Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
Data description paper 04 Feb 2022
Data description paper | 04 Feb 2022
Homogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation over Japan
Qian Ma et al.
Jizeng Du, Kaicun Wang, Jiankai Wang, and Qian Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4931–4944,
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4411–4428,Short summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plumes plays an important role in air pollution and climate. We coupled an SGPF scheme to a chemical transport model with an aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Xueshun Chen, Fangqun Yu, Wenyi Yang, Yele Sun, Huansheng Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Ying Wei, Lianfang Wei, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Jie Li, Junling An, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9343–9366,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles have significant climate and health effects that depend on aerosol size, composition, and mixing state. A new global-regional nested aerosol model with an advanced particle microphysics module and a volatility basis set organic aerosol module was developed to simulate aerosol microphysical processes. Simulations strongly suggest the important role of anthropogenic organic species in particle formation over the areas influenced by anthropogenic sources.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Fei Feng and Kaicun Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 907–922,
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Huangjian Wu, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Duohong Chen, Yuepeng Pan, Tao Song, Fei Li, Haitao Zheng, Guanglin Jia, Miaomiao Lu, Lin Wu, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 529–570,Short summary
China's air pollution has changed substantially since 2013. Here we have developed a 6-year-long high-resolution air quality reanalysis dataset over China from 2013 to 2018 to illustrate such changes and to provide a basic dataset for relevant studies. Surface fields of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations are provided, and the evaluation results indicate that the reanalysis dataset has excellent performance in reproducing the magnitude and variation of air pollution in China.
Han Xiao, Qizhong Wu, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 223–238,Short summary
Few studies have investigated the effects of initial conditions on the simulation or prediction of PM2.5 concentrations. Here, sensitivity experiments are used to explore the effects of three initial mechanisms (clean, restart, and continuous) and emissions in Xi’an in December 2016. According to this work, if the restart mechanism cannot be used due to computing resource and storage space limitations when forecasting PM2.5 concentrations, a spin-up time of at least 27 h is needed.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Hui Wang, Junmin Lin, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Xiao Tang, Zifa Wang, Xueshun Chen, Huaqiong Cheng, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 749–764,Short summary
A new framework was designed for the widely used Carbon Bond Mechanism Z (CBM-Z) gas-phase chemical kinetics kernel to adapt the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) technology in next-generation processors like Knights Landing (KNL) to improve their calculation performance. The optimization is aimed at implementing the fine-grain level parallelization of CBM-Z. The test results showed significant acceleration with our optimization on both CPU and KNL platforms.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hongjun Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Rongrong Wang, Lanning Wang, Han Xiao, and Xiaochun Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9583–9596,Short summary
The Beijing area has suffered from severe air quality pollution in recent years, including ozone pollution in summer. BVOC emissions play a non-negligible role in air quality and climate. Since the forest cover rate increased from 20.6 % to 35.8 % during 1998–2013 in Beijing, we presented a new estimation of local BVOC emissions in a current scenario based on the latest emission model MEGAN v2.1 and also adopted diverse input datasets for the sensitivities of the model and results.
Chunlüe Zhou, Yanyi He, and Kaicun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8113–8136,
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Hui Wang, Huansheng Chen, Qizhong Wu, Junmin Lin, Xueshun Chen, Xinwei Xie, Rongrong Wang, Xiao Tang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2891–2904,Short summary
We introduced some methods to port our Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) model on Intel Knight Landing (KNL). In this paper, we introduced both common and specific methods to accelerate out model better. With the guidance of the resources material on Intel Websites (http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/products/processors/xeon-phi.html) and relative books, this paper could be an example for the model developers to take advantage of KNL for their model.
Jizeng Du, Kaicun Wang, Jiankai Wang, and Qian Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4931–4944,
Q. Z. Wu, W. S. Xu, A. J. Shi, Y. T. Li, X. J. Zhao, Z. F. Wang, J. X. Li, and L. N. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2243–2259,
D. Ji, L. Wang, J. Feng, Q. Wu, H. Cheng, Q. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Dong, Y. Dai, D. Gong, R.-H. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Liu, J. C. Moore, D. Chen, and M. Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2039–2064,
X. Y. Wang and K. C. Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1701–1709,
B. Mueller, M. Hirschi, C. Jimenez, P. Ciais, P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, F. Ludwig, F. Maignan, D. G. Miralles, M. F. McCabe, M. Reichstein, J. Sheffield, K. Wang, E. F. Wood, Y. Zhang, and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3707–3720,
Related subject area
