Articles | Volume 15, issue 2
Data description paper
03 Mar 2023
Data description paper |  | 03 Mar 2023

Four-century history of land transformation by humans in the United States (1630–2020): annual and 1 km grid data for the HIStory of LAND changes (HISLAND-US)

Xiaoyong Li, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, and Shufen Pan

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Cited articles

Bartholome, E. and Belward, A. S.: GLC2000: a new approach to global land cover mapping from Earth observation data, Int. J. Remote Sens., 26, 1959–1977,, 2005. 
Bigelow, D. P. and Borchers, A.: Major Uses of Land in the United States 2012, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, (last access: 13 February 2023), 2017. 
Billington, R. A. and Ridge, M.: Westward expansion: a history of the American frontier, University of New Mexico Press, ISBN 9780826319814, 2001. 
Boryan, C., Yang, Z., Mueller, R., and Craig, M.: Monitoring US agriculture: the US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Cropland Data Layer Program, Geocarto. Int., 26, 341–358,, 2011. 
Cao, B., Yu, L., Li, X., Chen, M., Li, X., Hao, P., and Gong, P.: A 1 km global cropland dataset from 10 000 BCE to 2100 CE, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5403–5421,, 2021. 
Short summary
We reconstructed land use and land cover (LULC) history for the conterminous United States during 1630–2020 by integrating multi-source data. The results show the widespread expansion of cropland and urban land and the shrinking of natural vegetation in the past four centuries. Forest planting and regeneration accelerated forest recovery since the 1920s. The datasets can be used to assess the LULC impacts on the ecosystem's carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles.