Articles | Volume 13, issue 5
Data description paper
18 May 2021
Data description paper | 18 May 2021
A new global gridded sea surface temperature data product based on multisource data
Mengmeng Cao et al.
Shu Fang, Kebiao Mao, Xueqi Xia, Ping Wang, Jiancheng Shi, Sayed M. Bateni, Tongren Xu, Mengmeng Cao, Essam Heggy, and Zhihao Qin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1413–1432,Short summary
Air temperature is an important parameter reflecting climate change, and the current method of obtaining daily temperature is affected by many factors. In this study, we constructed a temperature model based on weather conditions and established a correction equation. The dataset of daily air temperature (Tmax, Tmin, and Tavg) in China from 1979 to 2018 was obtained with a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Accuracy verification shows that the dataset has reliable accuracy and high spatial resolution.
Ming Li, Husi Letu, Yiran Peng, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Yanluan Lin, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Anthony J. Baran, Zengyuan Guo, Yonghui Lei, and Jiancheng Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4809–4825,Short summary
To build on the previous investigations of the Voronoi model in the remote sensing retrievals of ice cloud products, this paper developed an ice cloud parameterization scheme based on the single-scattering properties of the Voronoi model and evaluate it through simulations with the Community Integrated Earth System Model (CIESM). Compared with four representative ice cloud schemes, results show that the Voronoi model has good capabilities of ice cloud modeling in the climate model.
Shu Fang, Kebiao Mao, Xueqi Xia, Ping Wang, Jiancheng Shi, Sayed M. Bateni, Tongren Xu, Mengmeng Cao, Essam Heggy, and Zhihao Qin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1413–1432,Short summary
Air temperature is an important parameter reflecting climate change, and the current method of obtaining daily temperature is affected by many factors. In this study, we constructed a temperature model based on weather conditions and established a correction equation. The dataset of daily air temperature (Tmax, Tmin, and Tavg) in China from 1979 to 2018 was obtained with a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Accuracy verification shows that the dataset has reliable accuracy and high spatial resolution.
Ping Wang, Kebiao Mao, Fei Meng, Zhihao Qin, Shu Fang, Sayed M. Bateni, and Mansour Almazroui
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
In order to obtain the key parameters of high temperature spatial-temporal variation analysis, this study proposed a daily highest air temperature (Tmax) estimation frame to build a Tmax dataset in China from 1979 to 2018. We found that the annual and seasonal mean Tmax in most areas of China showed an increasing trend.The abnormal temperature changes mainly occurred in El Niño years or La Niña years. IOBW had a stronger influence on China's warming events than other factors.
Peilin Song, Yongqiang Zhang, Jianping Guo, Jiancheng Shi, Tianjie Zhao, and Bing Tong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Soil moisture information is cruicial for understanding the earth surface, but currently available satellite-based soil moisture datasets are imperfect either in their spatio-temporal resolutions or in esnuring image completeness from cloudy weather. In this study, therefore, we developed one soil moisture data product over China that has tackled most of the above problems. This data product has great potential to promote investigation on earth hydrology and to be extended to the global scale.
Xiangjin Meng, Kebiao Mao, Fei Meng, Jiancheng Shi, Jiangyuan Zeng, Xinyi Shen, Yaokui Cui, Lingmei Jiang, and Zhonghua Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3239–3261,Short summary
In order to improve the accuracy of China's regional agricultural drought monitoring and climate change research, we produced a long-term series of soil moisture products by constructing a time and depth correction model for three soil moisture products with the help of ground observation data. The spatial resolution is improved by building a spatial weight decomposition model, and validation indicates that the new product can meet application needs.
Bing Zhao, Kebiao Mao, Yulin Cai, Jiancheng Shi, Zhaoliang Li, Zhihao Qin, Xiangjin Meng, Xinyi Shen, and Zhonghua Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2555–2577,Short summary
Land surface temperature is a key variable for climate and ecological environment research. We reconstructed a land surface temperature dataset (2003–2017) to take advantage of the ground observation site through building a reconstruction model which overcomes the effects of cloud. The reconstructed dataset exhibited significant improvements and can be used for the spatiotemporal evaluation of land surface temperature and for high-temperature and drought-monitoring studies.
S. Talebi, J. Shi, and T. Zhao
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1623–1627,
S. Talebi, J. Shi, T. Zhao, Y. Li, X. Chuan, and L. Chai
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4-W4, 259–263,
Matthew F. McCabe, Matthew Rodell, Douglas E. Alsdorf, Diego G. Miralles, Remko Uijlenhoet, Wolfgang Wagner, Arko Lucieer, Rasmus Houborg, Niko E. C. Verhoest, Trenton E. Franz, Jiancheng Shi, Huilin Gao, and Eric F. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3879–3914,Short summary
We examine the opportunities and challenges that technological advances in Earth observation will present to the hydrological community. From advanced space-based sensors to unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based distributed networks, these emergent systems are set to revolutionize our understanding and interpretation of hydrological and related processes.