Atmosphere – MeteorologyEUREC4A's Maria S. Merian ship-based cloud and micro rain radar observations of clouds and precipitationDeployment of the C-band radar Poldirad on Barbados during EUREC4ARemote and autonomous measurements of precipitation for the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, AntarcticaHigh-frequency observation during sand and dust storms at the Qingtu Lake Observatory10 years of temperature and wind observation on a 45 m tower at Dome C, East Antarctic plateauGlobal balanced wind derived from SABER temperature and pressure observations and its validationsEUREC4A's HALOJOANNE: Joint dropsonde Observations of the Atmosphere in tropical North atlaNtic meso-scale EnvironmentsGround-based vertical profile observations of atmospheric composition on the Tibetan Plateau (2017–2019)Presentation and discussion of the high-resolution atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface simulation dataset of the simulated Neckar catchment for the period 2007–2015EUREC4ASLOCLIM: a high-resolution daily gridded precipitation and temperature dataset for SloveniaTurbulence dissipation rate estimated from lidar observations during the LAPSE-RATE field campaignLong-term variations in actual evapotranspiration over the Tibetan PlateauThe NY-Ålesund TurbulencE Fiber Optic eXperiment (NYTEFOX): investigating the Arctic boundary layer, SvalbardThe EUREC4A turbulence dataset derived from the SAFIRE ATR 42 aircraftEMDNA: an Ensemble Meteorological Dataset for North AmericaA mean-sea-level pressure time series for Trieste, Italy (1841–2018)Observations from the NOAA P-3 aircraft during ATOMICThe WGLC global gridded lightning climatology and time seriesSouthern Ocean cloud and aerosol data: a compilation of measurements from the 2018 Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystems and Environment voyageA high-resolution gridded dataset of daily temperature and precipitation records (1980–2018) for Trentino-South Tyrol (north-eastern Italian Alps)Hydrometeorological dataset of West Siberian boreal peatland: a 10-year record from the Mukhrino field stationUniversity of Colorado and Black Swift Technologies RPAS-based measurements of the lower atmosphere during LAPSE-RATEIntercomparisons, error assessments, and technical information on historical upper-air measurementsUniversity of Nebraska unmanned aerial system (UAS) profiling during the LAPSE-RATE field campaignIntegrated water vapour observations in the Caribbean arc from a network of ground-based GNSS receivers during EUREC4ASub-seasonal forecasts of demand and wind power and solar power generation for 28 European countriesConstruction of homogenized daily surface air temperature for the city of Tianjin during 1887–2019HydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data): a 25 km global precipitation and temperature data set updated in near-real timeIntegrated water vapour content retrievals from ship-borne GNSS receivers during EUREC4AHydrometeorological data from a Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Station network in Central AsiaWegenerNet high-resolution weather and climate data from 2007 to 2020G2DC-PL+: a gridded 2 km daily climate dataset for the union of the Polish territory and the Vistula and Odra basinsMeteorological observations collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide Experiment (SPADE), April–June 2019High-resolution in situ observations of atmospheric thermodynamics using dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaignRemote-sensing and radiosonde datasets collected in the San Luis Valley during the LAPSE-RATE campaignTen-year return levels of sub-daily extreme precipitation over EuropeAntarctic atmospheric boundary layer observations with the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO)A high-resolution unified observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States for 2004–2017Real-time WRF large-eddy simulations to support uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) flight planning and operations during 2018 LAPSE-RATEAtmospheric radiative profiles during EUREC4AThe Large-eddy Observatory Voitsumra Experiment 2019 (LOVE19) with high-resolution, spatially-distributed observations of air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction from fiber-optic distributed sensing, towers, and ground-based remote sensingShip- and island-based atmospheric soundings from the 2020 EUREC4A field campaignRadar and ground-level measurements of precipitation collected by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne during the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter gamesClimate benchmarks and input parameters representing locations in 68 countries for a stochastic weather generator, CLIGENA multi-scale daily SPEI dataset for drought characterization at observation stations over mainland China from 1961 to 2018Observations of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the atmospheric boundary layer over the San Luis Valley, CO, using the CopterSonde 2 remotely piloted aircraft system in support of the LAPSE-RATE field campaignMeasurements from mobile surface vehicles during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE)Winter atmospheric boundary layer observations over sea ice in the coastal zone of the Bay of Bothnia (Baltic Sea)
Claudia Acquistapace, Richard Coulter, Susanne Crewell, Albert Garcia-Benadi, Rosa Gierens, Giacomo Labbri, Alexander Myagkov, Nils Risse, and Jan H. Schween
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 33–55,Short summary
This publication describes the unprecedented high-resolution cloud and precipitation dataset collected by two radars deployed on the Maria S. Merian research vessel. The ship operated in the west Atlantic Ocean during the measurement campaign called EUREC4A, between 19 January and 19 February 2020. The data collected are crucial to investigate clouds and precipitation and understand how they form and change over the ocean, where it is so difficult to measure them.
Martin Hagen, Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Lothar Oswald, David A. Farrell, Marvin Forde, Manuel Gutleben, Johann Heumos, Jens Reimann, Eleni Tetoni, Gregor Köcher, Eleni Marinou, Christoph Kiemle, Qiang Li, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Alton Daley, Delando Grant, and Kashawn Hall
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5899–5914,Short summary
The German polarimetric weather radar Poldirad was deployed for the international campaign EUREC4A on Barbados. The focus was monitoring clouds and precipitation in the trade wind region east of Barbados. Observations were with a temporal sequence of 5 min and a maximum range of 375 km. Examples of mesoscale precipitation patterns, rain rate accumulation, diurnal cycle, and vertical distribution show the potential for further studies on the life cycle of precipitating shallow cumulus clouds.
Mark W. Seefeldt, Taydra M. Low, Scott D. Landolt, and Thomas H. Nylen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5803–5817,Short summary
The Antarctic Precipitation System project deployed and maintained four sites across Antarctica from November 2017 to November 2019. The goals for the project included the collection of in situ observations of precipitation in Antarctica, an improvement in the understanding of precipitation in Antarctica, and the ability to validate precipitation data from atmospheric numerical models. The collected dataset represents some of the first year-round observations of precipitation in Antarctica.
Xuebo Li, Yongxiang Huang, Guohua Wang, and Xiaojing Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5819–5830,Short summary
High-frequency observatory data (50 Hz 3D wind velocity, 50 Hz temperature and 1 Hz PM10) for studying the features of the fluid and dust field during sand and dust storms were presented. It is anticipated that data collected in this work will be of utility not only specifically for the boundary layer community in building a model for sand and dust storms but also broadly for communities studying the exchange of the dust and fluid field and energy transfer for the particle-laden two-phase flow.
