Articles | Volume 13, issue 10
Data description paper
26 Oct 2021
Data description paper | 26 Oct 2021
Description of a global marine particulate organic carbon-13 isotope data set
Maria-Theresia Verwega et al.
No articles found.
Adam Francis, Raja S. Ganeshram, Robyn E. Tuerena, Robert G. M. Spencer, Robert M. Holmes, Jennifer A. Rogers, and Claire Mahaffey
Climate change is causing extensive permafrost degradation and nutrient releases into rivers with great ecological impacts on the Arctic Ocean. We focused on nitrogen (N) release from this degradation and associated cycling using N isotopes, an understudied area. Many N species are released at degradation sites with exchanges between species. N inputs from permafrost degradation and seasonal river nitrogen trends were identified using isotopes, helping to predict climate change impacts.
Chia-Te Chien, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Dana Ehlert, Ivy Frenger, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Iris Kriest, Angela Landolfi, Lavinia Patara, Sebastian Wahl, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5987–6024,Short summary
We present the implementation and evaluation of a marine biogeochemical model, Model of Oceanic Pelagic Stoichiometry (MOPS) in the Flexible Ocean and Climate Infrastructure (FOCI) climate model. FOCI-MOPS enables the simulation of marine biological processes, the marine carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles, and air–sea gas exchange of CO2 and O2. As shown by our evaluation, FOCI-MOPS shows an overall adequate performance that makes it an appropriate tool for Earth climate system simulations.
Marta Santos-Garcia, Raja Singaravelu Ganeshram, Robyn Elizabeth Tuerena, Margot Christine Frédérique Debyser, Katrine Husum, Philipp Assmy, and Haakon Hop
Terrestrial sources of nitrate are important contributors to the nutrient pool in the fjords of Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden in Svalbard during the summer and they sustain most of the fjord primary productivity. Ongoing tidewater glacier retreat is postulated to favour light limitation and less dynamic circulation in fjords. This is suggested to encourage the export of nutrients to the middle and outer part of the fjord system, which may enhance primary production within and in offshore areas.
Margot C. F. Debyser, Laetitia Pichevin, Robyn E. Tuerena, Paul A. Dodd, Antonia Doncila, and Raja S. Ganeshram
We focus on the exchange of key nutrients for algae production between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans through the Fram Strait. We show that the export of dissolved silicon here is controlled by availability of nitrate which is, in turn, influenced by denitrification on Arctic shelves. We suggest that any future changes in the river inputs of silica and changes in denitrification due to climate change will impact the amount of silicon exported, with impacts to Atlantic productivity and ecology.
Charlotte Haugk, Loeka L. Jongejans, Kai Mangelsdorf, Matthias Fuchs, Olga Ogneva, Juri Palmtag, Gesine Mollenhauer, Paul J. Mann, P. Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Tina Sanders, Robyn E. Tuerena, Lutz Schirrmeister, Sebastian Wetterich, Alexander Kizyakov, Cornelia Karger, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 19, 2079–2094,Short summary
Buried animal and plant remains (carbon) from the last ice age were freeze-locked in permafrost. At an extremely fast eroding permafrost cliff in the Lena Delta (Siberia), we found this formerly frozen carbon well preserved. Our results show that ongoing degradation releases substantial amounts of this carbon, making it available for future carbon emissions. This mobilisation at the studied cliff and also similarly eroding sites bear the potential to affect rivers and oceans negatively.
Tianfei Xue, Ivy Frenger, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Yonss Saranga José, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 19, 455–475,Short summary
The Peruvian system supports 10 % of the world's fishing yield. In the Peruvian system, wind and earth’s rotation bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface and allow phytoplankton to grow. But observations show that it grows worse at high upwelling. Using a model, we find that high upwelling happens when air mixes the water the most. Then phytoplankton is diluted and grows slowly due to low light and cool upwelled water. This study helps to estimate how it might change in a warming climate.
Jiajun Wu, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESDShort summary
In this study we investigate an ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method: macroalgae open-ocean mariculture and sinking (MOS), which aims to cultivate seaweeds in the open ocean surface and sink matured biomass quickly to the deep seafloor. Our results suggest that MOS has a considerable potential as an ocean-based CDR method. However, MOS has inherent side effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, which will require a careful evaluation beyond this first idealized modeling study.
Markus Pfeil and Thomas Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In investigating the global carbon cycle, shortening the runtime of the simulation of marine ecosystem models is an important issue. We present methods that automatically adjust the time step during the simulation of a steady state using transport matrices. They apply always the time step as large as possible. Two methods reduced the runtime significantly, depending on the complexity of the model. An important property was that small negative concentrations were ignored during the spin-up.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Christopher J. Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7255–7285,Short summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Miriam Tivig, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 18, 5327–5350,Short summary
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for life in the ocean. A major source is the riverine discharge of dissolved nitrogen. While global models often omit rivers as a nutrient source, we included nitrogen from rivers in our Earth system model and found that additional nitrogen affected marine biology not only locally but also in regions far off the coast. Depending on regional conditions, primary production was enhanced or even decreased due to internal feedbacks in the nitrogen cycle.