T. R. Xu, S. M. Liu, Z. W. Xu, S. Liang, and L. Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Related subject area
Oceanography – PhysicalWave attenuation potential, sediment properties and mangrove growth dynamics data over Guyana's intertidal mudflats: assessing the potential of mangrove restoration worksHigh-resolution bathymetry models for the Lena Delta and Kolyma Gulf coastal zonesTowards improved analysis of short mesoscale sea level signals from satellite altimetryMETA3.1exp: a new global mesoscale eddy trajectory atlas derived from altimetryGlobal sea-level budget and ocean-mass budget, with a focus on advanced data products and uncertainty characterisationImproved BEC SMOS Arctic Sea Surface Salinity product v3.1Monitoring the ocean heat content change and the Earth energy imbalance from space altimetry and space gravimetryWater masses distribution offshore the Sabrina Coast (East Antarctica)Next generation of Bluelink ocean reanalysis with multiscale data assimilation: BRAN2020Arctic sea surface height maps from multi-altimeter combinationLaboratory data on wave propagation through vegetation with following and opposing currentsMinute Sea-Level Analysis (MISELA): a high-frequency sea-level analysis global datasetEOT20: a global ocean tide model from multi-mission satellite altimetryNorth SEAL: a new dataset of sea level changes in the North Sea from satellite altimetryAn integrated marine data collection for the German Bight – Part 2: Tides, salinity, and waves (1996–2015)A climate index for the Newfoundland and Labrador shelfMeasurements from the RV Ronald H. Brown and related platforms as part of the Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC)The MALINA oceanographic expedition: how do changes in ice cover, permafrost and UV radiation impact biodiversity and biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic Ocean?Wind, waves, and surface currents in the Southern Ocean: observations from the Antarctic Circumnavigation ExpeditionNine years of SMOS sea surface salinity global maps at the Barcelona Expert CenterA novel hydrographic gridded data set for the northern Antarctic PeninsulaA gridded surface current product for the Gulf of Mexico from consolidated drifter measurementsMeteorological and hydrodynamic data in the Mar Grande and Mar Piccolo, Italy, of the Coastal Engineering Laboratory (LIC) Survey, winter and summer 2015Global maps of Forel–Ule index, hue angle and Secchi disk depth derived from 21 years of monthly ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative dataGlobal dataset of thermohaline staircases obtained from Argo floats and Ice-Tethered ProfilersPhysical and biogeochemical parameters of the Mediterranean Sea during a cruise with RV Maria S. Merian in March 2018Half-hourly changes in intertidal temperature at nine wave-exposed locations along the Atlantic Canadian coast: a 5.5-year studyA volumetric census of the Barents Sea in a changing climateHeat stored in the Earth system: where does the energy go?The Sea State CCI dataset v1: towards a sea state climate data record based on satellite observationsA comprehensive oceanographic dataset of a subpolar, mid-latitude broad fjord: Fortune Bay, Newfoundland, CanadaReanalysis of vertical mixing in mesocosm experiments: PeECE III and KOSMOS 2013A multi-year time series of observation-based 3D horizontal and vertical quasi-geostrophic global ocean currentsGlobal distribution of photosynthetically available radiation on the seafloorQuality assurance and control on hydrological data off western Sardinia (2000–2004), western MediterraneanAn updated seabed bathymetry beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic PeninsulaPROTEVS-MED field experiments: very high resolution hydrographic surveys in the Western Mediterranean SeaGreen Edge ice camp campaigns: understanding the processes controlling the under-ice Arctic phytoplankton spring bloomUncertainty in satellite estimates of global mean sea-level changes, trend and accelerationA compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications – version twoNear-ice hydrographic data from Seaglider missions in the western Greenland Sea in summer 2014 and 2015A near-surface sea temperature time series from Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea (1899–2015)Field investigations of coastal sea surface temperature drop after typhoon passagesGlider data collected during the Algerian Basin Circulation Unmanned SurveyThe AlborEX dataset: sampling of sub-mesoscale features in the Alboran SeaEnvironmental conditions of a salt-marsh biodiversity experiment on the island of Spiekeroog (Germany)Global sea-level budget 1993–presentNorth Atlantic subpolar gyre along predetermined ship tracks since 1993: a monthly data set of surface temperature, salinity, and densitySea surface salinity and temperature in the southern Atlantic Ocean from South African icebreakers, 2010–2017UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography
Üwe S. N. Best, Mick van der Wegen, Jasper Dijkstra, Johan Reyns, Bram C. van Prooijen, and Dano Roelvink
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2445–2462,Short summary
The combination of seawalls and vegetation may be the key to Guyana's survival against rising water levels; however knowledge about the system behaviour and use of vegetation is inadequate. This paper comprises the first dataset since the 1970s along the Guyana coastline. Instruments were deployed to capture data on the water levels, waves and sediment locally. Data revealed the ways in which sediment is transported and deposited, as well as the wave damping of the mangrove–mudflat system.
