using radionuclides to synchronize Greenland ice cores and a German lake record over 11 000 years, we show that two oscillations observed in these records were not synchronous but terminated and began with the onset of a grand solar minimum. Both this and changes in ocean circulation could have played a role in the two climate oscillations.
Alexander Osadchiev, Igor Medvedev, Sergey Shchuka, Mikhail Kulikov, Eduard Spivak, Maria Pisareva, and Igor Semiletov
Ocean Sci., 16, 781–798,Short summary
The Yenisei and Khatanga rivers are among the largest estuarine rivers that inflow to the Arctic Ocean. Discharge of the Yenisei River is 1 order of magnitude larger than that of the Khatanga River. However, spatial scales of buoyant plumes formed by freshwater runoff from the Yenisei and Khatanga gulfs are similar. This feature is caused by intense tidal mixing in the Khatanga Gulf, which causes formation of the diluted and therefore anomalously deep and large Khatanga plume.
Francesco Muschitiello, Matt O'Regan, Jannik Martens, Gabriel West, Örjan Gustafsson, and Martin Jakobsson
Geochronology, 2, 81–91,Short summary
In this study we present a new marine chronology of the last ~30 000 years for a sediment core retrieved from the central Arctic Ocean. Our new chronology reveals substantially faster sedimentation rates during the end of the last glacial cycle, the Last Glacial Maximum, and deglaciation than previously reported, thus implying a substantial re-interpretation of paleoceanographic reconstructions from this sector of the Arctic Ocean.
Johannes Hepp, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Verena Lanny, Jörg Franke, Marcel Bliedtner, Kazimierz Rozanski, Bruno Glaser, Michael Zech, Timothy Ian Eglinton, and Roland Zech
Biogeosciences, 17, 741–756,
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Utsav Mannu, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Negar Haghipour, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 16, 3233–3246,Short summary
The carbon stored in soils is the largest reservoir of organic carbon on land. In the context of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate, it is very important to understand how stable the carbon in the soil is and why. The deeper parts of the soil have often been overlooked even though they store a lot of carbon. In this paper, we discovered that although deep soil carbon is expected to be old and stable, there can be a significant young component that cycles much faster.
Sarah Conrad, Johan Ingri, Johan Gelting, Fredrik Nordblad, Emma Engström, Ilia Rodushkin, Per S. Andersson, Don Porcelli, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor Semiletov, and Björn Öhlander
Biogeosciences, 16, 1305–1319,Short summary
Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River freshwater plume showed that the particulate iron dominates close to the coast. Over 99 % particulate and about 90 % colloidal iron were lost, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant. Iron isotopes suggest that the shelf acts as a sink for particles and colloids with negative iron isotope values, while colloids with positive iron isotope values travel further out into the Arctic Ocean.
Claudine Hauri, Seth Danielson, Andrew M. P. McDonnell, Russell R. Hopcroft, Peter Winsor, Peter Shipton, Catherine Lalande, Kathleen M. Stafford, John K. Horne, Lee W. Cooper, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Andrew Mahoney, Klara Maisch, Molly McCammon, Hank Statscewich, Andy Sybrandy, and Thomas Weingartner
Ocean Sci., 14, 1423–1433,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly. In order to track these changes, we developed and deployed a long-term marine ecosystem observatory in the Chukchi Sea. It helps us to better understand currents, waves, sea ice, salinity, temperature, nutrient and carbon concentrations, oxygen, phytoplankton blooms and export, zooplankton abundance and vertical migration, and the occurrence of fish and marine mammals throughout the year, even during the ice covered winter months.
Birgit Wild, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg Dudarev, Alexey Ruban, Denis Kosmach, Vladimir Tumskoy, Tommaso Tesi, Hanna Joß, Helena Alexanderson, Martin Jakobsson, Alexey Mazurov, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The thaw and degradation of subsea permafrost on the Arctic Ocean shelves is one of the key uncertainties concerning natural greenhouse gas emissions since difficult access limits the availability of observational data. In this study, we describe sediment properties and age constraints of a unique set of three subsea permafrost cores from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, as well as content, origin and degradation state of organic matter at the current thaw front.
Robert B. Sparkes, Melissa Maher, Jerome Blewett, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, and Bart E. van Dongen
The Cryosphere, 12, 3293–3309,Short summary
Ongoing climate change in the Siberian Arctic region has the potential to release large amounts of carbon, currently stored in permafrost, to the Arctic Shelf. Degradation can release this to the atmosphere as greenhouse gas. We used Raman spectroscopy to analyse a fraction of this carbon, carbonaceous material, a group that includes coal, lignite and graphite. We were able to trace this carbon from the river mouths and coastal erosion sites across the Arctic shelf for hundreds of kilometres.
Alessandra D'Angelo, Federico Giglio, Stefano Miserocchi, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Stefano Aliani, Tommaso Tesi, Angelo Viola, Mauro Mazzola, and Leonardo Langone
Biogeosciences, 15, 5343–5363,Short summary
A 6-year time series of physical parameters and particle fluxes collected by a mooring in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) suggests that the subglacial and watershed run-off driven by air temperature are the main processes affecting the lithogenic supply. As the Arctic temperature rises, glacier material will increase accordingly. The winter inflow of warm Atlantic waters is progressively increasing, hampering the nutrient supply from the bottom waters and severely reducing the biological production.
Julie Lattaud, Frédérique Kirkels, Francien Peterse, Chantal V. Freymond, Timothy I. Eglinton, Jens Hefter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Sergio Balzano, Laura Villanueva, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
Long-chain diols (LCDs) are biomarkers that occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. In this study, we looked at the distribution of LCDs in three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation to season, precipitation, and temperature. We found out that the LCDs are likely being produced in calm areas of the river systems and that marine LCDs have a different distribution than riverine LCDs.
Muhammed Ojoshogu Usman, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne Kirkels, Huub Michel Zwart, Sayak Basu, Camilo Ponton, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Michael Ploetze, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Francien Peterse, Maarten Lupker, Liviu Giosan, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 15, 3357–3375,
Markus Czymzik, Raimund Muscheler, Florian Adolphi, Florian Mekhaldi, Nadine Dräger, Florian Ott, Michał Słowinski, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Ala Aldahan, Göran Possnert, and Achim Brauer
Clim. Past, 14, 687–696,Short summary
Our results provide a proof of concept for facilitating 10Be in varved lake sediments as a novel synchronization tool required for investigating leads and lags of proxy responses to climate variability. They also point to some limitations of 10Be in these archives mainly connected to in-lake sediment resuspension processes.
Svetlana P. Pugach, Irina I. Pipko, Natalia E. Shakhova, Evgeny A. Shirshin, Irina V. Perminova, Örjan Gustafsson, Valery G. Bondur, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
Ocean Sci., 14, 87–103,Short summary
This paper explores the possibility of using CDOM and its spectral parameters to identify the different biogeochemical regimes on the ESAS. The strong correlation between DOC and CDOM values in the surface shelf waters influenced by terrigenous discharge indicates that it is feasible to estimate DOC content from CDOM fluorescence assessed in situ. The direct estimation of DOM optical parameters in the surface ESAS waters provided by this study will be useful for validating remote sensing data.
Volker Brüchert, Lisa Bröder, Joanna E. Sawicka, Tommaso Tesi, Samantha P. Joye, Xiaole Sun, Igor P. Semiletov, and Vladimir A. Samarkin
Biogeosciences, 15, 471–490,Short summary
We determined the aerobic and anaerobic degradation rates of land- and marine-derived organic material in East Siberian shelf sediment. Marine plankton-derived organic carbon was the main source for the oxic dissolved carbon dioxide production, whereas terrestrial organic material significantly contributed to the production of carbon dioxide under anoxic conditions. Our direct degradation rate measurements provide new constraints for the present-day Arctic marine carbon budget.
Blanca Ausín, Diana Zúñiga, Jose A. Flores, Catarina Cavaleiro, María Froján, Nicolás Villacieros-Robineau, Fernando Alonso-Pérez, Belén Arbones, Celia Santos, Francisco de la Granda, Carmen G. Castro, Fátima Abrantes, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Emilia Salgueiro
Biogeosciences, 15, 245–262,Short summary
A systematic investigation of the coccolithophore ecology was performed for the first time in the NW Iberian Margin to broaden our knowledge on the use of fossil coccoliths in marine sediment records to infer environmental conditions in the past. Coccolithophores proved to be significant primary producers and their abundance and distribution was favoured by warmer and nutrient–depleted waters during the upwelling regime, seasonally controlled offshore and influenced by coastal processes onshore.