Christophe Genthon, Dana Veron, Etienne Vignon, Delphine Six, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Emmanuelle Sultan, and François Forget
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5731–5746,Short summary
A 10-year dataset of observation in the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C on the high Antarctic plateau is presented. This is obtained with sensors at six levels along a tower higher than 40 m. The temperature inversion can reach more than 25 °C along the tower in winter, while full mixing by convection can occur in summer. Different amplitudes of variability for wind and temperature at the different levels reflect different signatures of solar vs. synoptic forcing of the boundary layer.
Xiao Liu, Jiyao Xu, Jia Yue, You Yu, Paulo P. Batista, Vania F. Andrioli, Zhengkuan Liu, Tao Yuan, Chi Wang, Ziming Zou, Guozhu Li, and James M. Russell III
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5643–5661,Short summary
Based on the gradient balance wind theory and the SABER observations, a dataset of monthly mean zonal wind has been developed at heights of 18–100 km and latitudes of 50° Sndash;50° N from 2002 to 2019. The dataset agrees with the zonal wind from models (MERRA2, UARP, HWM14) and observations by meteor radar and lidar at seven stations. The dataset can be used to study seasonal and interannual variations and can serve as a background for wave studies of tides and planetary waves.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5545–5563,Short summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Geet George, Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, Robert Pincus, Chris Fairall, Hauke Schulz, Tobias Kölling, Quinn T. Kalen, Marcus Klingebiel, Heike Konow, Ashley Lundry, Marc Prange, and Jule Radtke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5253–5272,Short summary
Dropsondes measure atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity and horizontal winds. The EUREC4A field campaign deployed 1215 dropsondes during January–February 2020 in the north Atlantic trade-wind region in order to characterize the thermodynamic and the dynamic structure of the atmosphere, primarily at horizontal scales of ~ 200 km. We present JOANNE, the dataset that provides these dropsonde measurements and thereby a rich characterization of the trade-wind atmosphere.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Hongyu Wu, Jinan Lin, Fan Wang, Shuntian Wang, and Meng Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4897–4912,Short summary
Observations of atmospheric composition, especially vertical profile observations, remain sparse and rare on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), due to extremely high altitude, topographical heterogeneity and the grinding environment. This paper introduces a high-time-resolution (~ 15 min) vertical profile observational dataset of atmospheric composition (aerosols, NO2, HCHO and HONO) on the TP for more than 1 year (2017–2019) using a passive remote sensing technique.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Nina Škrk, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Katarina Čufar, Maks Merela, Zalika Črepinšek, Lučka Kajfež Bogataj, and Martín de Luis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3577–3592,Short summary
SLOCLIM is the first climatic reconstruction for Slovenia with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km, providing daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation from 1950 to 2018. This new daily gridded dataset contributes significantly to the climate description of the country and is expected to facilitate research activities in numerous scientific disciplines dealing with climate trends, environment, human and animal populations, agriculture, and forestry.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez, Julie K. Lundquist, Petra M. Klein, and Tyler M. Bell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3539–3549,Short summary
In July 2018, the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely-piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a flight week to demonstrate unmanned aircraft systems' capabilities in sampling the atmospheric boundary layer. Three Doppler lidars were deployed during this week-long experiment. We use data from these lidars to estimate turbulence dissipation rate. We observe large temporal variability and significant differences in dissipation for lidars with different sampling techniques.
Cunbo Han, Yaoming Ma, Binbin Wang, Lei Zhong, Weiqiang Ma, Xuelong Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3513–3524,Short summary
Actual terrestrial evapotranspiration (ETa) is a key parameter controlling the land–atmosphere interaction processes and water cycle. However, the spatial distribution and temporal changes in ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remain very uncertain. Here we estimate the multiyear (2001–2018) monthly ETa and its spatial distribution on the TP by a combination of meteorological data and satellite products. Results have been validated at six eddy-covariance monitoring sites and show high accuracy.
Marie-Louise Zeller, Jannis-Michael Huss, Lena Pfister, Karl E. Lapo, Daniela Littmann, Johann Schneider, Alexander Schulz, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3439–3452,Short summary
The boundary layer (BL) is well understood when convectively mixed, yet we lack this understanding when it becomes stable and no longer follows classic similarity theories. The NYTEFOX campaign collected a unique meteorological data set in the Arctic BL of Svalbard during polar night, where it tends to be highly stable. Using innovative fiber-optic distributed sensing, we are able to provide unique insight into atmospheric motions across large distances resolved continuously in space and time.
Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Marie Lothon, Jean-Claude Etienne, Pascal Richard, Sandrine Bony, Julien Lernoult, Hubert Bellec, Gilles Vergez, Thierry Perrin, Julien Delanoë, Tetyana Jiang, Frédéric Pouvesle, Claude Lainard, Michel Cluzeau, Laurent Guiraud, Patrice Medina, and Theotime Charoy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3379–3398,Short summary
During the EUREC4A field experiment that took place over the tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, the French ATR 42 environment research aircraft of SAFIRE aimed to characterize the shallow cloud properties near cloud base and the turbulent structure of the subcloud layer. The high-frequency measurements of wind, temperature and humidity as well as their translation in terms of turbulent fluctuations, turbulent moments and characteristic length scales of turbulence are presented.
Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Andrew J. Newman, Andrew W. Wood, Dominique Brunet, and Paul H. Whitfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3337–3362,Short summary
Probabilistic estimates are useful to quantify the uncertainties in meteorological datasets. This study develops the Ensemble Meteorological Dataset for North America (EMDNA). EMDNA has 100 members with daily precipitation amount, mean daily temperature, and daily temperature range at 0.1° spatial resolution from 1979 to 2018. It is expected to be useful for hydrological and meteorological applications in North America.