Matthias Fuchs, Juri Palmtag, Bennet Juhls, Pier Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Michael Bedington, Tina Sanders, Olga Ogneva, Irina V. Fedorova, Nikita S. Zimov, Paul J. Mann, and Jens Strauss
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2279–2301,Short summary
We created digital, high-resolution bathymetry data sets for the Lena Delta and Kolyma Gulf regions in northeastern Siberia. Based on nautical charts, we digitized depth points and isobath lines, which serve as an input for a 50 m bathymetry model. The benefit of this data set is the accurate mapping of near-shore areas as well as the offshore continuation of the main deep river channels. This will improve the estimation of river outflow and the nutrient flux output into the coastal zone.
Yves Quilfen, Jean-François Piolle, and Bertrand Chapron
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1493–1512,Short summary
Satellite sea surface heights (SSHs) are key observations used to monitor ocean dynamics. For each satellite altimeter mission, differing noise mixes with SSH signals preclude analysis of the smallest ocean scales. Using an adaptive filter, a new data set is produced for three altimeters, showing that SSH variability in the mesoscale 30–120 km wavelength band can now be more consistently resolved. For the first time, global small-scale ocean kinetic energy distributions are precisely monitored.
Cori Pegliasco, Antoine Delepoulle, Evan Mason, Rosemary Morrow, Yannice Faugère, and Gérald Dibarboure
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1087–1107,Short summary
The new global Mesoscale Eddy Trajectory Atlases (META3.1exp) provide eddy identification and trajectories from altimetry maps. These atlases comprise an improvement to and continuation of the historical META2.0 product. Changes in the detection parameters and tracking were tested by comparing the eddies from the different datasets. In particular, the eddy contours available in META3.1exp are an asset for multi-disciplinary studies.
Martin Horwath, Benjamin D. Gutknecht, Anny Cazenave, Hindumathi Kulaiappan Palanisamy, Florence Marti, Ben Marzeion, Frank Paul, Raymond Le Bris, Anna E. Hogg, Inès Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Petra Döll, Denise Cáceres, Hannes Müller Schmied, Johnny A. Johannessen, Jan Even Øie Nilsen, Roshin P. Raj, René Forsberg, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Valentina R. Barletta, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Per Knudsen, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Heidi Ranndal, Stine K. Rose, Christopher J. Merchant, Claire R. Macintosh, Karina von Schuckmann, Kristin Novotny, Andreas Groh, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 411–447,Short summary
Global mean sea-level change observed from 1993 to 2016 (mean rate of 3.05 mm yr−1) matches the combined effect of changes in water density (thermal expansion) and ocean mass. Ocean-mass change has been assessed through the contributions from glaciers, ice sheets, and land water storage or directly from satellite data since 2003. Our budget assessments of linear trends and monthly anomalies utilise new datasets and uncertainty characterisations developed within ESA's Climate Change Initiative.
Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, Antonio Turiel, Verónica González-Gambau, Marta Umbert, Nina Hoareau, Cristina González-Haro, Estrella Olmedo, Manuel Arias, Rafael Catany, Laurent Bertino, Roshin P. Raj, Jiping Xie, Roberto Sabia, and Diego Fernández
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 307–323,Short summary
Measuring salinity from space is challenging since the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to sea surface salinity is low, but the retrieval of SSS in cold waters is even more challenging. In 2019, the ESA launched a specific initiative called Arctic+Salinity to produce an enhanced Arctic SSS product with better quality and resolution than the available products. This paper presents the methodologies used to produce the new enhanced Arctic SMOS SSS product.
Florence Marti, Alejandro Blazquez, Benoit Meyssignac, Michaël Ablain, Anne Barnoud, Robin Fraudeau, Rémi Jugier, Jonathan Chenal, Gilles Larnicol, Julia Pfeffer, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 229–249,Short summary
The Earth energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere due to the increase in greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations is responsible for the accumulation of energy in the climate system. With its high thermal inertia, the ocean accumulates most of this energy excess in the form of heat. The estimation of the global ocean heat content through space geodetic observations allows monitoring of the energy imbalance with realistic uncertainties to better understand the Earth’s warming climate.
Manuel Bensi, Vedrana Kovačević, Federica Donda, Philip Edward O'Brien, Linda Armbrecht, and Leanne Kay Armand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 65–78,Short summary
The Totten Glacier (Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica) has undergone significant retreat in recent years, underlining its sensitivity to climate change and its potential contribution to global sea-level rise. The melting process is strongly influenced by ocean dynamics and the spatial distribution of water masses appears to be linked to the complex morpho-bathymetry of the area, supporting the hypothesis that downwelling processes contribute to shaping the architecture of the continental margin.
