Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Data description paper 05 Jun 2020
Data description paper | 05 Jun 2020
Temporal inventory of glaciers in the Suru sub-basin, western Himalaya: impacts of regional climate variability
Aparna Shukla et al.
Related subject area
Cryosphere – GlaciologyMore dynamic than expected: an updated survey of surging glaciers in the PamirWorldwide version-controlled database of glacier thickness observationsGreenland liquid water discharge from 1958 through 2019Glacial lake inventory of high-mountain Asia in 1990 and 2018 derived from Landsat imagesA deep learning reconstruction of mass balance series for all glaciers in the French Alps: 1967–2015Glacier shrinkage in the Alps continues unabated as revealed by a new glacier inventory from Sentinel-2Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 through March 2020Historical porosity data in polar firnSval_Imp: a gridded forcing dataset for climate change impact research on SvalbardGlaciers and climate of the Upper Susitna basin, AlaskaAge stratigraphy in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet inferred from radio-echo sounding horizonsGreenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 through 2017Long-term records of glacier surface velocities in the Ötztal Alps (Austria)A high-resolution image time series of the Gorner Glacier – Swiss Alps – derived from repeated unmanned aerial vehicle surveysGeology datasets in North America, Greenland and surrounding areas for use with ice sheet modelsThe SUMup dataset: compiled measurements of surface mass balance components over ice sheets and sea ice with analysis over GreenlandA consistent glacier inventory for Karakoram and Pamir derived from Landsat data: distribution of debris cover and mapping challengesSubglacial topography, ice thickness, and bathymetry of Kongsfjorden, northwestern SvalbardHistorical glacier outlines from digitized topographic maps of the Swiss AlpsA new bed elevation model for the Weddell Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice SheetModulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experimentStrong tidal variations in ice flow observed across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streamsA 14-year dataset of in situ glacier surface velocities for a tidewater and a land-terminating glacier in Livingston Island, AntarcticaA high-resolution synthetic bed elevation grid of the Antarctic continentA complete glacier inventory of the Antarctic Peninsula based on Landsat 7 images from 2000 to 2002 and other preexisting data setsGlaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005–2015A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetryGeomatic methods applied to the study of the front position changes of Johnsons and Hurd Glaciers, Livingston Island, Antarctica, between 1957 and 2013Ice crystal c-axis orientation and mean grain size measurements from the Dome Summit South ice core, Law Dome, East AntarcticaSubglacial landforms beneath Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica: detailed bed topography from ice-penetrating radarMeasurement of the fracture toughness of polycrystalline bubbly ice from an Antarctic ice coreHigh-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice SheetTemperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973–2013Juneau Icefield Mass Balance Program 1946–2011A long-term and reproducible passive microwave sea ice concentration data record for climate studies and monitoringSeasonal velocities of eight major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet from continuous in situ GPS instrumentsA new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessmentTwenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West GreenlandKing George Island ice cap geometry updated with airborne GPR measurementsAn 18-yr long (1993–2011) snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt.) for driving and evaluating snowpack modelsAn improved Antarctic dataset for high resolution numerical ice sheet models (ALBMAP v1)NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy
Franz Goerlich, Tobias Bolch, and Frank Paul
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3161–3176,Short summary
This work indicates all glaciers in the Pamir that surged between 1988 and 2018 as revealed by different remote sensing data, mainly Landsat imagery. We found ~ 200 surging glaciers for the entire mountain range and detected the minimum and maximum extents of most of them. The smallest surging glacier is ~ 0.3 km2. This inventory is important for further research on the surging behaviour of glaciers and has to be considered when processing glacier changes (mass, area) of the region.
Ethan Welty, Michael Zemp, Francisco Navarro, Matthias Huss, Johannes J. Fürst, Isabelle Gärtner-Roer, Johannes Landmann, Horst Machguth, Kathrin Naegeli, Liss M. Andreassen, Daniel Farinotti, Huilin Li, and GlaThiDa Contributors
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3039–3055,Short summary
Knowing the thickness of glacier ice is critical for predicting the rate of glacier loss and the myriad downstream impacts. To facilitate forecasts of future change, we have added 3 million measurements to our worldwide database of glacier thickness: 14 % of global glacier area is now within 1 km of a thickness measurement (up from 6 %). To make it easier to update and monitor the quality of our database, we have used automated tools to check and track changes to the data over time.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, Brice Noël, Xavier Fettweis, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, William Colgan, Ken Kondo, Kirsty Langley, Shin Sugiyama, Dirk van As, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2811–2841,Short summary
This work partitions regional climate model (RCM) runoff from the MAR and RACMO RCMs to hydrologic outlets at the ice margin and coast. Temporal resolution is daily from 1959 through 2019. Spatial grid is ~ 100 m, resolving individual streams. In addition to discharge at outlets, we also provide the streams, outlets, and basin geospatial data, as well as a script to query and access the geospatial or time series discharge data from the data files.
Xin Wang, Xiaoyu Guo, Chengde Yang, Qionghuan Liu, Junfeng Wei, Yong Zhang, Shiyin Liu, Yanlin Zhang, Zongli Jiang, and Zhiguang Tang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2169–2182,Short summary
The theoretical and methodological bases for all processing steps including glacial lake definition and classification and lake boundary delineation are discussed based on satellite remote sensing data and GIS techniques. The relative area errors of each lake in 2018 varied 1 %–79 % with average relative area errors of ±13.2 %. In high-mountain Asia, 30 121 glacial lakes with a total area of 2080.12 ± 2.28 km2 were catalogued in 2018 with a 15.2 % average rate of increase in area in 1990–2018.
Jordi Bolibar, Antoine Rabatel, Isabelle Gouttevin, and Clovis Galiez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1973–1983,Short summary
We present a dataset of annual glacier mass changes for all the 661 glaciers in the French Alps for the 1967–2015 period, reconstructed using deep learning (i.e. artificial intelligence). We estimate an average annual mass loss of –0.69 ± 0.21 m w.e., the highest being in the Chablais, Ubaye and Champsaur massifs and the lowest in the Mont Blanc, Oisans and Haute Tarentaise ranges. This dataset can be of interest to hydrology and ecology studies on glacierized catchments in the French Alps.
Frank Paul, Philipp Rastner, Roberto Sergio Azzoni, Guglielmina Diolaiuti, Davide Fugazza, Raymond Le Bris, Johanna Nemec, Antoine Rabatel, Mélanie Ramusovic, Gabriele Schwaizer, and Claudio Smiraglia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1805–1821,Short summary
We have used Sentinel-2 satellite data from 2015 and 2016 to create a new glacier inventory for the European Alps. Outlines from earlier national inventories were used to guide manual corrections (e.g. ice in shadow or under debris cover) of the automatically mapped clean ice. We mapped 4395 glaciers, covering 1806 km2, an area loss of about 14 % (or −1.2 % per year) compared to the last inventory of 2003. We conclude that glacier shrinkage in the Alps has continued unabated since the mid-1980s.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, Anne Solgaard, William Colgan, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1367–1383,Short summary
We have produced an open and reproducible estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 to 2020. Our results show three modes at the the total ice sheet scale: steady discharge from 1986 through 2000, increasing discharge from 2000 through 2005, and steady discharge from 2005 through 2019. The behavior of individual sectors and glaciers is more complicated. This work was done to provide a 100 % reproducible estimate to help constrain mass balance and sea-level-rise estimates.
Kévin Fourteau, Laurent Arnaud, Xavier Faïn, Patricia Martinerie, David M. Etheridge, Vladimir Lipenkov, and Jean-Marc Barnola
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1171–1177,Short summary
Measurements of the porosity of three polar firns were conducted in the 1990s by Jean-Marc Barnola using the method of gas pycnometry. From these data, a parametrization of firn pore closure was produced and used in different published articles. However, the data have not been published in their own right yet. We have made the data publicly accessible on the PANGAEA database and here propose describing how they were obtained and used to produce the pore closure parametrization.
Thomas Vikhamar Schuler and Torbjørn Ims Østby
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 875–885,Short summary
Atmospheric variables needed to force terrestrial process models (permafrost, glacier mass balance, seasonal snow, surface energy balance) have been downscaled from the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses using methodology described in the accompanying paper. The gridded dataset has a horizontal resolution of 1 km and covers the entire Svalbard archipelago. The data have a temporal resolution of 6 h and cover the entire ERA-40 period (1957–2002) and the ERA-Interim period (1979–2017).
Andrew Bliss, Regine Hock, Gabriel Wolken, Erin Whorton, Caroline Aubry-Wake, Juliana Braun, Alessio Gusmeroli, Will Harrison, Andrew Hoffman, Anna Liljedahl, and Jing Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 403–427,Short summary
Extensive field observations were conducted in the Upper Susitna basin in central Alaska in 2012–2014. This paper describes the weather, glacier mass balance, snow cover, and soils of the basin. We found that temperatures over the glacier are cooler than over land at the same elevation. The glaciers have been losing mass faster in recent years than in the 1980s. Measurements of glacier mass change with traditional methods closely matched radar measurements.
Anna Winter, Daniel Steinhage, Timothy T. Creyts, Thomas Kleiner, and Olaf Eisen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1069–1081,
Kenneth D. Mankoff, William Colgan, Anne Solgaard, Nanna B. Karlsson, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Dirk van As, Jason E. Box, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Jeremie Mouginot, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 769–786,Short summary
We have produced an open and reproducible estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 through 2017. Our results show three modes at the total ice-sheet scale: steady discharge from 1986 through 2000, increasing discharge from 2000 through 2005, and steady discharge from 2005 through 2017. The behavior of individual sectors and glaciers is more complicated. This work was done to provide a 100 % reproducible estimate to help constrain mass balance and sea-level rise estimates.
Martin Stocker-Waldhuber, Andrea Fischer, Kay Helfricht, and Michael Kuhn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 705–715,
Lionel Benoit, Aurelie Gourdon, Raphaël Vallat, Inigo Irarrazaval, Mathieu Gravey, Benjamin Lehmann, Günther Prasicek, Dominik Gräff, Frederic Herman, and Gregoire Mariethoz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 579–588,Short summary
This dataset provides a collection of 10 cm resolution orthomosaics and digital elevation models of the Gornergletscher glacial system (Switzerland). Raw data have been acquired every 2 weeks by intensive UAV surveys and cover the summer 2017. A careful photogrammetric processing ensures the geometrical coherence of the whole dataset.
Evan J. Gowan, Lu Niu, Gregor Knorr, and Gerrit Lohmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 375–391,Short summary
The speed of ice sheet flow is largely controlled by the strength of the ice–bed interface. We present three datasets on the geological properties of regions in North America, Greenland and Iceland that were covered by Quaternary ice sheets. These include the grain size of glacial sediments, the continuity of sediment cover and bedrock geology. Simple ice modelling experiments show that altering the basal strength of the ice sheet on the basis of these datasets impacts ice thickness.
Lynn Montgomery, Lora Koenig, and Patrick Alexander
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1959–1985,Short summary
The SUMup dataset is a standardized, expandable, community dataset of Arctic and Antarctic observations of surface mass balance components, including snow/firn density, snow accumulation on land ice, and snow depth on sea ice. The measurements in this dataset were compiled from field notes, papers, technical reports, and digital files. We use these observations to monitor change in the polar regions and evaluate model output as well as remote sensing measurements.
Nico Mölg, Tobias Bolch, Philipp Rastner, Tazio Strozzi, and Frank Paul
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1807–1827,Short summary
Knowledge about the size and location of glaciers is essential to understand impacts of climatic changes on the natural environment. Therefore, we have produced an inventory of all glaciers in some of the largest glacierized mountain regions worldwide. Many large glaciers are covered by a rock (debris) layer, which also changes their reaction to climatic changes. Thus, we have also mapped this debris layer for all glaciers. We have mapped almost 28000 glaciers covering ~35000 km2.
Katrin Lindbäck, Jack Kohler, Rickard Pettersson, Christopher Nuth, Kirsty Langley, Alexandra Messerli, Dorothée Vallot, Kenichi Matsuoka, and Ola Brandt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1769–1781,Short summary
Tidewater glaciers terminate directly into the sea and the glacier fronts are important feeding areas for birds and marine mammals. Svalbard tidewater glaciers are retreating, which will affect fjord circulation and ecosystems when glacier fronts end on land. In this paper, we present digital maps of ice thickness and topography under five tidewater glaciers in Kongsfjorden, northwestern Svalbard, which will be useful in studies of future glacier changes in the area.