Fabio Raicich and Renato R. Colucci
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3363–3377,Short summary
To understand climate change, it is essential to analyse long time series of atmospheric data. Here we studied the atmospheric pressure observed at Trieste (Italy) from 1841 to 2018. We examined the available information on the characteristics and elevations of the barometers and on the data sampling. A basic data quality control was also applied. As a result, we built a homogeneous time series of daily mean pressures at mean sea level, from which a trend of 0.5 hPa per century was estimated.
Robert Pincus, Chris W. Fairall, Adriana Bailey, Haonan Chen, Patrick Y. Chuang, Gijs de Boer, Graham Feingold, Dean Henze, Quinn T. Kalen, Jan Kazil, Mason Leandro, Ashley Lundry, Ken Moran, Dana A. Naeher, David Noone, Akshar J. Patel, Sergio Pezoa, Ivan PopStefanija, Elizabeth J. Thompson, James Warnecke, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3281–3296,Short summary
This paper describes observations taken from a research aircraft during a field experiment in the western Atlantic Ocean during January and February 2020. The plane made 11 flights, most 8-9 h long, and measured the properties of the atmosphere and ocean with a combination of direct measurements, sensors falling from the plane to profile the atmosphere and ocean, and remote sensing measurements of clouds and the ocean surface.
Jed O. Kaplan and Katie Hong-Kiu Lau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3219–3237,Short summary
Lightning is an important atmospheric phenomenon and natural hazard, but few long-term data are freely available on lightning stroke location, timing, and power. Here, we present a new, open-access dataset of lightning strokes covering 2010–2020, based on a network of low-frequency radio detectors. The dataset is comprised of GIS maps and is intended for researchers, government, industry, and anyone for whom knowing when and where lightning is likely to strike is useful information.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Alice Crespi, Michael Matiu, Giacomo Bertoldi, Marcello Petitta, and Marc Zebisch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2801–2818,Short summary
A 250 m gridded dataset of 1980–2018 daily mean temperature and precipitation records for Trentino–South Tyrol (north-eastern Italian Alps) was derived from a quality-controlled and homogenized archive of station observations. The errors associated with the final interpolated fields were assessed and thoroughly discussed. The product will be regularly updated and is meant to support regional climate studies and local monitoring and applications in integration with other fine-resolution data.
Egor Dyukarev, Nina Filippova, Dmitriy Karpov, Nikolay Shnyrev, Evgeny Zarov, Ilya Filippov, Nadezhda Voropay, Vitaly Avilov, Arseniy Artamonov, and Elena Lapshina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2595–2605,Short summary
A hydrological and meteorological dataset collected at the Mukhrino peatland, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Russia, over the period of 8 May 2010 to 31 December 2019 is presented. Northern peatlands represent one of the largest carbon pools in the biosphere. The carbon they store is increasingly vulnerable to perturbation. Meteorological observations directly at peatland areas in Siberia are rare, while peatlands are characterized by a specific local climate.
Gijs de Boer, Cory Dixon, Steven Borenstein, Dale A. Lawrence, Jack Elston, Daniel Hesselius, Maciej Stachura, Roger Laurence III, Sara Swenson, Christopher M. Choate, Abhiram Doddi, Aiden Sesnic, Katherine Glasheen, Zakariya Laouar, Flora Quinby, Eric Frew, and Brian M. Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2515–2528,Short summary
This paper describes data collected by uncrewed aircraft operated by the University of Colorado Boulder and Black Swift Technologies during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – A Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. This effort was conducted in the San Luis Valley of Colorado in July 2018 and included intensive observing of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper describes data collected by four aircraft operated by these entities.
Noemi Imfeld, Leopold Haimberger, Alexander Sterin, Yuri Brugnara, and Stefan Brönnimann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2471–2485,Short summary
Upper-air data form the backbone of reanalysis products, particularly in the pre-satellite era. However, historical upper-air data are error-prone because measurements at high altitude were especially challenging. Here, we present a collection of data from historical intercomparisons of radiosondes and error assessments reaching back to the 1930s that may allow us to better characterize such errors. The full database, including digitized data, images, and metadata, is made publicly available.
Ashraful Islam, Ajay Shankar, Adam Houston, and Carrick Detweiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2457–2470,Short summary
This paper describes the dataset containing thermodynamic measurements (pressure, temperature, humidity) from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln unmanned aerial system multirotors during the LAPSE-RATE campaign from 14–19 July 2018. The paper describes the placements, shielding, and aspiration of the sensors. The paper also describes the research objective for data collected each day. The dataset contains 171 files from two multirotors recording the vertical atmospheric boundary layer profile.
Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, Cyrille Flamant, Erik Doerflinger, Friedhelm Jansen, Romain Fages, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Schnitt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2407–2436,Short summary
Measurements from a network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers operated from the eastern Caribbean islands are used to monitor the total water vapour content in the atmosphere during the EUREC4A field campaign. These data help describe the moisture environment of mesoscale cloud patterns in the trade winds with high temporal sampling. They are also useful to assess the accuracy of collocated radiosonde measurements and numerical weather model reanalyses.
Hannah C. Bloomfield, David J. Brayshaw, Paula L. M. Gonzalez, and Andrew Charlton-Perez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2259–2274,Short summary
Energy systems are becoming more exposed to weather as more renewable generation is built. This means access to high-quality weather forecasts is becoming more important. This paper showcases past forecasts of electricity demand and wind power and solar power generation across 28 European countries. The timescale of interest is from 5 d out to 1 month ahead. This paper highlights the recent improvements in forecast skill and hopes to promote collaboration in the energy–meteorology community.
Peng Si, Qingxiang Li, and Phil Jones
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2211–2226,Short summary
This paper documents the various procedures necessary to construct a homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature series starting in 1887 for Tianjin. The newly constructed temperature series provides a set of new baseline data for the field of extreme climate change at the century-long scale and a reference for construction of other long-term reliable daily time series in the region.