Matthew A. Chamberlain, Peter R. Oke, Russell A. S. Fiedler, Helen M. Beggs, Gary B. Brassington, and Prasanth Divakaran
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5663–5688,Short summary
BRAN2020 is a dynamical reconstruction of the ocean, combining observations with a high-resolution global ocean model. BRAN2020 currently spans January 1993 to December 2019, assimilating in situ temperature and salinity, as well as satellite-based sea level and sea surface temperature. A new multiscale approach to data assimilation constrains the broad-scale ocean properties and turbulent mesoscale dynamics in two steps, showing closer agreement to observations than all previous versions.
Pierre Prandi, Jean-Christophe Poisson, Yannice Faugère, Amandine Guillot, and Gérald Dibarboure
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5469–5482,Short summary
We investigate how mapping sea level in the Arctic Ocean can benefit from combining data from three satellite radar altimeters: CryoSat-2, Sentinel-3A and SARAL/AltiKa. A dedicated processing for SARAL/AltiKa provides a baseline for the cross-referencing of CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3A before mapping. We show that by combining measurements coming from three missions, we are able to increase the resolution of gridded sea level fields in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
Zhan Hu, Simei Lian, Huaiyu Wei, Yulong Li, Marcel Stive, and Tomohiro Suzuki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4987–4999,Short summary
The process of wave attenuation in vegetation is important as it is related to the coastal protection service of these coastal ecosystems. In intertidal environments, waves often propagate into vegetation fields with underlying tidal currents, but the effect of these currents on the wave attenuation is often overlooked, and the relevant dataset is rarely available. Here, we present a dataset of wave propagation through vegetation with following and opposing currents to assist further studies.
Petra Zemunik, Jadranka Šepić, Havu Pellikka, Leon Ćatipović, and Ivica Vilibić
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4121–4132,Short summary
A new global dataset – MISELA (Minute Sea-Level Analysis) – has been developed and contains quality-checked sea-level records from 331 tide gauges worldwide for a period from 2004 to 2019. The dataset is appropriate for research on atmospherically induced high-frequency sea-level oscillations. Research on these oscillations is important, as they can, like all sea-level extremes, seriously threaten coastal zone infrastructure and populations.
Michael G. Hart-Davis, Gaia Piccioni, Denise Dettmering, Christian Schwatke, Marcello Passaro, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3869–3884,Short summary
Ocean tides are an extremely important process for a variety of oceanographic applications, particularly in understanding coastal sea-level rise. Tidal signals influence satellite altimetry estimations of the sea surface, which has resulted in the development of ocean tide models to account for such signals. The EOT20 ocean tide model has been developed at DGFI-TUM using residual analysis of satellite altimetry, with the focus on improving the estimation of ocean tides in the coastal region.
Denise Dettmering, Felix L. Müller, Julius Oelsmann, Marcello Passaro, Christian Schwatke, Marco Restano, Jérôme Benveniste, and Florian Seitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3733–3753,Short summary
In this study, a new gridded altimetry-based regional sea level dataset for the North Sea is presented, named North SEAL. It is based on long-term multi-mission cross-calibrated altimetry data consistently preprocessed with coastal dedicated algorithms. On a 6–8 km wide triangular mesh, North SEAL provides time series of monthly sea level anomalies as well as sea level trends and amplitudes of the mean annual sea level cycle for the period 1995–2019 for various applications.
Robert Hagen, Andreas Plüß, Romina Ihde, Janina Freund, Norman Dreier, Edgar Nehlsen, Nico Schrage, Peter Fröhle, and Frank Kösters
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2573–2594,Short summary
We established an open-access, integrated marine data collection for 1996 to 2015 in the German Bight as a database of scientific, economic, and governmental interest. This paper presents data for tidal elevation, depth-averaged current velocity, bottom shear stress, depth-averaged salinity, and wave parameters and spectra at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Data are additionally processed into meaningful parameters (i.e., tidal characteristic values, e.g., tidal range) for accessibility.
Frédéric Cyr and Peter S. Galbraith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1807–1828,Short summary
Climate indices are often regarded as simple ways to relate mean environmental conditions to the state of an ecosystem. Such indices are often used to inform fisheries scientists and managers or used in fisheries resource assessments and ecosystem studies. The Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) climate index aims to describe the environmental conditions on the NL shelf and in the Northwest Atlantic as a whole. It consists of annual normalized anomalies of 10 subindices relevant for the NL shelf.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1759–1790,Short summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwestern tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Filippo Nelli, Luke G. Bennetts, Katrin G. Hessner, Keith MacHutchon, Konny Reichert, Lotfi Aouf, Salman Khan, and Alessandro Toffoli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1189–1209,Short summary
The Southern Ocean has a profound impact on the Earth's climate system. Its strong winds, intense currents, and fierce waves are critical components of the air–sea interface. The scarcity of observations in this remote region hampers the comprehension of fundamental physics, the accuracy of satellite sensors, and the capabilities of prediction models. To fill this gap, a unique data set of simultaneous observations of winds, surface currents, and ocean waves in the Southern Ocean is presented.