Lorenz Wüthrich, Claudio Brändli, Régis Braucher, Heinz Veit, Negar Haghipour, Carla Terrizzano, Marcus Christl, Christian Gnägi, and Roland Zech
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 66, 57–68,
Liviu Giosan, Camilo Ponton, Muhammed Usman, Jerzy Blusztajn, Dorian Q. Fuller, Valier Galy, Negar Haghipour, Joel E. Johnson, Cameron McIntyre, Lukas Wacker, and Timothy I. Eglinton
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 781–789,Short summary
A reconstruction of erosion in the core monsoon zone of India provides unintuitive but fundamental insights: in contrast to semiarid regions that experience enhanced erosion during erratic rain events, the monsoon is annual and acts as a veritable
erosional pumpaccelerating when the land cover is minimal. The existence of such a monsoon erosional pump promises to reconcile conflicting views on the land–sea sediment and carbon transfer as well as the monsoon evolution on longer timescales.
Irina I. Pipko, Svetlana P. Pugach, Igor P. Semiletov, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia E. Shakhova, Örjan Gustafsson, Irina A. Repina, Eduard A. Spivak, Alexander N. Charkin, Anatoly N. Salyuk, Kseniia P. Shcherbakova, Elena V. Panova, and Oleg V. Dudarev
Ocean Sci., 13, 997–1016,Short summary
The study of the outer shelf and the continental slope waters of the Eurasian Arctic seas has revealed a general trend in the surface pCO2 distribution, which manifested as an increase in pCO2 values eastward. It has been shown that the influence of terrestrial discharge on the carbonate system of East Siberian Arctic sea surface waters is not limited to the shallow shelf and that contemporary climate change impacts the carbon cycle of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean and influences air–sea CO2 flux.
Alexander N. Charkin, Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff, Natalia E. Shakhova, Örjan Gustafsson, Oleg V. Dudarev, Maxim S. Cherepnev, Anatoly N. Salyuk, Andrey V. Koshurnikov, Eduard A. Spivak, Alexey Y. Gunar, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 2305–2327,Short summary
This study tests the hypothesis that SGD exists in the Siberian Arctic shelf seas, but its dynamics may be largely controlled by complicated geocryological conditions such as permafrost. The permafrost cements rocks, forms a confining bed, and as a result makes it difficult for the groundwater escape to the shelf surface. However, the discovery of subterranean outcrops of groundwater springs in the Buor-Khaya Gulf are clear evidence that a groundwater flow system exists in the environment.
Matt O'Regan, Jan Backman, Natalia Barrientos, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Nina Kirchner, Larry A. Mayer, Johan Nilsson, Riko Noormets, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1269–1284,Short summary
Past glacial activity on the East Siberian continental margin is poorly known, partly due to the lack of geomorphological evidence. Here we present geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope revealing the presence of a glacially excavated cross-shelf trough reaching to the continental shelf edge north of the De Long Islands. The data provide direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum.
Kirsi Keskitalo, Tommaso Tesi, Lisa Bröder, August Andersson, Christof Pearce, Martin Sköld, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, and Örjan Gustafsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1213–1226,Short summary
In this study we investigate land-to-ocean transfer and the fate of permafrost carbon in the East Siberian Sea from the early Holocene until the present day. Our results suggest that there was a high input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea during the last glacial–interglacial period caused by permafrost destabilisation. This material was mainly characterised as relict Pleistocene permafrost deposited via coastal erosion as a result of the sea level rise.
Tommaso Tesi, Marc C. Geibel, Christof Pearce, Elena Panova, Jorien E. Vonk, Emma Karlsson, Joan A. Salvado, Martin Kruså, Lisa Bröder, Christoph Humborg, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 735–748,Short summary
Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea-ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect the phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we show that the carbon composition of plankton might change as a function of the enhanced terrestrial organic carbon supply and progressive sea-ice thawing.
Thomas M. Cronin, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Laura Gemery, Michael Toomey, Igor Semiletov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1097–1110,Short summary
Global sea level rise during the last deglacial flooded the Siberian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, and microfossils show that the regional sea level in the Arctic rose rapidly from about 12 500 to 10 700 years ago. Regional sea level history on the Siberian shelf differs from the global deglacial sea level rise perhaps due to regional vertical adjustment resulting from the growth and decay of ice sheets.