Peter Berg, Fredrik Almén, and Denica Bozhinova
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1531–1545,Short summary
HydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data) is a data set of daily precipitation and temperature intended for use in hydrological modelling. The method uses different observational data sources to correct the variables from a model estimation of precipitation and temperature. An openly available data set covers the years 1979–2019, and times after this are available by request.
Pierre Bosser, Olivier Bock, Cyrille Flamant, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Speich
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1499–1517,Short summary
In the framework of the EUREC4A campaign, water vapour measurements were retrieved over the tropical west Atlantic Ocean from GNSS data acquired from three research vessels (R/Vs Atalante, Maria S. Merian and Meteor). The retrievals from R/Vs Atalante and Meteor are shown to be of high quality unlike the results for the R/V Maria S. Merian. These ship-borne retrievals are intended to be used for the description and understanding of meteorological phenomena that occurred during the campaign.
Cornelia Zech, Tilo Schöne, Julia Illigner, Nico Stolarczuk, Torsten Queißer, Matthias Köppl, Heiko Thoss, Alexander Zubovich, Azamat Sharshebaev, Kakhramon Zakhidov, Khurshid Toshpulatov, Yusufjon Tillayev, Sukhrob Olimov, Zabihullah Paiman, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Abror Gafurov, and Bolot Moldobekov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1289–1306,Short summary
The regional research network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) funded by the German Federal Foreign Office consists of 18 remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPSs) in Central Asia, and they are operated by German and Central Asian institutes and national hydrometeorological services. They provide up to 10 years of raw meteorological and hydrological data, especially in remote areas with extreme climate conditions, for applications in climate and water monitoring in Central Asia.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Mikołaj Piniewski, Mateusz Szcześniak, Ignacy Kardel, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, and Tomasz Berezowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1273–1288,Short summary
High-resolution gridded climate data are a key component of earth-system and hydrology models. Here we have described how we updated and extended the previous version of the climate dataset covering Poland and parts of neighbouring countries. The new dataset includes new variables (wind speed and relative humidity), has a higher spatial resolution (2 km) and has been updated to cover the most recent years 2014–2019. Interpolation errors exhibited large spatial and temporal variability.
Julie M. Thériault, Stephen J. Déry, John W. Pomeroy, Hilary M. Smith, Juris Almonte, André Bertoncini, Robert W. Crawford, Aurélie Desroches-Lapointe, Mathieu Lachapelle, Zen Mariani, Selina Mitchell, Jeremy E. Morris, Charlie Hébert-Pinard, Peter Rodriguez, and Hadleigh D. Thompson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1233–1249,Short summary
This article discusses the data that were collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide (SPADE) field campaign in spring 2019 in the Canadian Rockies, along the Alberta and British Columbia border. Various instruments were installed at five field sites to gather information about atmospheric conditions focussing on precipitation. Details about the field sites, the instrumentation used, the variables collected, and the collection methods and intervals are presented.
Holger Vömel, Mack Goodstein, Laura Tudor, Jacquelyn Witte, Željka Fuchs-Stone, Stipo Sentić, David Raymond, Jose Martinez-Claros, Ana Juračić, Vijit Maithel, and Justin W. Whitaker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1107–1117,Short summary
We provide an extensive data set of in situ vertical profile observations for pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds from 648 NCAR NRD41 dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaign. The measurements were taken during 22 flights of the NSF/NCAR G-V research aircraft in August and September 2019 over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The data allow a detailed study of atmospheric dynamics and convection over the tropical ocean.
Tyler M. Bell, Petra M. Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, and Sean Waugh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1041–1051,Short summary
In July 2018, numerous weather sensing remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) were flown in a flight week called Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE). As part of LAPSE-RATE, ground-based remote and in situ systems were also deployed to supplement and enhance observations from the RPASs. These instruments include multiple Doppler lidars, thermodynamic profilers, and radiosondes. This paper describes data from these systems.
Benjamin Poschlod, Ralf Ludwig, and Jana Sillmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 983–1003,Short summary
This study provides a homogeneous data set of 10-year rainfall return levels based on 50 simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model v5 (CRCM5). In order to evaluate its quality, the return levels are compared to those of observation-based rainfall of 16 European countries from 32 different sources. The CRCM5 is able to capture the general spatial pattern of observed extreme precipitation, and also the intensity is reproduced in 77 % of the area for rainfall durations of 3 h and longer.
John J. Cassano, Melissa A. Nigro, Mark W. Seefeldt, Marwan Katurji, Kelly Guinn, Guy Williams, and Alice DuVivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 969–982,Short summary
Between January 2012 and June 2017, a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS), or drone, known as the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO), was used to observe the lowest 1000 m of the Antarctic atmosphere. During six Antarctic field campaigns, 116 SUMO flights were completed. These flights took place during all seasons over both permanent ice and ice-free locations on the Antarctic continent and over sea ice in the western Ross Sea providing unique observations of the Antarctic atmosphere.
Jianfeng Li, Zhe Feng, Yun Qian, and L. Ruby Leung
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 827–856,Short summary
Deep convection has different properties at different scales. We develop a 4 km h−1 observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States from 2004–2017. We find that both types of convective systems contribute significantly to precipitation east of the Rocky Mountains but with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics. The data product will be useful for observational analyses and model evaluations of convection events at different scales.
James O. Pinto, Anders A. Jensen, Pedro A. Jiménez, Tracy Hertneky, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Arnaud Dumont, and Matthias Steiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 697–711,Short summary
The dataset produced here was generated as part of a real-time demonstration of a new capability to provide fine-scale weather guidance to support small UAS operations. The nested model configuration enabled us to resolve large turbulent eddies that developed in response to daytime heating and demonstrated the current state of the science in coupling mesoscale forcing with a large eddy simulation (LES) model. Output from these real-time simulations was used for planning IOPs during LAPSE-RATE.