Estrella Olmedo, Cristina González-Haro, Nina Hoareau, Marta Umbert, Verónica González-Gambau, Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, and Antonio Turiel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 857–888,Short summary
After more than 10 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) European mission is still a unique, high-quality instrument for providing soil moisture over land and sea surface salinity (SSS) over the oceans. At the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC), a new reprocessing of 9 years (2011–2019) of global SMOS SSS maps has been generated. This work presents the algorithms used in the generation of the BEC global SMOS SSS product v2.0, as well as an extensive quality assessment.
Tiago S. Dotto, Mauricio M. Mata, Rodrigo Kerr, and Carlos A. E. Garcia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 671–696,Short summary
A novel seasonal three-dimensional high-resolution hydrographic gridded data set for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (NAP) based on measurements obtained from 1990–2019 by the ship-based Argo profilers and tagged marine mammals is presented. The main oceanographic features of the NAP are well represented, with the final product having many advantages compared to low-resolution climatologies. In addition, new information on the regional water mass pathways and their characteristics is unveiled.
Jonathan M. Lilly and Paula Pérez-Brunius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 645–669,Short summary
A large set of historical surface drifter data from the Gulf of Mexico are processed and assimilated into a spatially and temporally gridded dataset called GulfFlow, forming a significant resource for studying the circulation and variability in this important region. The uniformly processed historical drifter data interpolated to hourly resolution from all publicly available sources are also distributed in a separate product. A greatly improved map of the mean circulation is presented.
Michele Mossa, Elvira Armenio, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Maria Francesca Bruno, Diana De Padova, and Francesca De Serio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 599–607,Short summary
Two fixed stations have been installed in the Mar Grande and Mar Piccolo of Taranto, one of the most complex marine ecosystem models. Although typical trends in the water circulation and exchanges have been studied by models developed for the seas of Taranto, more monitoring actions and numerical modelling are still necessary to better understand the most significant hydrodynamic–biological variability in this coastal basin. The results of this study can be applied to similar zones.
Jaime Pitarch, Marco Bellacicco, Salvatore Marullo, and Hendrik J. van der Woerd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 481–490,Short summary
Ocean monitoring is crucial to understand the regular seasonality and the drift induced by climate change. Satellites offer a possibility to monitor the complete surface of the Earth within a few days with a harmonized methodology, reaching resolutions of few kilometres. We revisit traditional ship survey optical parameters such as the
Secchi disk depthand the
Forel–Ule indexand derive them from satellite observations. Our time series is 21 years long and has global coverage.
Carine G. van der Boog, J. Otto Koetsier, Henk A. Dijkstra, Julie D. Pietrzak, and Caroline A. Katsman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 43–61,Short summary
Thermohaline staircases are stepped structures in the ocean that contain enhanced diapycnal salt and heat transport. In this study, we present a global dataset of thermohaline staircases derived from 487 493 observations of Argo profiling floats and Ice-Tethered Profilers using a novel detection algorithm.
Dagmar Hainbucher, Marta Álvarez, Blanca Astray Uceda, Giancarlo Bachi, Vanessa Cardin, Paolo Celentano, Spyros Chaikalis, Maria del Mar Chaves Montero, Giuseppe Civitarese, Noelia M. Fajar, Francois Fripiat, Lennart Gerke, Alexandra Gogou, Elisa F. Guallart, Birte Gülk, Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Nico Lange, Andrea Rochner, Chiara Santinelli, Tobias Steinhoff, Toste Tanhua, Lidia Urbini, Dimitrios Velaoras, Fabian Wolf, and Andreas Welsch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2747–2763,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea (MSM72, March 2018). The main objective of the cruise was to contribute to the understanding of long-term changes and trends in physical and biogeochemical parameters, such as the anthropogenic carbon uptake, and further assess the hydrographical situation after the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Transients. Multidisciplinary measurements were conducted on a predominantly zonal section throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
Ricardo A. Scrosati, Julius A. Ellrich, and Matthew J. Freeman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2695–2703,Short summary
We measured temperature every half hour during a period of 5.5 years (2014–2019) at nine wave-exposed rocky intertidal locations along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We summarize the main properties of this data set by focusing on location-wise values of daily maximum and minimum temperature and daily SST.
Sylvain Watelet, Øystein Skagseth, Vidar S. Lien, Helge Sagen, Øivind Østensen, Viktor Ivshin, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2447–2457,Short summary
We present here a seasonal atlas of the Barents Sea including both temperature and salinity for the period 1965–2016. This atlas is curated using several in situ data sources interpolated thanks to the tool DIVA minimizing the expected errors. The results show a recent "Atlantification" of the Barents Sea, i.e., a general increase in both temperature and salinity, while its density remains stable. The atlas is made freely accessible (https://doi.org/10.21335/NMDC-2058021735).
