Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 411–447, 2022
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 411–447, 2022
Review article
07 Feb 2022
Review article | 07 Feb 2022

Global sea-level budget and ocean-mass budget, with a focus on advanced data products and uncertainty characterisation

Martin Horwath et al.

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Cited articles

A, G., Wahr, J., and Zhong, S.: Computations of the viscoelastic response of a 3-D compressible Earth to surface loading: an application to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Antarctica and Canada, Geophys. J. Int., 192, 557–572,, 2013. 
Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Larnicol, G., Balmaseda, M., Cipollini, P., Faugère, Y., Fernandes, M. J., Henry, O., Johannessen, J. A., Knudsen, P., Andersen, O., Legeais, J., Meyssignac, B., Picot, N., Roca, M., Rudenko, S., Scharffenberg, M. G., Stammer, D., Timms, G., and Benveniste, J.: Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993–2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project, Ocean Sci., 11, 67–82,, 2015. 
Ablain, M., Legeais, J. F., Prandi, P., Marcos, M., Fenoglio-Marc, L., Dieng, H. B., Benveniste, J., and Cazenave, A.: Altimetry-based sea-level at global and regional scales, Surv. Geophys., 38, 7–31,, 2017a. 
Ablain, M., Jugier, R., Zawadki, L., Taburet, N., Cazenave, A., and Meyssignac, B.: The TOPEX-A Drift and Impacts on GMSL Time Series, AVISO Website, October 2017, available at: (last access: 13 January 2022), 2017b. 
Ablain, M., Meyssignac, B., Zawadzki, L., Jugier, R., Ribes, A., Spada, G., Benveniste, J., Cazenave, A., and Picot, N.: Uncertainty in satellite estimates of global mean sea-level changes, trend and acceleration, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1189–1202,, 2019. 
Short summary
Global mean sea-level change observed from 1993 to 2016 (mean rate of 3.05 mm yr−1) matches the combined effect of changes in water density (thermal expansion) and ocean mass. Ocean-mass change has been assessed through the contributions from glaciers, ice sheets, and land water storage or directly from satellite data since 2003. Our budget assessments of linear trends and monthly anomalies utilise new datasets and uncertainty characterisations developed within ESA's Climate Change Initiative.