Henrike Schmidt, Julia Getzlaff, Ulrike Löptien, and Andreas Oschlies
Ocean Sci., 17, 1303–1320,Short summary
Oxygen-poor regions in the open ocean restrict marine habitats. Global climate simulations show large uncertainties regarding the prediction of these areas. We analyse the representation of the simulated oxygen minimum zones in the Arabian Sea using 10 climate models. We give an overview of the main deficiencies that cause the model–data misfit in oxygen concentrations. This detailed process analysis shall foster future model improvements regarding the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Biogeosciences, 18, 3605–3629,Short summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Mariana Hill Cruz, Iris Kriest, Yonss Saranga José, Rainer Kiko, Helena Hauss, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 18, 2891–2916,Short summary
In this study we use a regional biogeochemical model of the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean to implicitly simulate the effect that fluctuations in populations of small pelagic fish, such as anchovy and sardine, may have on the biogeochemistry of the northern Humboldt Current System. To do so, we vary the zooplankton mortality in the model, under the assumption that these fishes eat zooplankton. We also evaluate the model for the first time against mesozooplankton observations.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Joanne Hopkins, Raja S. Ganeshram, Louisa Norman, Camille de la Vega, Rachel Jeffreys, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 18, 637–653,Short summary
The Barents Sea is a rapidly changing shallow sea within the Arctic. Here, nitrate, an essential nutrient, is fully consumed by algae in surface waters during summer months. Nitrate is efficiently regenerated in the Barents Sea, and there is no evidence for nitrogen loss from the sediments by denitrification, which is prevalent on other Arctic shelves. This suggests that nitrogen availability in the Barents Sea is largely determined by the supply of nutrients in water masses from the Atlantic.
Markus Pahlow, Chia-Te Chien, Lionel A. Arteaga, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4663–4690,Short summary
The stoichiometry of marine biotic processes is important for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and hence the global climate. We replace a simplistic, fixed-stoichiometry plankton module in an Earth system model with an optimal-regulation model with variable stoichiometry. Our model compares better to the observed carbon transfer from the surface to depth and surface nutrient distributions. This work could aid our ability to describe and project the role of marine ecosystems in the Earth system.
Chia-Te Chien, Markus Pahlow, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4691–4712,Short summary
We demonstrate sensitivities of tracers to parameters of a new optimality-based plankton–ecosystem model (OPEM) in the UVic-ESCM. We find that changes in phytoplankton subsistence nitrogen quota strongly impact the nitrogen inventory, nitrogen fixation, and elemental stoichiometry of ordinary phytoplankton and diazotrophs. We introduce a new likelihood-based metric for model calibration, and it shows the capability of constraining globally averaged oxygen, nitrate, and DIC concentrations.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, Andrew H. MacDougall, Michael Eby, Nesha Wright, Katrin J. Meissner, Andreas Oschlies, Andreas Schmittner, Alexander J. MacIsaac, H. Damon Matthews, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4183–4204,Short summary
In this paper, we evaluate the newest version of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM 2.10). Combining recent model developments as a joint effort, this version is to be used in the next phase of model intercomparison and climate change studies. The UVic ESCM 2.10 is capable of reproducing changes in historical temperature and carbon fluxes well. Additionally, the model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional distribution of many ocean tracers.
Sabine Mathesius, Julia Getzlaff, Heiner Dietze, Andreas Oschlies, and Markus Schartau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1775–1787,Short summary
Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean, pelagic mesocosms, has become a standard method to explore responses of marine plankton communities to anthropogenic change. Among the challenges of interpreting mesocosm data is the often uncertain role of vertical mixing. This study introduces a mesocosm mixing model that is able to estimate vertical diffusivities and thus provides a tool for future mesocosm data analyses that account for mixing.
Alessandro Cotronei and Thomas Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2783–2804,Short summary
We converted the radiation part of the atmospheric model ECHAM to single-precision arithmetic, using a step-by-step change in all modules. A small code portion still requires higher precision. The generated code can be easily changed from double to single precision and vice versa. The quality of the output of the single-precision version is comparable to observational data and the one of the original code. The runtime was reduced by 40 %, and the energy consumption could also be decreased.
Iris Kriest, Paul Kähler, Wolfgang Koeve, Karin Kvale, Volkmar Sauerland, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 17, 3057–3082,Short summary
Constants of global biogeochemical ocean models are often tuned
by handto match observations of nutrients or oxygen. We investigate the effect of this tuning by optimising six constants of a global biogeochemical model, simulated in five different offline circulations. Optimal values for three constants adjust to distinct features of the circulation applied and can afterwards be swapped among the circulations, without losing too much of the model's fit to observed quantities.
Fabian Reith, Wolfgang Koeve, David P. Keller, Julia Getzlaff, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 711–727,Short summary
This modeling study is the first one to look at the suitability and collateral effects of direct CO2 injection into the deep ocean as a means to bridge the gap between CO2 emissions and climate impacts of an intermediate CO2 emission scenario and a temperature target on a millennium timescale, such as the 1.5 °C climate target of the Paris Agreement.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Raja S. Ganeshram, Matthew P. Humphreys, Thomas J. Browning, Heather Bouman, and Alexander P. Piotrowski
Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635,Short summary
The carbon isotopes in algae can be used to predict food sources and environmental change. We explore how dissolved carbon is taken up by algae in the South Atlantic Ocean and how this affects their carbon isotope signature. We find that cell size controls isotope fractionation. We use our results to investigate how climate change may impact the carbon isotopes in algae. We suggest a shift to smaller algae in this region would decrease the carbon isotope ratio at the base of the food web.
Tronje P. Kemena, Angela Landolfi, Andreas Oschlies, Klaus Wallmann, and Andrew W. Dale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 539–553,Short summary
Oceanic deoxygenation is driven by climate change in several areas of the global ocean. Measurements indicate that ocean volumes with very low oxygen levels expand, with consequences for marine organisms and fishery. We found climate-change-driven phosphorus (P) input in the ocean is hereby an important driver for deoxygenation on longer timescales with effects in the next millennia.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Yonss Saranga José, Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, and Andreas Oschlies
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In situ observations along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts have exhibited variability in the water column oxygen concentration. This variability, which is attributed to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), might have implication on the vertical extension of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) oxygen minimum zone. Here using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, we provide new insights into how ENSO variability affects the vertical extension of the oxygen-poor waters of the ETSP.