Daphné Freudiger, David Mennekes, Jan Seibert, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 805–814,Short summary
To understand glacier changes in the Swiss Alps at the large scale, long-term datasets are needed. To fill the gap between the existing glacier inventories of the Swiss Alps between 1850 and 1973, we digitized glacier outlines from topographic historical maps of Switzerland for the time periods ca. 1900 and ca. 1935. We found that > 88 % of the digitized glacier area was plausible compared to four inventories. The presented dataset is therefore valuable information for long-term glacier studies.
Hafeez Jeofry, Neil Ross, Hugh F. J. Corr, Jilu Li, Mathieu Morlighem, Prasad Gogineni, and Martin J. Siegert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 711–725,Short summary
Accurately characterizing the complexities of the ice-sheet dynamic specifically close to the grounding line across the Weddell Sea (WS) sector in the ice-sheet models provides challenges to the scientific community. Our main objective is to comprehend these complexities, adding accuracy to the projection of future ice-sheet dynamics. Therefore, we have developed a new bed elevation digital elevation model across the WS sector, which will be of value to ice-sheet modelling experiments.
Rebecca Möller, Marco Möller, Peter A. Kukla, and Christoph Schneider
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 53–60,Short summary
Deposits of volcanic tephra alter the energy balance at the surface of a glacier. The effects reach from intensified melt to complete insulation, mainly depending on tephra thickness. Data from a field experiment on Iceland reveal an additional minor dependency on tephra type and suggest a substantially different behavior of tephra-covered snowpacks than of tephra-covered glacier ice. The related 50-day dataset of hourly records can readily be used for model calibration and validation purposes.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Matt A. King, Keith W. Nicholls, Keith Makinson, and Hugh F. J. Corr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 849–860,Short summary
Tides can affect the flow of ice at hourly to yearly timescales. In some cases the ice responds at a different frequency than is found in the tidal forcing; for example, on Rutford Ice Stream the strongest response is at a fortnightly period. A new compilation of GPS data across the Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams shows that this fortnightly modulation in ice flow is found across the entire region. Measurements of this kind can provide insights into ice rheology and basal processes.
Francisco Machío, Ricardo Rodríguez-Cielos, Francisco Navarro, Javier Lapazaran, and Jaime Otero
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 751–764,
Felicity S. Graham, Jason L. Roberts, Ben K. Galton-Fenzi, Duncan Young, Donald Blankenship, and Martin J. Siegert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 267–279,Short summary
Antarctic bed topography datasets are interpolated onto low-resolution grids because our observed topography data are sparsely sampled. This has implications for ice-sheet model simulations, especially in regions prone to instability, such as grounding lines, where detailed knowledge of the topography is required. Here, we constructed a high-resolution synthetic bed elevation dataset using observed covariance properties to assess the dependence of simulated ice-sheet dynamics on grid resolution.
Jacqueline Huber, Alison J. Cook, Frank Paul, and Michael Zemp
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 115–131,Short summary
A glacier inventory of the AP (63°–70° S), consisting of glacier outlines accompanied by glacier-specific parameters (i.e., elevation distribution, slope, aspect, thickness and volume), was achieved by digitally combining already-existing data sets. This resulted in 1589 glaciers, covering an area of 95 273 km2. These freely available data provide new insights into AP glaciers, their behavior in response to a changing climate and their corresponding contribution to sea level rise.
Adam M. Clark, Daniel B. Fagre, Erich H. Peitzsch, Blase A. Reardon, and Joel T. Harper
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 47–61,Short summary
Most of the alpine glaciers in the world are shrinking. Because of the impact glaciers have on watershed hydrology, the US Geological Survey began a surface mass balance measurement program on Sperry Glacier in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in 2005. Between then and 2015 the USGS employed standard methods to estimate the mass changes across the surface of the glacier. During this 11-year period, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m of water equivalent.