Anna Lea Albright, Benjamin Fildier, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Robert Pincus, Jessica Vial, and Caroline Muller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 617–630,Short summary
A number of climate mysteries are rooted in uncertainties in how clouds respond to their environment in the trades, the global belt of easterly winds. Differences in radiative heating play a role in the couplings between clouds and their environment. We calculate radiative profiles from 2580 dropsondes and radiosondes from the EUREC4A field campaign (downstream Atlantic trades, winter 2020). We describe the method, assess uncertainty, and discuss radiative heating variability on multiple scales.
Karl Lapo, Anita Freundorfer, Antonia Fritz, Johann Schneider, Johannes Olesch, Wolfgang Babel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The layer of air near the surface is poorly understood during conditions with weak winds. Further, it is even difficult to observe. In this experiment we used distributed temperature sensing to observe air temperature and wind speed at 1000 s of points simultaneously every couple of seconds. This incredibly rich data set can be used to examine and understand what drives the mixing between the atmosphere and surface during these weak-wind periods.
Claudia Christine Stephan, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, Hugo Bellenger, Simon P. de Szoeke, Claudia Acquistapace, Katharina Baier, Thibaut Dauhut, Rémi Laxenaire, Yanmichel Morfa-Avalos, Renaud Person, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Tobias Böck, Alton Daley, Johannes Güttler, Kevin C. Helfer, Sebastian A. Los, Almuth Neuberger, Johannes Röttenbacher, Andreas Raeke, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Pauline Sadoulet, Imke Schirmacher, M. Katharina Stolla, Ethan Wright, Benjamin Charpentier, Alexis Doerenbecher, Richard Wilson, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Gilles Reverdin, Sabrina Speich, Sandrine Bony, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 491–514,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign took place in the western tropical Atlantic during January and February 2020. A total of 811 radiosondes, launched regularly (usually 4-hourly) from Barbados, and 4 ships measured wind, temperature, and relative humidity. They sampled atmospheric variability associated with different ocean surface conditions, synoptic variability, and mesoscale convective organization. The methods of data collection and post-processing for the radiosonde data are described here.
Josué Gehring, Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Nikola Besic, Kwang Deuk Ahn, GyuWon Lee, and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 417–433,Short summary
This article describes a dataset of precipitation and cloud measurements collected from November 2017 to March 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The dataset includes weather radar data and images of snowflakes. It allows for studying the snowfall intensity; wind conditions; and shape, size and fall speed of snowflakes. Classifications of the types of snowflakes show that aggregates of ice crystals were dominant. This dataset represents a unique opportunity to study snowfall in this region.
Andrew T. Fullhart, Mark A. Nearing, Gerardo Armendariz, and Mark A. Weltz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 435–446,Short summary
This dataset represents CLIGEN input parameters for locations in 68 countries. CLIGEN is a point-scale stochastic weather generator that produces long-term weather simulations with daily output. The input parameters are essentially monthly climate statistics that also serve as climate benchmarks. CLIGEN has various applications including being used to force soil erosion models. This dataset may reduce the effort needed in preparing climate inputs for such applications.
Qianfeng Wang, Jingyu Zeng, Junyu Qi, Xuesong Zhang, Yue Zeng, Wei Shui, Zhanghua Xu, Rongrong Zhang, Xiaoping Wu, and Jiang Cong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 331–341,Short summary
(1) The SPEI has been widely used to monitor and assess drought characteristics. (2) A multi-scale daily SPEI dataset was developed across mainland China from 1961 to 2018. (3) The daily SPEI dataset can identify the start and end days of a drought event. (4) The daily SPEI dataset developed is free, open, and publicly available from this study.
Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Brian R. Greene, Francesca M. Lappin, Tyler M. Bell, Antonio R. Segales, Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, William Doyle, Sai Teja Kanneganti, Daniel D. Tripp, and Phillip B. Chilson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 269–280,Short summary
During July 2018, researchers from OU participated in the LAPSE-RATE field campaign in San Luis Valley, Colorado. The OU team completed 180 flights using three RPASs over the course of 6 d of operation to collect vertical profiles of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the ABL. This article describes sampling strategies, data collection, platform intercomparibility, data quality, and the dataset's possible applications to convective initiation, drainage flows, and ABL transitions.
Gijs de Boer, Sean Waugh, Alexander Erwin, Steven Borenstein, Cory Dixon, Wafa'a Shanti, Adam Houston, and Brian Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 155–169,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of measurements collected in south-central Colorado (USA) during the 2018 LAPSE-RATE campaign. The measurements described in this article were collected by mobile surface vehicles, including cars, trucks, and vans, and include measurements of thermodynamic quantities (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) and winds. These measurements can be used to study the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer at a high-elevation site under a variety of conditions.
Marta Wenta, David Brus, Konstantinos Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, and Agnieszka Herman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 33–42,Short summary
Representations of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice are a challenge for numerical weather prediction models. To increase our understanding of the relevant processes, a field campaign was carried out over the sea ice in the Baltic Sea from 27 February to 2 March 2020. Observations included 27 unmanned aerial vehicle flights, four photogrammetry missions, and shore-based automatic weather station and lidar wind measurements. The dataset obtained is used to validate model results.
Alexandersson, H.: A homogeneity test applied to precipitation data, J. Climatol., 6, 661–675, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370060607, 1986.
Allen, R. J., Norris, J. R., and Wild, M.: Evaluation of multidecadal variability in CMIP5 surface solar radiation and inferred underestimation of aerosol direct effects over Europe, China, Japan, and India, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 6311–6336, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50426, 2013.