Olaf Duteil, Andreas Oschlies, and Claus W. Böning
Biogeosciences, 15, 7111–7126,Short summary
Oxygen-depleted regions of the Pacific Ocean are currently expanding, which is threatening marine habitats. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the decrease in the intensity of the trade winds and the subsequent slowdown of the oceanic currents lead to a reduction in oxygen supply. Our study suggests that the prevailing positive conditions of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation since 1975, a major source of natural variability, may explain a significant part of the current deoxygenation.
Marine Bretagnon, Aurélien Paulmier, Véronique Garçon, Boris Dewitte, Séréna Illig, Nathalie Leblond, Laurent Coppola, Fernando Campos, Federico Velazco, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Andreas Oschlies, J. Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Helmut Maske, Oscar Vergara, Ivonne Montes, Philippe Martinez, Edgardo Carrasco, Jacques Grelet, Olivier Desprez-De-Gesincourt, Christophe Maes, and Lionel Scouarnec
Biogeosciences, 15, 5093–5111,Short summary
In oxygen minimum zone, the fate of the organic matter is a key question as the low oxygen condition would preserve the OM and thus enhance the biological carbon pump while the high microbial activity would foster the remineralisation and the greenhouse gases emission. To investigate this paradigm, sediment traps were deployed off Peru. We pointed out the influence of the oxygenation as well as the organic matter quantity and quality on the carbon transfer efficiency in the oxygen minimum zone.
Volkmar Sauerland, Ulrike Löptien, Claudine Leonhard, Andreas Oschlies, and Anand Srivastav
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1181–1198,Short summary
We present a concept to prove that a parametric model is well calibrated, i.e., that changes of its free parameters cannot lead to a much better model–data misfit anymore. The intention is motivated by the fact that calibrating global biogeochemical ocean models is important for assessment and inter-model comparison but computationally expensive.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 15–31,Short summary
The Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method applies statistical information to systematically select, transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the Earth system state. We show that due to changing climate forcing, such as anthropogenic climate change, the ad hoc assessment indicators might need to be reevaluated. Within an iterative process, this method would allow us to select scientifically consistent and societally relevant assessment indicators.
Karin F. Kvale, Samar Khatiwala, Heiner Dietze, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2425–2445,Short summary
Computer models of ocean biology and chemistry are becoming increasingly complex, and thus more expensive, to run. One solution is to approximate the behaviour of the ocean physics and store that information outside of the model. That
offlineinformation can then be used to calculate a steady-state solution from the model's biology and chemistry, without waiting for a traditional
onlineintegration to complete. We show this offline method reproduces online results and is 100 times faster.
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Daniela Niemeyer, Tronje P. Kemena, Katrin J. Meissner, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 357–367,
Maria Moreno de Castro, Markus Schartau, and Kai Wirtz
Biogeosciences, 14, 1883–1901,Short summary
Observations from different mesocosms exposed to the same treatment level typically show variability that hinders the detection of potential treatments effects. To unearth relevant sources of variability, we developed and performed a data-based model analysis that simulates uncertainty propagation. With this method we investigate the divergence in the outcomes due to the amplification of differences in experimentally unresolved ecological factors within replicates of the same treatment level.
Shubham Krishna and Markus Schartau
Biogeosciences, 14, 1857–1882,Short summary
This study combines experimental data with results from numerical modelling. Data of an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment are used to constrain parameter values of a plankton model. Three different intensities of calcification are resolved with ensembles of optimised model results. Observed variability in data can be well explained by these ensemble model solutions. The simulated ocean acidification effect on calcification is small compared to the spread of the ensemble model solutions.
Markus Schartau, Philip Wallhead, John Hemmings, Ulrike Löptien, Iris Kriest, Shubham Krishna, Ben A. Ward, Thomas Slawig, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1647–1701,Short summary
Plankton models have become an integral part in marine ecosystem and biogeochemical research. These models differ in complexity and in their number of parameters. How values are assigned to parameters is essential. An overview of major methodologies of parameter estimation is provided. Aspects of parameter identification in the literature are diverse. Individual findings could be better synthesized if notation and expertise of the different scientific communities would be reasonably merged.
Yonss Saranga José, Heiner Dietze, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1349–1364,Short summary
This study aims to investigate the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns observed within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru. Two simulated anticyclonic eddies with opposing subsurface nitrate concentrations were analysed. The results show that diverse nutrient patterns within anticyclonic eddies are related to the presence of water mass from different origins at different depths, responding to variations in depth of the circulation strength at the edge of the eddy.
Iris Kriest, Volkmar Sauerland, Samar Khatiwala, Anand Srivastav, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 127–154,Short summary
Global biogeochemical ocean models are subject to a high level of parametric uncertainty. This may be of consequence for their skill with respect to accurately describing features of the present ocean and their sensitivity to possible environmental changes. We present the first results from a framework that combines an offline biogeochemical tracer transport model with an estimation of distribution algorithm, calibrating six biogeochemical model parameters against observed oxygen and nutrients.
Fabian Reith, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 797–812,
Jaroslaw Piwonski and Thomas Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3729–3750,Short summary
In order to fundamentally tackle the problem of parameter identification for marine ecosystem models in 3-D, we introduced a general biogeochemical programming interface that fits into the optimization context. Moreover, we implemented a comprehensive parallel solver software for periodic steady states that uses the interface to couple marine ecosystem models to a transport matrix driver. We validated the new implementation using a hierarchy of biogeochemical models.