Janin Schaffer, Ralph Timmermann, Jan Erik Arndt, Steen Savstrup Kristensen, Christoph Mayer, Mathieu Morlighem, and Daniel Steinhage
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 543–557,Short summary
The RTopo-2 data set provides consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry and ice surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica at 30 arcsec grid spacing. We corrected data from earlier products in the areas of Petermann, Hagen Bræ, and Helheim glaciers, incorporated original data for the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, and applied corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot, and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available from the PANGAEA database.
Ricardo Rodríguez Cielos, Julián Aguirre de Mata, Andrés Díez Galilea, Marina Álvarez Alonso, Pedro Rodríguez Cielos, and Francisco Navarro Valero
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 341–353,Short summary
The study of glacier fronts combines different geomatics measurement techniques. It is practically impossible to realize, in the case of glacier fronts that end up in the sea (tide water glaciers). The images obtained from the front come from a non-metric digital camera. The result of observations obtained were applied to study the temporal evolution (1957–2014) of the position of the Johnsons glacier and the position of the Hurd glacier, near BAE Juan Carlos I in Livingston Island (Antarctica).
Adam Treverrow, Li Jun, and Tim H. Jacka
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 253–263,Short summary
We present ice crystallographic c-axis orientation and grain size data from the Dome Summit South (DSS) ice core drilled 4.7 km SSW of the summit of Law Dome, East Antarctica. These data are from 185 individual thin sections obtained between a depth of 117 m below the surface and the bottom of the DSS core at a depth of 1196 m. Observations of ice microstructures from polar ice cores play a vital role in the development and validation of ice flow relations for numerical ice sheet models.
Edward C. King, Hamish D. Pritchard, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 151–158,Short summary
Large, fast-moving glaciers create long, linear mounds of sediments covering large areas. Understanding how these features form has been hampered by a lack of data from the bed of modern-day ice sheets. We give a detailed view of the landscape beneath an Antarctic glacier called Rutford Ice Stream. We towed a radar system back and forth across the glacier to measure the ice thickness every few metres. This is the first place such a highly detailed view of the sub-ice landscape has been created.
J. Christmann, R. Müller, K. G. Webber, D. Isaia, F. H. Schader, S. Kipfstuhl, J. Freitag, and A. Humbert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 87–92,
K. Lindbäck, R. Pettersson, S. H. Doyle, C. Helanow, P. Jansson, S. S. Kristensen, L. Stenseng, R. Forsberg, and A. L. Hubbard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 331–338,
G. D. Clow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 201–218,
M. Pelto, J. Kavanaugh, and C. McNeil
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 319–330,
G. Peng, W. N. Meier, D. J. Scott, and M. H. Savoie
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 311–318,
A. P. Ahlstrøm, S. B. Andersen, M. L. Andersen, H. Machguth, F. M. Nick, I. Joughin, C. H. Reijmer, R. S. W. van de Wal, J. P. Merryman Boncori, J. E. Box, M. Citterio, D. van As, R. S. Fausto, and A. Hubbard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 277–287,
A. J. Cook, T. Murray, A. Luckman, D. G. Vaughan, and N. E. Barrand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 129–142,
R. S. W. van de Wal, W. Boot, C. J. P. P. Smeets, H. Snellen, M. R. van den Broeke, and J. Oerlemans
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 31–35,
M. Rückamp and N. Blindow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 23–30,
S. Morin, Y. Lejeune, B. Lesaffre, J.-M. Panel, D. Poncet, P. David, and M. Sudul
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 13–21,
A. M. Le Brocq, A. J. Payne, and A. Vieli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 247–260,
H. Juliussen, H. H. Christiansen, G. S. Strand, S. Iversen, K. Midttømme, and J. S. Rønning
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 235–246,
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This research presents an updated glacier inventory (2017) of the Suru sub-basin, western Himalaya, India, which is useful for glacier-modelling studies. Glaciers here occur in two major Himalayan ranges: the Ladakh Range and the Greater Himalayan Range (GHR). Temporal glacier changes (46 years) suggest an overall degenerating pattern and a transitional response between the Karakoram and GHR glaciers. Local climate variability and unique topography induce heterogeneity in glacier response.
This research presents an updated glacier inventory (2017) of the Suru sub-basin, western...