Jorien E. Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Lisa Bröder, Henry Holmstrand, Gustaf Hugelius, August Andersson, Oleg Dudarev, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere, 11, 1879–1895,
Martin Jakobsson, Christof Pearce, Thomas M. Cronin, Jan Backman, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia Barrientos, Göran Björk, Helen Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Larry A. Mayer, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Johan Nilsson, Jayne E. Rattray, Christian Stranne, Igor Semiletov, and Matt O'Regan
Clim. Past, 13, 991–1005,Short summary
The Arctic and Pacific oceans are connected by the presently ~53 m deep Bering Strait. During the last glacial period when the sea level was lower than today, the Bering Strait was exposed. Humans and animals could then migrate between Asia and North America across the formed land bridge. From analyses of sediment cores and geophysical mapping data from Herald Canyon north of the Bering Strait, we show that the land bridge was flooded about 11 000 years ago.
Ira Leifer, Denis Chernykh, Natalia Shakhova, and Igor Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 1333–1350,Short summary
Vast Arctic methane deposits may alter global climate and require remote sensing (RS) to map. Sonar has great promise, but quantitative inversion based on theory is challenged by multiple bubble acoustical scattering in plumes. We demonstrate use of a real-world in situ bubble plume calibration using a bubble model to correct for differences in the calibration and seep plumes. Spatial seep sonar maps were then used to improve understanding of subsurface geologic controls.
Célia J. Sapart, Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Joachim Jansen, Sönke Szidat, Denis Kosmach, Oleg Dudarev, Carina van der Veen, Matthias Egger, Valentine Sergienko, Anatoly Salyuk, Vladimir Tumskoy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 2283–2292,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean, especially the Siberian shelves, overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading. We show that methane with a biogenic origin is emitted from this permafrost. At locations where bubble plumes have been observed, methane can escape oxidation in the surface sediment and rapidly migrate through the very shallow water column of this region to escape to the atmosphere, generating a positive radiative feedback.
Leif G. Anderson, Göran Björk, Ola Holby, Sara Jutterström, Carl Magnus Mörth, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, Tim Stöven, Toste Tanhua, Adam Ulfsbo, and Martin Jakobsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 349–363,Short summary
We use data collected in 2014 to show that the outflow of nutrient-rich water occurs much further to the west than has been reported in the past. We suggest that this is due to much less summer sea-ice coverage in the northwestern East Siberian Sea than in the past decades. Further, our data support a more complicated flow pattern in the region where the Mendeleev Ridge reaches the shelf compared to the general cyclonic circulation within the individual basins as suggested historically.
Leif G. Anderson, Jörgen Ek, Ylva Ericson, Christoph Humborg, Igor Semiletov, Marcus Sundbom, and Adam Ulfsbo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1811–1823,Short summary
Waters with very high p>CO2, nutrients and low oxygen concentrations were observed along the continental margin of the East Siberian Sea and well out into the deep Makarov and Canada basins during the SWERUS-C3 expedition in 2014. This water had a low saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate, down to less than 0.8 for calcite and 0.5 for aragonite, and is traced in historic data to the Canada Basin and in the waters flowing out of the Arctic Ocean in the western Fram Strait.
Christof Pearce, Aron Varhelyi, Stefan Wastegård, Francesco Muschitiello, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Igor Semiletov, Jan Backman, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 303–316,Short summary
The eruption of the Alaskan Aniakchak volcano of 3.6 thousand years ago was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found in several Alaskan sites and as far as Newfoundland and Greenland. In this study, we found ash from the Aniakchak eruption in a marine sediment core from the western Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Combined with radiocarbon dates on mollusks, the volcanic age marker is used to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age at that time.
Erik Gustafsson, Christoph Humborg, Göran Björk, Christian Stranne, Leif G. Anderson, Marc C. Geibel, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Marcus Sundbom, Igor P. Semiletov, Brett F. Thornton, and Bo G. Gustafsson
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this study we quantify key carbon cycling processes on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. A specific aim is to determine the pathways of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) supplied by rivers and coastline erosion – and particularly to what extent degradation of terrestrial OC contributes to air-sea CO2 exchange. We estimate that the shelf is a weak CO2 sink, although this sink is considerably reduced mainly by degradation of eroded OC and to a lesser extent by degradation of riverine OC.