Augustine, J. A. and Hodges, G. B.: Variability of Surface Radiation Budget Components Over the U.S. From 1996 to 2019–Has Brightening Ceased?, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 126, e2020JD033590, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033590, 2021.
CERES Science Team: Dataset of CERES EBAF, NASA LaRC [data set], https://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/data/, last access: 21 January 2022.
Choi, J. C., Lee, M., Chun, Y., Kim, J., and Oh, S.: Chemical composition and source signature of spring aerosol in Seoul, Korea, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18067–18074, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD900090, 2001.
Dai, A., Wang, J., Thorne, P. W., Parker, D. E., Haimberger, L., and Wang, X. L.: A New Approach to Homogenize Daily Radiosonde Humidity Data, J. Climate, 24, 965–991, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3816.1, 2011.
Du, J., Wang, K., Cui, B., and Jiang, S.: Correction of Inhomogeneities in Observed Land Surface Temperatures over China, J. Climate, 33, 8885–8902, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0521.1, 2020.
Dwyer, J. G., Norris, J. R., and Ruckstuhl, C.: Do climate models reproduce observed solar dimming and brightening over China and Japan?, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00K08, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012945, 2010.
Feng, F. and Wang, K.: Merging ground-based sunshine duration observations with satellite cloud and aerosol retrievals to produce high-resolution long-term surface solar radiation over China, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 907–922, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-907-2021, 2021a.
Feng, F. and Wang, K.: Merging High-Resolution Satellite Surface Radiation Data with Meteorological Sunshine Duration Observations over China from 1983 to 2017, Remote Sens., 13, 602, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040602, 2021b.
He, Y., Wang, K., Zhou, C., and Wild, M.: A Revisit of Global Dimming and Brightening Based on the Sunshine Duration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 4281–4289, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077424, 2018.
Inoue, T. and Matsumoto, J.: Seasonal and secular variations of sunshine duration and natural seasons in Japan, Int. J. Climatol., 23, 1219–1234, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.933, 2003.
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA): Tables of Monthly Climate Statistics, JMA [data set], https://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/data/en/smp/index.html, last access: 21 January 2022.
Kato, S., Loeb, N. G., Rose, F. G., Doelling, D. R., Rutan, D. A., Caldwell, T. E., Yu, L., and Weller, R. A.: Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances, J Climate, 26, 2719–2740, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00436.1, 2012.
Katsuyama, M.: On comparison between rotating mirror sunshine recorders and Jordan sunshine recorders, Weather Service Bulletin, 54, 169–183, 1987.
Kudo, R., Uchiyama, A., Ijima, O., Ohkawara, N., and Ohta, S.: Aerosol impact on the brightening in Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017158, 2012.
Ma, Q., Wang, K. C., and Wild, M.: Impact of geolocations of validation data on the evaluation of surface incident shortwave radiation from Earth System Models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 6825–6844, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022572, 2015.
Ma, Q., He, Y., Wang, K., and Su, L.: Homogenized solar radiation data set over Japan (1870-2015), National Tibetan Plateau Data Center [dataset], 10.11888/Meteoro.tpdc.271524, 2021.
Manara, V., Beltrano, M. C., Brunetti, M., Maugeri, M., Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Simolo, C., and Sorrenti, S.: Sunshine duration variability and trends in Italy from homogenized instrumental time series (1936–2013), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 3622–3641, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022560, 2015.
Manara, V., Brunetti, M., Celozzi, A., Maugeri, M., Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., and Wild, M.: Detection of dimming/brightening in Italy from homogenized all-sky and clear-sky surface solar radiation records and underlying causes (1959–2013), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11145–11161, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11145-2016, 2016.
Manara, V., Brunetti, M., Maugeri, M., Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., and Wild, M.: Sunshine duration and global radiation trends in Italy (1959–2013): To what extent do they agree?, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 4312–4331, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026374, 2017.
Noguchi, Y.: Solar radiation and sunshine duration in East Asia, Arch. Meteor. Geophy. B, 29, 111–128, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278195, 1981.
Norris, J. R. and Wild, M.: Trends in aerosol radiative effects over China and Japan inferred from observed cloud cover, solar “dimming”, and solar “brightening”, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011378, 2009.
Ohmura, A.: Observed decadal variations in surface solar radiation and their causes, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011290, 2009.
Qian, W., Quan, L., and Shi, S.: Variations of the Dust Storm in China and its Climatic Control, J. Climate, 15, 1216–1229, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1216:VOTDSI>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Qian, Y., Kaiser, D. P., Leung, L. R., and Xu, M.: More frequent cloud-free sky and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl024586, 2006.
Reeves, J., Chen, J., Wang, X. L., Lund, R., and Lu, Q. Q.: A Review and Comparison of Changepoint Detection Techniques for Climate Data, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 46, 900–915, https://doi.org/10.1175/jam2493.1, 2007.
Robock, A.: Volcanic eruptions and climate, Rev. Geophys., 38, 191–219, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998RG000054, 2000.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. and Wild, M.: Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8635–8644, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-8635-2012, 2012.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Calbó, J., and Martin-Vide, J.: Spatial and Temporal Trends in Sunshine Duration over Western Europe (1938–2004), J. Climate, 21, 6089–6098, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2442.1, 2008.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Calbó, J., and Wild, M.: Global and diffuse solar radiation in Spain: Building a homogeneous dataset and assessing their trends, Global Planet. Change, 100, 343–352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.11.010, 2013.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Wild, M., Brunetti, M., Guijarro, J. A., Hakuba, M. Z., Calbó, J., Mystakidis, S., and Bartok, B.: Reassessment and update of long-term trends in downward surface shortwave radiation over Europe (1939–2012), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 9555–9569, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023321, 2015.