Bei Su, Markus Pahlow, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 13, 4985–5001,Short summary
Previously identified positive feedbacks within the nitrogen cycle in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) have challenged our understanding of the observed dynamics and stability of the nitrogen inventory. We present a box model analysis of the biological and biogeochemical relations in the ETSP among nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration. Our results suggest dominant stabilizing feedbacks tending to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory in the ETSP.
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2929–2957,Short summary
We use a global model of oceanic P, N, and O2 cycles to investigate consequences of uncertainties in description of organic matter sinking, remineralization, denitrification, and N2-Fixation. After all biogeochemical and physical processes have been spun-up into a dynamically consistent steady-state, particle sinking and oxidant affinities of aerobic and anaerobic remineralization determine the extent of oxygen minimum zones, global nitrogen fluxes, and the oceanic nitrogen inventory.
W. Koeve, H. Wagner, P. Kähler, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2079–2094,Short summary
The natural abundance of 14C in CO2 dissolved in seawater is often used to evaluate circulation and age in the ocean and in ocean models. We study limitations of using natural 14C to determine the time elapsed since water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C age is dominated by two equally important components, (1) the time component of circulation and (2) the “preformed 14C-age”. Considering preformed 14C-age is critical for an assessment of circulation in models.
L. Nickelsen, D. P. Keller, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1357–1381,Short summary
In this paper we find that including the marine cycle of the phytoplankton nutrient iron in a global climate model improves the agreement between observed and simulated nutrient concentrations in the ocean and that a better description of the source of iron from the sediment to the ocean is more important than that of iron-containing dust deposition. Finally, we find that the response of the iron cycle to climate warming affects the phytoplankton growth and nutrient cycles.
J. Reimer, M. Schuerch, and T. Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 791–804,Short summary
Model parameters are usually optimized based on measurements. These measurements are often time-consuming or costly. The conditions under which theses measurements are carried out, also called experimental designs, can be optimized so that with minimum effort and cost a maximum accuracy can be achieved. For this, we present different approaches together with their implementation in an MATLAB toolbox. We demonstrate their application to different models for sedimentation in salt marshes.
B. Su, M. Pahlow, H. Wagner, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 12, 1113–1130,Short summary
A box model of the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone suggests that anaerobic water-column remineralization rates have to be slower than aerobic remineralization in order to explain the relatively high values of observed nitrate concentrations. Lateral oxygen supply sufficient to oxidize about one-fifth of the export production is required to prevent an anoxic deep ocean. Under these circumstances, the region can be a net source of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding ocean.
W. Koeve, O. Duteil, A. Oschlies, P. Kähler, and J. Segschneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2393–2408,
A. E. F. Prowe, M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 11, 3397–3407,
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 8401–8422,
O. Duteil, W. Koeve, A. Oschlies, D. Bianchi, E. Galbraith, I. Kriest, and R. Matear
Biogeosciences, 10, 7723–7738,
C. J. Somes, A. Oschlies, and A. Schmittner
Biogeosciences, 10, 5889–5910,
V. Cocco, F. Joos, M. Steinacher, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, C. Heinze, J. Orr, A. Oschlies, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra
Biogeosciences, 10, 1849–1868,
A. Landolfi, H. Dietze, W. Koeve, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1351–1363,
M. El Jarbi, J. Rückelt, T. Slawig, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1169–1182,
E. Siewertsen, J. Piwonski, and T. Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 17–28,
L. M. Zamora, A. Oschlies, H. W. Bange, K. B. Huebert, J. D. Craig, A. Kock, and C. R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 9, 5007–5022,
Related subject area
Geology and geochemistryMOdern River archivEs of Particulate Organic Carbon: MOREPOCThe Active Faults of Eurasia Database (AFEAD): the ontology and design behind the continental-scale datasetA strontium isoscape of inland southeastern AustraliaA new digital lithological map of Italy at the 1:100 000 scale for geomechanical modellingRetrogressive thaw slumps along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor: a comprehensive inventory and their distribution characteristicsOCTOPUS database (v.2)A national landslide inventory for DenmarkA database of radiogenic Sr-Nd isotopes at the "three poles”A new local meteoric water line for Inuvik (NT, Canada)Dataset of antiarch placoderms (the most basal jawed vertebrates) throughout Middle PaleozoicIntroducing GloRiSe – a global database on river sediment compositionCASCADE – The Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasESynoptic analysis of a decade of daily measurements of SO2 emission in the troposphere from volcanoes of the global ground-based Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric ChangeA European map of groundwater pH and calciumBioavailable soil and rock strontium isotope data from IsraelIsoscape of amount-weighted annual mean precipitation tritium (3H) activity from 1976 to 2017 for the Adriatic–Pannonian region – AP3H_v1 databaseThe dead line for oil and gas and implication for fossil resource predictionTephraKam: geochemical database of glass compositions in tephra and welded tuffs from the Kamchatka volcanic arc (northwestern Pacific)Global whole-rock geochemical database compilationGridded maps of geological methane emissions and their isotopic signatureOCTOPUS: an open cosmogenic isotope and luminescence databaseData on geochemical and hydraulic properties of a characteristic confined/unconfined aquifer system of the younger Pleistocene in northeast GermanyThe IRHUM (Isotopic Reconstruction of Human Migration) database – bioavailable strontium isotope ratios for geochemical fingerprinting in France
Yutian Ke, Damien Calmels, Julien Bouchez, and Cécile Quantin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4743–4755,Short summary
In this paper, we introduce the largest and most comprehensive database for riverine particulate organic carbon carried by suspended particulate matter in Earth's fluvial systems: 3546 data entries for suspended particulate matter with detailed geochemical parameters are included, and special attention goes to the elemental and isotopic carbon compositions to better understand riverine particulate organic carbon and its role in the carbon cycle from regional to global scales.