Joan A. Salvadó, Tommaso Tesi, Marcus Sundbom, Emma Karlsson, Martin Kruså, Igor P. Semiletov, Elena Panova, and Örjan Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 13, 6121–6138,Short summary
Fluvial discharge and coastal erosion of the permafrost-dominated East Siberian Arctic delivers large quantities of terrigenous organic carbon (Terr-OC) to marine waters. We assessed its fate and composition in different marine pools with a suite of biomarkers. The dissolved organic carbon is transporting off-shelf “young” and fresh vascular plant material, while sedimentary and near-bottom particulate organic carbon preferentially carries old organic carbon released from thawing permafrost.
Imke K. Schäfer, Verena Lanny, Jörg Franke, Timothy I. Eglinton, Michael Zech, Barbora Vysloužilová, and Roland Zech
SOIL, 2, 551–564,Short summary
For this study we systematically investigated the molecular pattern of leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect to assess their potential for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Our results show that leaf wax patterns depend on the type of vegetation. The vegetation signal is not only found in the litter; it can also be preserved to some degree in the topsoil.
Robert B. Sparkes, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, Negar Haghipour, Lukas Wacker, Timothy I. Eglinton, Helen M. Talbot, and Bart E. van Dongen
The Cryosphere, 10, 2485–2500,Short summary
The permafrost in eastern Siberia contains large amounts of carbon frozen in soils and sediments. Continuing global warming is thawing the permafrost and releasing carbon to the Arctic Ocean. We used pyrolysis-GCMS, a chemical fingerprinting technique, to study the types of carbon being deposited on the continental shelf. We found large amounts of permafrost-sourced carbon being deposited up to 200 km offshore.
Lisa Bröder, Tommaso Tesi, Joan A. Salvadó, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, and Örjan Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 13, 5003–5019,Short summary
Thawing permafrost may release large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (TerrOC) to the Arctic Ocean. We assessed its fate in the marine environment with a suite of biomarkers. Across the Laptev Sea their concentrations in surface sediments decreased significantly and showed a trend to qualitatively more degraded TerrOC with increasing water depth. We infer that the degree of degradation of TerrOC is a function of the time spent under oxic conditions during protracted cross-shelf transport.
Juliane Bischoff, Robert B. Sparkes, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Robert G. M. Spencer, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, Dirk Wagner, Elizaveta Rivkina, Bart E. van Dongen, and Helen M. Talbot
Biogeosciences, 13, 4899–4914,Short summary
The Arctic contains a large pool of carbon that is vulnerable to warming and can be released by rivers and coastal erosion. We study microbial lipids (BHPs) in permafrost and shelf sediments to trace the source, transport and fate of this carbon. BHPs in permafrost deposits are released to the shelf by rivers and coastal erosion, in contrast to other microbial lipids (GDGTs) that are transported by rivers. Several further analyses are needed to understand the complex East Siberian Shelf system.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Claudia Zell, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Xiaojuan Feng, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 13, 3427–3439,Short summary
This study explores heterogeneity in 14C content of soil organic matter (SOM) at different spatial scales and across climatic and geologic gradients, which is essential for a better understanding of SOM stability. Results reveal that despite dissimilar environmental conditions, 14C contents in topsoils is relatively uniform and 14C trends with depth are similar. Plot-scale variability is significant. Statistical analysis found a significant correlation of 14C contents (0–5 cm) and temperature.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, W. B. Bowden, I. Laurion, W. F. Vincent, P. Alekseychik, M. Amyot, M. F. Billet, J. Canário, R. M. Cory, B. N. Deshpande, M. Helbig, M. Jammet, J. Karlsson, J. Larouche, G. MacMillan, M. Rautio, K. M. Walter Anthony, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 7129–7167,Short summary
In this review, we give an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding how permafrost thaw affects aquatic systems. We describe the general impacts of thaw on aquatic ecosystems, pathways of organic matter and contaminant release and degradation, resulting emissions and burial, and effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. We conclude with an overview of potential climate effects and recommendations for future research.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, P. J. Mann, R. G. M. Spencer, C. C. Treat, R. G. Striegl, B. W. Abbott, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 6915–6930,Short summary
We found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in arctic soils and aquatic systems is increasingly degradable with increasing permafrost extent. Also, DOC seems less degradable when moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly bioavailable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also recommend a standardized DOC incubation protocol to facilitate future comparison on processing and transport of DOC in a changing Arctic.
X. Feng, Ö. Gustafsson, R. M. Holmes, J. E. Vonk, B. E. van Dongen, I. P. Semiletov, O. V. Dudarev, M. B. Yunker, R. W. Macdonald, D. B. Montluçon, and T. I. Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 12, 4841–4860,Short summary
Currently very few studies have examined the distribution and fate of hydrolyzable organic carbon (OC) in Arctic sediments, whose fate remains unclear in the context of climate change. Our study focuses on the source, distribution and fate of hydrolyzable OC as compared with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in the sedimentary particles of nine Arctic and sub-Arctic rivers. This multi-molecular approach allows for a comprehensive investigation of terrestrial OC transfer via Arctic rivers.
N. Gentsch, R. Mikutta, R. J. E. Alves, J. Barta, P. Čapek, A. Gittel, G. Hugelius, P. Kuhry, N. Lashchinskiy, J. Palmtag, A. Richter, H. Šantrůčková, J. Schnecker, O. Shibistova, T. Urich, B. Wild, and G. Guggenberger
Biogeosciences, 12, 4525–4542,
R. B. Sparkes, A. Doğrul Selver, J. Bischoff, H. M. Talbot, Ö. Gustafsson, I. P. Semiletov, O. V. Dudarev, and B. E. van Dongen
Biogeosciences, 12, 3753–3768,Short summary
Siberian permafrost contains large amounts of organic carbon that may be released by climate warming. We collected and analysed samples from the East Siberian Sea, using GDGT biomarkers to trace the sourcing and deposition of organic carbon across the shelf. We show that branched GDGTs may be used to trace river erosion. Results from modelling show that organic carbon on the shelf is a complex process involving river-derived and coastal-derived material as well as marine carbon production.
E. N. Kirillova, A. Andersson, J. Han, M. Lee, and Ö. Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1413–1422,
I. P. Semiletov, N. E. Shakhova, I. I. Pipko, S. P. Pugach, A. N. Charkin, O. V. Dudarev, D. A. Kosmach, and S. Nishino
Biogeosciences, 10, 5977–5996,
Related subject area
Geology and geochemistryA new local meteoric water line for Inuvik (NT, Canada)A national landslide inventory of DenmarkDescription of a global marine particulate organic carbon-13 isotope data setThe Database of the Active Faults of Eurasia (AFEAD): Ontology and Design behind the Continental-Scale DatasetIntroducing GloRiSe – a global database on river sediment compositionSynoptic analysis of a decade of daily measurements of SO2 emission in the troposphere from volcanoes of the global ground-based Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric ChangeA European map of groundwater pH and calciumBioavailable soil and rock strontium isotope data from IsraelIsoscape of amount-weighted annual mean precipitation tritium (3H) activity from 1976 to 2017 for the Adriatic–Pannonian region – AP3H_v1 databaseThe dead line for oil and gas and implication for fossil resource predictionTephraKam: geochemical database of glass compositions in tephra and welded tuffs from the Kamchatka volcanic arc (northwestern Pacific)Global whole-rock geochemical database compilationGridded maps of geological methane emissions and their isotopic signatureOCTOPUS: an open cosmogenic isotope and luminescence databaseData on geochemical and hydraulic properties of a characteristic confined/unconfined aquifer system of the younger Pleistocene in northeast GermanyThe IRHUM (Isotopic Reconstruction of Human Migration) database – bioavailable strontium isotope ratios for geochemical fingerprinting in France
Michael Fritz, Sebastian Wetterich, Joel McAlister, and Hanno Meyer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 57–63,Short summary
From 2015 to 2018 we collected rain and snow samples in Inuvik, Canada. We measured the stable water isotope composition of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) with a mass spectrometer. This data will be of interest for other scientists who work in the Arctic. They will be able to compare our modern data with their own isotope data in old ice, for example in glaciers, and in permafrost. This will help to correctly interpret the climate signals of the environmental history of the Earth.
Gregor Luetzenburg, Kristian Svennevig, Anders Anker Bjørk, Marie Keiding, and Aart Kroon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We produced the first landslide inventory for Denmark. Over 3200 landslides were mapped using a high-resolution elevation model and orthophotos. We implemented an independent validation into our mapping and found an overall level of completeness of 87 %. The national inventory represents a range of landslide sizes covering all regions that were covered by glacial ice during the last glacial period. This inventory will be used for investigating landslide causes and for natural hazard mitigation.
Maria-Theresia Verwega, Christopher J. Somes, Markus Schartau, Robyn Elizabeth Tuerena, Anne Lorrain, Andreas Oschlies, and Thomas Slawig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4861–4880,Short summary
This work describes a ready-to-use collection of particulate organic carbon stable isotope ratio data sets. It covers the 1960s–2010s and all main oceans, providing meta-information and gridded data. The best coverage exists in Atlantic, Indian and Southern Ocean surface waters during the 1990s. It indicates no major difference between methods and shows decreasing values towards high latitudes, with the lowest in the Southern Ocean, and a long-term decline in all regions but the Southern Ocean.
Egor Zelenin, Dmitry Bachmanov, Sofya Garipova, Vladimir Trifonov, and Andrey Kozhurin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Active faults are faults in the Earth's crust with a possible future slip. A slip at the fault will cause an earthquake, and it draws particular attention to active faults in tectonic studies and seismic hazard assessment. We present the Active Faults of Eurasia Database (AFEAD), a high-detail continental-scale geodatabase comprising 46,775 faults. Location, name, slip characteristics, and a reference to source publications are provided for database entries.
Gerrit Müller, Jack J. Middelburg, and Appy Sluijs
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3565–3575,Short summary
Rivers are major freshwater resources, connectors and transporters on Earth. As the composition of river waters and particles results from processes in their catchment, such as erosion, weathering, environmental pollution, nutrient and carbon cycling, Earth-spanning databases of river composition are needed for studies of these processes on a global scale. While extensive resources on water and nutrient composition exist, we provide a database of river particle composition.
Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Fredy Apaza, Geoffroy Avard, Charlotte Barrington, Nicole Bobrowski, Claudia Bucarey, Viviana Burbano, Mike Burton, Zoraida Chacón, Gustavo Chigna, Christian Joseph Clarito, Vladimir Conde, Fidel Costa, Maarten De Moor, Hugo Delgado-Granados, Andrea Di Muro, Deborah Fernandez, Gustavo Garzón, Hendra Gunawan, Nia Haerani, Thor H. Hansteen, Silvana Hidalgo, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Mattias Johansson, Christoph Kern, Manne Kihlman, Philippe Kowalski, Pablo Masias, Francisco Montalvo, Joakim Möller, Ulrich Platt, Claudia Rivera, Armando Saballos, Giuseppe Salerno, Benoit Taisne, Freddy Vásconez, Gabriela Velásquez, Fabio Vita, and Mathieu Yalire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1167–1188,Short summary
This study presents a dataset of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 2005–2017. Measurements were obtained by Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) scanning differential optical absorption spectrometer (ScanDOAS) instruments at 32 volcanoes and processed using a standardized procedure. We show statistics of volcanic gas emissions under a variety of conditions and compare them with averages derived from measurements from space and historical inventories.
Michal Hájek, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Ondřej Hájek, Lisa Brancaleoni, Marco Cantonati, Michele Carbognani, Anita Dedić, Daniel Dítě, Renato Gerdol, Petra Hájková, Veronika Horsáková, Florian Jansen, Jasmina Kamberović, Jutta Kapfer, Tiina Hilkka Maria Kolari, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Predrag Lazarević, Ermin Mašić, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Aaron Pérez-Haase, Tomáš Peterka, Alessandro Petraglia, Eulàlia Pladevall-Izard, Zuzana Plesková, Stefano Segadelli, Yuliya Semeniuk, Patrícia Singh, Anna Šímová, Eva Šmerdová, Teemu Tahvanainen, Marcello Tomaselli, Yuliya Vystavna, Claudia Biţă-Nicolae, and Michal Horsák
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1089–1105,Short summary
We developed an up-to-date European map of groundwater pH and Ca (the major determinants of diversity of wetlands) based on 7577 measurements. In comparison to the existing maps, we included much a larger data set from the regions rich in endangered wetland habitats, filled the apparent gaps in eastern and southeastern Europe, and applied geospatial modelling. The latitudinal and altitudinal gradients were rediscovered with much refined regional patterns, as is associated with bedrock variation.
Ian Moffat, Rachel Rudd, Malte Willmes, Graham Mortimer, Les Kinsley, Linda McMorrow, Richard Armstrong, Maxime Aubert, and Rainer Grün
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3641–3652,Short summary
This research has measured the bioavailable strontium isotope composition of soil and rock samples from the major geological units in Israel. Plants, animals and people take up this value into their bones and teeth via food and water and so mapping these values has important implications for understanding where archaeological, ecological, food science and forensic samples are from.