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Guillaume Dodet, Jean-François Piolle, Yves Quilfen, Saleh Abdalla, Mickaël Accensi, Fabrice Ardhuin, Ellis Ash, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Christine Gommenginger, Gwendal Marechal, Marcello Passaro, Graham Quartly, Justin Stopa, Ben Timmermans, Ian Young, Paolo Cipollini, and Craig Donlon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1929–1951,Short summary
Sea state data are of major importance for climate studies, marine engineering, safety at sea and coastal management. However, long-term sea state datasets are sparse and not always consistent. The CCI is a program of the European Space Agency, whose objective is to realize the full potential of global Earth Observation archives in order to contribute to the ECV database. This paper presents the implementation of the first release of the Sea State CCI dataset.
Sebastien Donnet, Pascal Lazure, Andry Ratsimandresy, and Guoqi Han
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1877–1896,Short summary
Fortune Bay (Canada) is a large fjord-like embayment that hosts aquaculture (salmon) industries, lobster fisheries and wild salmon runs. To better understand the ecological pressure of human-related activities, an important oceanographic program was undertaken to provide basic knowledge of the physical environment. The program ran for 2 consecutive years and successfully obtained data on water temperature, salinity, oxygen, ocean currents, tides and meteorological forcing (e.g. wind).
Sabine Mathesius, Julia Getzlaff, Heiner Dietze, Andreas Oschlies, and Markus Schartau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1775–1787,Short summary
Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean, pelagic mesocosms, has become a standard method to explore responses of marine plankton communities to anthropogenic change. Among the challenges of interpreting mesocosm data is the often uncertain role of vertical mixing. This study introduces a mesocosm mixing model that is able to estimate vertical diffusivities and thus provides a tool for future mesocosm data analyses that account for mixing.
Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1711–1723,Short summary
To better understand ocean dynamics and assess their responses and feedbacks to natural and anthropogenic pressures, 3D ocean circulation estimates are needed. Here we present the OMEGA3D product, an observation-based time series (1993–2018) of global 3D ocean currents developed within the European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service. OMEGA3D provides vertical velocities – an observational barrier due to their small intensity – and full horizontal velocities down to 1500 m depth.
Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Bernard Gentili, David Antoine, and David Doxaran
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1697–1709,Short summary
Light is a key ocean variable shaping the composition of benthic and pelagic communities by controlling the three-dimensional distribution of primary producers. It also plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. We provide a continuous monthly data set of the global distribution of light reaching the seabed. It is 4 times longer (21 vs 5 years) than the previous data set, the spatial resolution is better (4.6 vs 9.3 km), and the bathymetric resolution is also better (0.46 vs 3.7 km).
Alberto Ribotti, Roberto Sorgente, and Mireno Borghini
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1287–1294,Short summary
From May 2000 to January 2004 seven cruises in the Sea of Sardinia collected physical, chemical and biological data. They contributed to knowledge of the local circulation and its interaction with the general Mediterranean one. Accurate and sustained quality assurance for physical sensors was ensured through pre- and postcruise calibration (described here) and verified during cruises by redundant sensors and instruments. Hydrological data are in two open-access datasets in the SEANOE repository.
Alex Brisbourne, Bernd Kulessa, Thomas Hudson, Lianne Harrison, Paul Holland, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, David Ashmore, Bryn Hubbard, Emma Pearce, James White, Adam Booth, Keith Nicholls, and Andrew Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 887–896,Short summary
Melting of the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica may lead to its collapse. To help estimate its lifespan we need to understand how the ocean can circulate beneath. This requires knowledge of the geometry of the sub-shelf cavity. New and existing measurements of seabed depth are integrated to produce a map of the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf. The observed deep seabed may provide a pathway for circulation of warm ocean water but at the same time reduce rapid tidal melt at a critical location.
Pierre Garreau, Franck Dumas, Stéphanie Louazel, Stéphanie Correard, Solenn Fercocq, Marc Le Menn, Alain Serpette, Valérie Garnier, Alexandre Stegner, Briac Le Vu, Andrea Doglioli, and Gerald Gregori
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 441–456,Short summary
The oceanic circulation is composed of the main currents, of large eddies and meanders, and of fine motions at a scale of about a few hundreds of metres, rarely observed in situ. PROTEVS-MED experiments were devoted to very high resolution observations of water properties (temperature and salinity) and currents, thanks to an undulating trawled vehicle revealing a patchy, stirred and energetic ocean in the first 400 m depth. These fine-scale dynamics drive the plankton and air–sea exchanges.
Philippe Massicotte, Rémi Amiraux, Marie-Pier Amyot, Philippe Archambault, Mathieu Ardyna, Laurent Arnaud, Lise Artigue, Cyril Aubry, Pierre Ayotte, Guislain Bécu, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Henry C. Bittig, Annick Bricaud, Éric Brossier, Flavienne Bruyant, Laurent Chauvaud, Debra Christiansen-Stowe, Hervé Claustre, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Pierre Coupel, Christine Cox, Aurelie Delaforge, Thibaud Dezutter, Céline Dimier, Florent Domine, Francis Dufour, Christiane Dufresne, Dany Dumont, Jens Ehn, Brent Else, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Louis Fortier, Martí Galí, Virginie Galindo, Morgane Gallinari, Nicole Garcia, Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Margaux Gourdal, Priscilla Gourvil, Clemence Goyens, Pierre-Luc Grondin, Pascal Guillot, Caroline Guilmette, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Fabien Joux, Léo Lacour, Thomas Lacour, Augustin Lafond, José Lagunas, Catherine Lalande, Julien Laliberté, Simon Lambert-Girard, Jade Larivière, Johann Lavaud, Anita LeBaron, Karine Leblanc, Florence Le Gall, Justine Legras, Mélanie Lemire, Maurice Levasseur, Edouard Leymarie, Aude Leynaert, Adriana Lopes dos Santos, Antonio Lourenço, David Mah, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Nicolas Martin, Constance Marty, Sabine Marty, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Lisa Matthes, Brivaela Moriceau, Pierre-Emmanuel Muller, Christopher-John Mundy, Griet Neukermans, Laurent Oziel, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Jean-Jacques Pangrazi, Ghislain Picard, Marc Picheral, France Pinczon du Sel, Nicole Pogorzelec, Ian Probert, Bernard Quéguiner, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Eric Rehm, Erin Reimer, Jean-François Rontani, Søren Rysgaard, Blanche Saint-Béat, Makoto Sampei, Julie Sansoulet, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Caroline Sévigny, Yuan Shen, Margot Tragin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Daniel Vaulot, Gauthier Verin, Frédéric Vivier, Anda Vladoiu, Jeremy Whitehead, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 151–176,Short summary
The Green Edge initiative was developed to understand the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic spring bloom (PSB). In this article, we present an overview of an extensive and comprehensive dataset acquired during two expeditions conducted in 2015 and 2016 on landfast ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay.
Michaël Ablain, Benoît Meyssignac, Lionel Zawadzki, Rémi Jugier, Aurélien Ribes, Giorgio Spada, Jerôme Benveniste, Anny Cazenave, and Nicolas Picot
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1189–1202,Short summary
A description of the uncertainties in the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) record has been performed; 25 years of satellite altimetry data were used to estimate the error variance–covariance matrix for the GMSL record to derive its confidence envelope. Then a least square approach was used to estimate the GMSL trend and acceleration uncertainties over any time periods. A GMSL trend of 3.35 ± 0.4 mm/yr and a GMSL acceleration of 0.12 ± 0.07 mm/yr² have been found within a 90 % confidence level.
André Valente, Shubha Sathyendranath, Vanda Brotas, Steve Groom, Michael Grant, Malcolm Taberner, David Antoine, Robert Arnone, William M. Balch, Kathryn Barker, Ray Barlow, Simon Bélanger, Jean-François Berthon, Şükrü Beşiktepe, Yngve Borsheim, Astrid Bracher, Vittorio Brando, Elisabetta Canuti, Francisco Chavez, Andrés Cianca, Hervé Claustre, Lesley Clementson, Richard Crout, Robert Frouin, Carlos García-Soto, Stuart W. Gibb, Richard Gould, Stanford B. Hooker, Mati Kahru, Milton Kampel, Holger Klein, Susanne Kratzer, Raphael Kudela, Jesus Ledesma, Hubert Loisel, Patricia Matrai, David McKee, Brian G. Mitchell, Tiffany Moisan, Frank Muller-Karger, Leonie O'Dowd, Michael Ondrusek, Trevor Platt, Alex J. Poulton, Michel Repecaud, Thomas Schroeder, Timothy Smyth, Denise Smythe-Wright, Heidi M. Sosik, Michael Twardowski, Vincenzo Vellucci, Kenneth Voss, Jeremy Werdell, Marcel Wernand, Simon Wright, and Giuseppe Zibordi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1037–1068,Short summary
A compiled set of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the compilation of global bio-optical in situ data (spanning from 1997 to 2018) used for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The compilation merges and harmonizes several in situ data sources into a simple format that could be used directly for the evaluation of satellite-derived ocean-colour data.
Katrin Latarius, Ursula Schauer, and Andreas Wisotzki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 895–920,Short summary
During summer 2014 and summer 2015 two autonomous underwater vehicles were operated over several months in the western Nordic Seas close to the ice edge. They took measurements of temperature, salinity and water depth (pressure) on the way. The aim of the Seaglider missions was to observe if near-surface freshwater, which flows out of the Arctic Ocean in the direction to the North Atlantic, increased with shrinking ice coverage. The measurements were executed to finally provide validated data.