Egor Zelenin, Dmitry Bachmanov, Sofya Garipova, Vladimir Trifonov, and Andrey Kozhurin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4489–4503,Short summary
Active faults are faults in the Earth's crust that could experience a possible future slip. A slip at the fault would cause an earthquake; thus, this draws particular attention to active faults in tectonic studies and seismic hazard assessment. We present the Active Faults of Eurasia Database (AFEAD): a high-detail continental-scale geodatabase comprising ~48 000 faults. The location, name, slip characteristics, and a reference to source publications are provided for database entries.
Patrice de Caritat, Anthony Dosseto, and Florian Dux
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4271–4286,Short summary
Strontium isotopes are useful in geological, environmental, archaeological, and forensic research to constrain or identify the source of materials such as minerals, artefacts, or foodstuffs. A new dataset, contributing significant new data and knowledge to Australia’s strontium isotope coverage, is presented from an area of over 500 000 km2 of inland southeastern Australia. Various source areas for the sediments are recognized, and both fluvial and aeolian transport processes identified.
Francesco Bucci, Michele Santangelo, Lorenzo Fongo, Massimiliano Alvioli, Mauro Cardinali, Laura Melelli, and Ivan Marchesini
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4129–4151,Short summary
The paper describes a new lithological map of Italy at a scale of 1 : 100 000 obtained from classification of a digital database following compositional and geomechanical criteria. The map represents the national distribution of the lithological classes at high resolution. The outcomes of this study can be relevant for a wide range of applications, including statistical and physically based modelling of slope stability assessment and other geoenvironmental studies.
Zhuoxuan Xia, Lingcao Huang, Chengyan Fan, Shichao Jia, Zhanjun Lin, Lin Liu, Jing Luo, Fujun Niu, and Tingjun Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3875–3887,Short summary
Retrogressive thaw slumps are slope failures resulting from abrupt permafrost thaw, and are widely distributed along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor. The potential damage to infrastructure and carbon emission of thaw slumps motivated us to obtain an inventory of thaw slumps. We used a semi-automatic method to map 875 thaw slumps, filling the knowledge gap of thaw slump locations and providing key benchmarks for analysing the distribution features and quantifying spatio-temporal changes.
Alexandru T. Codilean, Henry Munack, Wanchese M. Saktura, Tim J. Cohen, Zenobia Jacobs, Sean Ulm, Paul P. Hesse, Jakob Heyman, Katharina J. Peters, Alan N. Williams, Rosaria B. K. Saktura, Xue Rui, Kai Chishiro-Dennelly, and Adhish Panta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3695–3713,Short summary
OCTOPUS v.2 is a web-enabled database that allows users to visualise, query, and download cosmogenic radionuclide, luminescence, and radiocarbon ages and denudation rates associated with erosional landscapes, Quaternary depositional landforms, and archaeological records, along with ancillary geospatial data layers. OCTOPUS v.2 hosts five major data collections. Supporting data are comprehensive and include bibliographic, contextual, and sample-preparation- and measurement-related information.
Gregor Luetzenburg, Kristian Svennevig, Anders A. Bjørk, Marie Keiding, and Aart Kroon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3157–3165,Short summary
We produced the first landslide inventory for Denmark. Over 3200 landslides were mapped using a high-resolution elevation model and orthophotos. We implemented an independent validation into our mapping and found an overall level of completeness of 87 %. The national inventory represents a range of landslide sizes covering all regions that were covered by glacial ice during the last glacial period. This inventory will be used for investigating landslide causes and for natural hazard mitigation.
Zhiheng Du, Jiao Yang, Lei Wang, Ninglian Wang, Anders Svensson, Zhen Zhang, Xiangyu Ma, Yaping Liu, Shimeng Wang, Jianzhong Xu, and Cunde Xiao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
A dataset of the radiogenic strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions from in key cryospheric regions at the three poles (Third Pole, Arctic and Antarctica), were integrated to obtain new findings. The dataset enables us to map the standardized locations in the three poles, while the use of sorting criteria related to the sample type permits us to trace the dust source and sink. This dataset is to try to determine the variable transport pathways of dust at three poles.
Michael Fritz, Sebastian Wetterich, Joel McAlister, and Hanno Meyer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 57–63,Short summary
From 2015 to 2018 we collected rain and snow samples in Inuvik, Canada. We measured the stable water isotope composition of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) with a mass spectrometer. This data will be of interest for other scientists who work in the Arctic. They will be able to compare our modern data with their own isotope data in old ice, for example in glaciers, and in permafrost. This will help to correctly interpret the climate signals of the environmental history of the Earth.
Zhaohui Pan, Zhibin Niu, Zumin Xian, and Min Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Antiarch placoderms, the most basal jawed vertebrates, have the potential to enlighten the origin of the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates during the Paleozoic. This dataset, which was extracted manually from 126 published papers or books from 1939 to 2021, consists of 64 genera and 6025 records, covering all antiarch lineages. We transferred the unstructured data from the literature to structured data for further research as detailed as possible.
Gerrit Müller, Jack J. Middelburg, and Appy Sluijs
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3565–3575,Short summary
Rivers are major freshwater resources, connectors and transporters on Earth. As the composition of river waters and particles results from processes in their catchment, such as erosion, weathering, environmental pollution, nutrient and carbon cycling, Earth-spanning databases of river composition are needed for studies of these processes on a global scale. While extensive resources on water and nutrient composition exist, we provide a database of river particle composition.