Sato, M., Hansen, J. E., McCormick, M. P., and Pollack, J. B.: Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850–1990, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 22987–22994, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JD02553, 1993.
Shi, G. Y., Hayasaka, T., Ohmura, A., Chen, Z. H., Wang, B., Zhao, J. Q., Che, H. Z., and Xu, L.: Data quality assessment and the long-term trend of ground solar radiation in China, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 47, 1006–1016, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007jamc1493.1, 2008.
Stanhill, G. and Cohen, S.: Solar Radiation Changes in the United States during the Twentieth Century: Evidence from Sunshine Duration Measurements, J. Climate, 18, 1503–1512, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli3354.1, 2005.
Stanhill, G. and Cohen, S.: Solar Radiation Changes in Japan during the 20th Century: Evidence from Sunshine Duration Measurements, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., Ser. II, 86, 57–67, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.86.57, 2008.
Tanaka, K., Ohmura, A., Folini, D., Wild, M., and Ohkawara, N.: Is global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13969–14001, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13969-2016, 2016.
Tang, W.-J., Yang, K., Qin, J., Cheng, C. C. K., and He, J.: Solar radiation trend across China in recent decades: a revisit with quality-controlled data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 393–406, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-393-2011, 2011.
Tsutsumi, Y. and Murakami, S.: Increase in Global Solar Radiation with Total Cloud Amount from 33 Years Observations in Japan, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 90, 575–581, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2012-409, 2012.
Uno, I., Yumimoto, K., Shimizu, A., Hara, Y., Sugimoto, N., Wang, Z., Liu, Z., and Winker, D. M.: 3D structure of Asian dust transport revealed by CALIPSO lidar and a 4DVAR dust model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L06803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032329, 2008.
Vincent, L. A., Wang, X. L., Milewska, E. J., Wan, H., Yang, F., and Swail, V.: A second generation of homogenized Canadian monthly surface air temperature for climate trend analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017859, 2012.
Wang, K., Ma, Q., Li, Z., and Wang, J.: Decadal variability of surface incident solar radiation over China: Observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalyses, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 6500–6514, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023420, 2015.
Wang, K. C., Dickinson, R. E., Wild, M., and Liang, S.: Atmospheric impacts on climatic variability of surface incident solar radiation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9581–9592, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9581-2012, 2012.
Wang, X. L.: Comments on “Detection of Undocumented Changepoints: A Revision of the Two-Phase Regression Model”, J. Climate, 16, 3383–3385, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3383:Codouc>2.0.Co;2, 2003.
Wang, X. L.: Accounting for Autocorrelation in Detecting Mean Shifts in Climate Data Series Using the Penalized Maximal t or F Test, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 47, 2423–2444, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jamc1741.1, 2008a.
Wang, X. L.: Penalized maximal F test for detecting undocumented mean shift without trend change, J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 25, 368–384, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHA982.1, 2008b.
Wang, X. L., Wen, Q. H., and Wu, Y.: Penalized Maximal t Test for Detecting Undocumented Mean Change in Climate Data Series, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 46, 916–931, https://doi.org/10.1175/jam2504.1, 2007.
Wang, X. L., Chen, H. F., Wu, Y. H., Feng, Y., and Pu, Q. A.: New Techniques for the Detection and Adjustment of Shifts in Daily Precipitation Data Series, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 49, 2416–2436, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2376.1, 2010.
Wild, M. and Schmucki, E.: Assessment of global dimming and brightening in IPCC-AR4/CMIP3 models and ERA40, Clim. Dynam., 37, 1671–1688, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0939-3, 2011.
Wild, M., Gilgen, H., Roesch, A., Ohmura, A., Long, C. N., Dutton, E. G., Forgan, B., Kallis, A., Russak, V., and Tsvetkov, A.: From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface, Science, 308, 847–850, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103215, 2005.
Wild, M., Wacker, S., Yang, S., and Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.: Evidence for Clear-Sky Dimming and Brightening in Central Europe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, e2020GL092216, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092216, 2021.
Witham, C. S.: Volcanic disasters and incidents: A new database, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 148, 191–233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.04.017, 2005.
Xia, X.: A closer looking at dimming and brightening in China during 1961–2005, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1121–1132, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-28-1121-2010, 2010.
Yang, K., Koike, T., and Ye, B. S.: Improving estimation of hourly, daily, and monthly solar radiation by importing global data sets, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 137, 43–55, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.02.001, 2006.
Yang, S., Wang, X. L., and Wild, M.: Homogenization and Trend Analysis of the 1958–2016 In Situ Surface Solar Radiation Records in China, J. Climate, 31, 4529–4541, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0891.1, 2018.
Zeng, Z., Wang, Z., Gui, K., Yan, X., Gao, M., Luo, M., Geng, H., Liao, T., Li, X., An, J., Liu, H., He, C., Ning, G., and Yang, Y.: Daily Global Solar Radiation in China Estimated From High-Density Meteorological Observations: A Random Forest Model Framework, Earth Space Sci., 7, e2019EA001058, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EA001058, 2020.
Zhou, C., Wang, J., Dai, A., and Thorne, P. W.: A New Approach to Homogenize Global Subdaily Radiosonde Temperature Data from 1958 to 2018, J. Climate, 34, 1163–1183, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0352.1, 2021.
Zhu, C., Wang, B., and Qian, W.: Why do dust storms decrease in northern China concurrently with the recent global warming?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034886, 2008.
Surface incident solar radiation plays a key role in atmospheric circulation, the water cycle, and ecological equilibrium on Earth. A homogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation dataset was obtained over Japan.
Surface incident solar radiation plays a key role in atmospheric circulation, the water cycle,...