Zoltán Kern, Dániel Erdélyi, Polona Vreča, Ines Krajcar Bronić, István Fórizs, Tjaša Kanduč, Marko Štrok, László Palcsu, Miklós Süveges, György Czuppon, Balázs Kohán, and István Gábor Hatvani
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2061–2073,Short summary
Here we present the spatially continuous gridded database for amount-weighted annual mean tritium activity in precipitation for the period 1976 to 2017 for the Adriatic–Pannonian region, with a special focus on the years after 2010, which are not represented by existing global models. This AP3H database is capable of providing reliable spatiotemporal input for hydrogeological applications at any place within Slovenia, Hungary, and their surroundings.
Xiongqi Pang, Chengzao Jia, Kun Zhang, Maowen Li, Youwei Wang, Junwen Peng, Boyuan Li, and Junqing Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 577–590,Short summary
Based on geochemical data of 13 634 source rock samples from 1286 wells and 116 489 drilling results for oil and gas from 4978 wells in six major basins of China, we proposed the concept of the active source rock depth limit. It can be used to clarify and predict the maximum depth of fossil fuel distribution in sedimentary basins. The study provides fundamental information for deep hydrocarbon exploration and also advances understanding of the vertical distribution of fossil fuels on our planet.
Maxim V. Portnyagin, Vera V. Ponomareva, Egor A. Zelenin, Lilia I. Bazanova, Maria M. Pevzner, Anastasia A. Plechova, Aleksei N. Rogozin, and Dieter Garbe-Schönberg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 469–486,Short summary
Tephra is fragmented material produced by explosive volcanic eruptions. Geochemically characterized tephra layers are excellent time marker horizons and samples of magma composition. TephraKam is database of the ages and chemical composition of volcanic glass in tephra from the Kamchatka volcanic arc (northwestern Pacific). TephraKam enables the identification of tephra sources, correlation and dating of natural archives, and reconstruction of spatiotemporal evolution of volcanism in Kamchatka.
Matthew Gard, Derrick Hasterok, and Jacqueline A. Halpin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1553–1566,Short summary
We compiled a database of more than 1 million chemical analyses of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, derived from existing databases, governmental data and academic studies. Our database enhances temporal distributions, simplifies the structure, and adds geochemical indices, naming schema, and estimates of physical properties such as density. This database provides a source for the rapid production of crustal models and chemical evolution throughout 4 billion years of geologic history.
Giuseppe Etiope, Giancarlo Ciotoli, Stefan Schwietzke, and Martin Schoell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1–22,Short summary
We developed the first global maps of natural geological CH4 flux and isotopic values which can be used for new atmospheric CH4 modelling. The maps, based on updated, measured and theoretically estimated data, show that the highest geo-CH4 emissions are located in the Northern Hemisphere (N. America, Caspian region, Europe, Siberian Arctic Shelf), and that geo-CH4 is less 13C-enriched than what has been assumed so far in other studies. Other CH4 sources can now be estimated with higher accuracy.
Alexandru T. Codilean, Henry Munack, Timothy J. Cohen, Wanchese M. Saktura, Andrew Gray, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2123–2139,Short summary
OCTOPUS is a database of cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence measurements in fluvial sediment made available to the research community via an Open Geospatial Consortium compliant web service. OCTOPUS and its associated data curation framework provide the opportunity for researchers to reuse previously published but otherwise unusable CRN and luminescence data. This delivers the potential to harness old but valuable data that would otherwise be lost to the research community.
C. Merz and J. Steidl
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 109–116,Short summary
The paper presents a database of hydrochemical and hydraulic groundwater measurements of a younger Pleistocene aquifer system in NE Germany. The Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) operates seven groundwater monitoring wells in the Quillow catchment located in the Uckermark region (Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany). This database can be used for the investigation of subsurface water geochemistry under changing hydraulic boundary conditions regarding a 14-year period.
M. Willmes, L. McMorrow, L. Kinsley, R. Armstrong, M. Aubert, S. Eggins, C. Falguères, B. Maureille, I. Moffat, and R. Grün
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 117–122,
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The paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of the first Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE), which is a scientific effort to harmonize and curate all published and unpublished data of carbon, nitrogen, carbon isotopes, and terrigenous biomarkers in sediments of the Arctic Ocean in one database. CASCADE will enable a variety of studies of the Arctic carbon cycle and thus contribute to a better understanding of how climate change affects the Arctic.
The paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of the first Circum-Arctic...