Jannik Martens, Evgeny Romankevich, Igor Semiletov, Birgit Wild, Bart van Dongen, Jorien Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg V. Dudarev, Denis Kosmach, Alexander Vetrov, Leopold Lobkovsky, Nikolay Belyaev, Robie W. Macdonald, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Timothy I. Eglinton, Negar Haghipour, Salve Dahle, Michael L. Carroll, Emmelie K. L. Åström, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Lee W. Cooper, Göran Possnert, and Örjan Gustafsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2561–2572,Short summary
The paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of the first Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE), which is a scientific effort to harmonize and curate all published and unpublished data of carbon, nitrogen, carbon isotopes, and terrigenous biomarkers in sediments of the Arctic Ocean in one database. CASCADE will enable a variety of studies of the Arctic carbon cycle and thus contribute to a better understanding of how climate change affects the Arctic.
Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Fredy Apaza, Geoffroy Avard, Charlotte Barrington, Nicole Bobrowski, Claudia Bucarey, Viviana Burbano, Mike Burton, Zoraida Chacón, Gustavo Chigna, Christian Joseph Clarito, Vladimir Conde, Fidel Costa, Maarten De Moor, Hugo Delgado-Granados, Andrea Di Muro, Deborah Fernandez, Gustavo Garzón, Hendra Gunawan, Nia Haerani, Thor H. Hansteen, Silvana Hidalgo, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Mattias Johansson, Christoph Kern, Manne Kihlman, Philippe Kowalski, Pablo Masias, Francisco Montalvo, Joakim Möller, Ulrich Platt, Claudia Rivera, Armando Saballos, Giuseppe Salerno, Benoit Taisne, Freddy Vásconez, Gabriela Velásquez, Fabio Vita, and Mathieu Yalire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1167–1188,Short summary
This study presents a dataset of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 2005–2017. Measurements were obtained by Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) scanning differential optical absorption spectrometer (ScanDOAS) instruments at 32 volcanoes and processed using a standardized procedure. We show statistics of volcanic gas emissions under a variety of conditions and compare them with averages derived from measurements from space and historical inventories.
Michal Hájek, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Ondřej Hájek, Lisa Brancaleoni, Marco Cantonati, Michele Carbognani, Anita Dedić, Daniel Dítě, Renato Gerdol, Petra Hájková, Veronika Horsáková, Florian Jansen, Jasmina Kamberović, Jutta Kapfer, Tiina Hilkka Maria Kolari, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Predrag Lazarević, Ermin Mašić, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Aaron Pérez-Haase, Tomáš Peterka, Alessandro Petraglia, Eulàlia Pladevall-Izard, Zuzana Plesková, Stefano Segadelli, Yuliya Semeniuk, Patrícia Singh, Anna Šímová, Eva Šmerdová, Teemu Tahvanainen, Marcello Tomaselli, Yuliya Vystavna, Claudia Biţă-Nicolae, and Michal Horsák
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1089–1105,Short summary
We developed an up-to-date European map of groundwater pH and Ca (the major determinants of diversity of wetlands) based on 7577 measurements. In comparison to the existing maps, we included much a larger data set from the regions rich in endangered wetland habitats, filled the apparent gaps in eastern and southeastern Europe, and applied geospatial modelling. The latitudinal and altitudinal gradients were rediscovered with much refined regional patterns, as is associated with bedrock variation.
Ian Moffat, Rachel Rudd, Malte Willmes, Graham Mortimer, Les Kinsley, Linda McMorrow, Richard Armstrong, Maxime Aubert, and Rainer Grün
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3641–3652,Short summary
This research has measured the bioavailable strontium isotope composition of soil and rock samples from the major geological units in Israel. Plants, animals and people take up this value into their bones and teeth via food and water and so mapping these values has important implications for understanding where archaeological, ecological, food science and forensic samples are from.
Zoltán Kern, Dániel Erdélyi, Polona Vreča, Ines Krajcar Bronić, István Fórizs, Tjaša Kanduč, Marko Štrok, László Palcsu, Miklós Süveges, György Czuppon, Balázs Kohán, and István Gábor Hatvani
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2061–2073,Short summary
Here we present the spatially continuous gridded database for amount-weighted annual mean tritium activity in precipitation for the period 1976 to 2017 for the Adriatic–Pannonian region, with a special focus on the years after 2010, which are not represented by existing global models. This AP3H database is capable of providing reliable spatiotemporal input for hydrogeological applications at any place within Slovenia, Hungary, and their surroundings.
Xiongqi Pang, Chengzao Jia, Kun Zhang, Maowen Li, Youwei Wang, Junwen Peng, Boyuan Li, and Junqing Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 577–590,Short summary
Based on geochemical data of 13 634 source rock samples from 1286 wells and 116 489 drilling results for oil and gas from 4978 wells in six major basins of China, we proposed the concept of the active source rock depth limit. It can be used to clarify and predict the maximum depth of fossil fuel distribution in sedimentary basins. The study provides fundamental information for deep hydrocarbon exploration and also advances understanding of the vertical distribution of fossil fuels on our planet.
Maxim V. Portnyagin, Vera V. Ponomareva, Egor A. Zelenin, Lilia I. Bazanova, Maria M. Pevzner, Anastasia A. Plechova, Aleksei N. Rogozin, and Dieter Garbe-Schönberg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 469–486,Short summary
Tephra is fragmented material produced by explosive volcanic eruptions. Geochemically characterized tephra layers are excellent time marker horizons and samples of magma composition. TephraKam is database of the ages and chemical composition of volcanic glass in tephra from the Kamchatka volcanic arc (northwestern Pacific). TephraKam enables the identification of tephra sources, correlation and dating of natural archives, and reconstruction of spatiotemporal evolution of volcanism in Kamchatka.
Matthew Gard, Derrick Hasterok, and Jacqueline A. Halpin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1553–1566,Short summary
We compiled a database of more than 1 million chemical analyses of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, derived from existing databases, governmental data and academic studies. Our database enhances temporal distributions, simplifies the structure, and adds geochemical indices, naming schema, and estimates of physical properties such as density. This database provides a source for the rapid production of crustal models and chemical evolution throughout 4 billion years of geologic history.
Giuseppe Etiope, Giancarlo Ciotoli, Stefan Schwietzke, and Martin Schoell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1–22,Short summary
We developed the first global maps of natural geological CH4 flux and isotopic values which can be used for new atmospheric CH4 modelling. The maps, based on updated, measured and theoretically estimated data, show that the highest geo-CH4 emissions are located in the Northern Hemisphere (N. America, Caspian region, Europe, Siberian Arctic Shelf), and that geo-CH4 is less 13C-enriched than what has been assumed so far in other studies. Other CH4 sources can now be estimated with higher accuracy.
Alexandru T. Codilean, Henry Munack, Timothy J. Cohen, Wanchese M. Saktura, Andrew Gray, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2123–2139,Short summary
OCTOPUS is a database of cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence measurements in fluvial sediment made available to the research community via an Open Geospatial Consortium compliant web service. OCTOPUS and its associated data curation framework provide the opportunity for researchers to reuse previously published but otherwise unusable CRN and luminescence data. This delivers the potential to harness old but valuable data that would otherwise be lost to the research community.
C. Merz and J. Steidl
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 109–116,Short summary
The paper presents a database of hydrochemical and hydraulic groundwater measurements of a younger Pleistocene aquifer system in NE Germany. The Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) operates seven groundwater monitoring wells in the Quillow catchment located in the Uckermark region (Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany). This database can be used for the investigation of subsurface water geochemistry under changing hydraulic boundary conditions regarding a 14-year period.
M. Willmes, L. McMorrow, L. Kinsley, R. Armstrong, M. Aubert, S. Eggins, C. Falguères, B. Maureille, I. Moffat, and R. Grün
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 117–122,
AESOPS: U.S. JGOFS Antarctic Environment and Southern Ocean Process Study, available at: http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/southern.html, last access: 3 December 2020. a
Alfred-Wegener-Institut: PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, available at: https://www.pangaea.de, last access: 3 December 2020. a
Bidigare, R. R., Fluegge, A., Freeman, K. H., Hanson, K. L., Hayes, J. M., Hollander, D., Jasper, J. P., King, L. L., Laws, E. A., Milder, J., Millero, F. J., Pancost, R., Popp, B. N., Steinberg, P. A., and Wakeham, S. G.: Consistent fractionation of13C in nature and in the laboratory: Growth-rate effects in some haptophyte algae, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 11, 279–292, https://doi.org/10.1029/96gb03939, 1997. a
Degens, E. T., Behrendt, M., Gotthardt, B., and Reppmann, E.: Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marine plankton – II. Data on samples collected off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador, Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, 15, 11–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(68)90025-9, 1968. a, b
De Jonge, C., Stadnitskaia, A., Hopmans, E. C., Cherkashov, G. A., Fedotov, A., Streletskaya, I., Vasiliev, A. A., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: (Table 2) Particulate organic carbon contentand the stable carbon isotope signal of suspended particulate matter samples, PANGAEA [data set], https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.877962, 2015a. a
De Jonge, C., Stadnitskaia, A., Hopmans, E. C., Cherkashov, G. A., Fedotov, A., Streletskaya, I., Vasiliev, A. A., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Drastic changes in the distribution of branched tetraether lipids in suspended matter and sediments from the Yenisei River and Kara Sea (Siberia): Implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in coastal marine sediments., Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 165, 200–225, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.05.044, 2015b. a
EurOBIS Data Management Team: PANGAEA – data from Archive of Ocean Data, available at: http://ipt.vliz.be/eurobis/resource?r=pangaea_2724, last access: 3 December 2020. a
Fry, B. and Sherr, E. B.: δ13C Measurements as Indicators of Carbon Flow in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, in: Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research. Ecological Studies (Analysis and Synthesis), edited by: Rundel, P. W., Ehleringer, J. R., and Nagy, K. A., Springer, New York, NY, USA, vol. 68, 196–229, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3498-2_12, 1989. a
Garcia, H. E., Weathers, K., Paver, C. R., Smolyar, I., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Zweng, M. M., Mishonov, A. V., Baranova, O. K., Seidov, D., and Reagan, J. R.: Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate and nitrate+nitrite, silicate), World Ocean Atlas 2018, 4, 35 pp., nOAA ATLAS NESDIS 84, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, 2018. a, b
Goericke, R.: Variations of marine plankton δ13C with latitude, temperature, and dissolved CO2 in the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 85–90, https://doi.org/10.1029/93GB03272, 1994. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, aa, ab, ac, ad, ae, af, ag, ah, ai, aj, ak, al, am, an, ao, ap, aq, ar, as, at, au, av, aw, ax, ay, az, ba, bb, bc, bd, be
Gruber, N., Keeling, C. D., Bacastow, R. B., Guenther, P. R., Lueker, T. J., Wahlen, M., Meijer, H. A. J., Mook, W. G., and Stocker, T. F.: Spatiotemporal patterns of carbon-13 in the global surface oceans and the oceanic suess effect, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 13, 307–335, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB900019, 1999. a, b, c
Hayes, J. M.: An Introduction to Isotopic Calculations, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, available at: http://www.whoi.edu/cms/files/jhayes/2005/9/IsoCalcs30Sept04_5183.pdf (last access: 12 May 2020), 2004. a
JGOFS: Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, available at: http://ijgofs.whoi.edu, last access: 3 December 2020. a
Kaiser, D., Konovalov, S. K., Arz, H. W., Voss, M., Krüger, S., Pollehne, F., Jeschek, J., and Waniek, J. J.: Black Sea water column dissolved nutrients and dissolved and particulate organic matter from winter 2013, Maria S. Merian cruise MSM33, PANGAEA [data set], https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.898717, 2019. a
Kessler, W. S. and McCreary, J. P.: The annual wind-driven Rossby wave in the subthermocline equatorial Pacific, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 1192–1207, 1992. a
Laws, E. A., Popp, B. N., Bidigare, R. R., Kennicutt, M. C., and Macko, S. A.: Dependence of phytoplankton carbon isotopic composition on growth rate and [CO2]aq: Theoretical considerations and experimental results, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 59, 1131–1138, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(95)00030-4, 1995. a
Lein, A. Y., Bogdanov, Y. A., Grichuk, D. V., Rusanov, I. I., and Sagalevich, A. M.: (Table 5) Concentration of particulate organic carbon and its isotopic composition in water samples from hydrothermal fields at the axis of the East Pacific Rise near 9∘50′ N, PANGAEA [data set], PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.745910, 2006. a
Lorrain, A., Pethybridge, H., Cassar, N., Receveur, A., Allain, V., Bodin, N., Bopp, L., Choy, C. A., Duffy, L., Fry, B., Goni, N., Graham, B. S., Hobday, A. J., Logan, J. M., Ménard, F., Menkes, C. E., Olson, R. J., Pagendam, D. E., Point, D., Revill, A. T., Somes, C. J., and Young, J. W.: Trends in tuna carbon isotopes suggest global changes in pelagic phytoplankton communities, Glob. Change Biol., 26, 458–470, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14858, 2020. a, b
NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory: Ferret Support, available at: http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/Ferret, last access: 26 November 2020. a
Rau, G. H., Riebesell, U., and Wolf-Gladrow, D.: A model of photosynthetic 13C fractionation by marine phytoplankton based on diffusive molecular CO2 uptake, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 133, 275–285, 1996. a
Rubino, M., Etheridge, D. M., Trudinger, C. M., Allison, C. E., Battle, M. O., Langenfelds, R. L., Steele, L. P., Curran, M., Bender, M., White, J. W. C., Jenk, T. M., Blunier, T., and Francey, R. J.: A revised 1000 year atmospheric δ13C-CO2 record from Law Dome and South Pole, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 8482–8499, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50668, 2013. a
Silverman, B. W.: Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1986. a
Suess, E.: Particulate organic carbon flux in the oceans–surface productivity and oxygen utilization, Nature, 288, 260–263, 1980. a
Thiede, J., Gerlach, S. A., Altenbach, A., and Henrich, R.: Sedimentation im europaeischen Nordmeer – Organisation und Forschungsprogramm des Sonderforschungsbereiches 313 fuer den Zeitraum 1988–1990, Tech. rep., Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, 1988. a
Tjiputra, J. F., Schwinger, J., Bentsen, M., Morée, A. L., Gao, S., Bethke, I., Heinze, C., Goris, N., Gupta, A., He, Y.-C., Olivié, D., Seland, Ø., and Schulz, M.: Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2), Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2393–2431, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-2393-2020, 2020. a
Tuerena, R. E., Ganeshram, R. S., Humphreys, M. P., Browning, T. J., Bouman, H., and Piotrowski, A. P.: Isotopic fractionation of carbon during uptake by phytoplankton across the South Atlantic subtropical convergence, Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-3621-2019, 2019. a, b, c, d, e, f
Virtanen, P., Gommers, R., Oliphant, T. E., Haberland, M., Reddy, T., Cournapeau, D., Burovski, E., Peterson, P., Weckesser, W., Bright, J., van der Walt, S. J., Brett, M., Wilson, J., Millman, K. J., Mayorov, N., Nelson, A. R. J., Jones, E., Kern, R., Larson, E., Carey, C. J., Polat, İ., Feng, Y., Moore, E. W., VanderPlas, J., Laxalde, D., Perktold, J., Cimrman, R., Henriksen, I., Quintero, E. A., Harris, C. R., Archibald, A. M., Ribeiro, A. H., Pedregosa, F., van Mulbregt, P., and SciPy 1.0 Contributors: SciPy 1.0: Fundamental Algorithms for Scientific Computing in Python, Nat. Methods, 17, 261–272, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-019-0686-2, 2020. a
Volk, T. and Hoffert, M. I.: Ocean carbon pumps: analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes, American Geophysical Union; Geophysical Monograph, 32, 99–110, 1985. a
Zeebe, R. E. and Wolf-Gladrow, D.: CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Elsevier Science B.V., Elsevier Oceanography Series, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 65, 2001. a
This work describes a ready-to-use collection of particulate organic carbon stable isotope ratio data sets. It covers the 1960s–2010s and all main oceans, providing meta-information and gridded data. The best coverage exists in Atlantic, Indian and Southern Ocean surface waters during the 1990s. It indicates no major difference between methods and shows decreasing values towards high latitudes, with the lowest in the Southern Ocean, and a long-term decline in all regions but the Southern Ocean.
This work describes a ready-to-use collection of particulate organic carbon stable isotope ratio...