Fabio Raicich and Renato R. Colucci
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 761–768,Short summary
Thanks to near-surface sea temperatures measured at Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, from 1899 to 2015, we estimated mean daily temperatures at 2 m depth and built a quasi-homogeneous 117-year-long time series. We describe the instruments used and the sites of measurements, which are all within Trieste harbour. The data set represents a valuable tool to study sea temperature variability on different timescales. A mean temperature rise rate of 1.1 ± 0.3 °C per century was estimated.
Dong-Jiing Doong, Jen-Ping Peng, and Alexander V. Babanin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 323–340,Short summary
Seawater temperature has a major impact on human comfort and safety during swimming, surfing and snorkeling activities and the marine ecosystems. The authors deployed marine buoys to collect meteo-oceanographic data for the government and found the temperature always dropped significantly after typhoon passages. Presentation of the dataset gives a first understanding and can help to validate the numerical model in order to study the mechanism.
Yuri Cotroneo, Giuseppe Aulicino, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Sánchez Román, Marc Torner Tomàs, Ananda Pascual, Giannetta Fusco, Emma Heslop, Joaquín Tintoré, and Giorgio Budillon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 147–161,Short summary
We present data collected from the first three glider surveys in the Algerian Basin conducted during the ABACUS project. After collection, data passed a quality control procedure and were then made available through an unrestricted repository. The main objective of our project is monitoring the basin circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Temperature and salinity data collected in the first 975 m of the water column allowed us to identify the main water masses and describe their characteristics.
Charles Troupin, Ananda Pascual, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Olita, Benjamin Casas, Félix Margirier, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Giulio Notarstefano, Marc Torner, Juan Gabriel Fernández, Miquel Àngel Rújula, Cristian Muñoz, Eva Alou, Inmaculada Ruiz, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, John T. Allen, Amala Mahadevan, and Joaquín Tintoré
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 129–145,Short summary
The AlborEX (the Alboran Sea Experiment) consisted of an experiment in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) that took place between 25 and 31 May 2014, and use a wide range of oceanographic sensors. The dataset provides information on mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes taking place in a frontal area. This paper presents the measurements obtained from these sensors and describes their particularities: scale, spatial and temporal resolutions, measured variables, etc.
Oliver Zielinski, Daniela Meier, Kertu Lõhmus, Thorsten Balke, Michael Kleyer, and Helmut Hillebrand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1843–1858,Short summary
An experiment for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning at the intersection of land and sea was set up in the intertidal zone of the back-barrier salt marsh of Spiekeroog Island in the German Bight. Here we report the accompanying instrumentation, maintenance, data acquisition, data handling and data quality control as well as monitoring results observed over a continuous period from September 2014 to April 2017.
WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1551–1590,Short summary
Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Studying the sea level budget, i.e., comparing observed global mean sea level to the sum of components (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers and ice sheet mass loss as well as changes in land water storage) improves our understanding of processes at work and provides constraints on missing contributions (e.g., deep ocean).
Gilles Reverdin, Hedinn Valdimarsson, Gael Alory, Denis Diverres, Francis Bringas, Gustavo Goni, Lars Heilmann, Leon Chafik, Tanguy Szekely, and Andrew R. Friedman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1403–1415,Short summary
We report monthly time series of surface temperature, salinity, and density in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in 1993–2017 from hydrographical data collected in particular from thermosalinographs onboard selected ships of opportunity. Most of the time, this data set reproduces well the large-scale variability, except for a few seasons with limited sampling, in particular in winter along western Greenland or northeast of Newfoundland in the presence of sea ice.
Giuseppe Aulicino, Yuri Cotroneo, Isabelle Ansorge, Marcel van den Berg, Cinzia Cesarano, Maria Belmonte Rivas, and Estrella Olmedo Casal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1227–1236,Short summary
We present sea surface salinity and temperature data collected across the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean by thermosalinographs on board Agulhas-I and Agulhas-II research vessels. After a rigorous quality control, data have been validated through comparison with water samples and independent products. Hence this dataset represents a valuable tool for validating salinity observations provided by SMOS and Aquarius missions and improving the study of climate variability over this region.
Axel Behrendt, Hiroshi Sumata, Benjamin Rabe, and Ursula Schauer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1119–1138,Short summary
Oceanographic data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean over many decades. They were measured by a large variety of platforms. Most of these data are publicly available from the World Ocean Database (WOD). This important online archive, however, does not contain all available modern data and has quality problems in the upper water layers. To enable a quick access to nearly all available temperature and salinity profiles, we compiled UDASH, a complete data archive with a higher quality.
Ackerman, S. A., Holz, R. E., Frey, R., Eloranta, E. W., Maddux, B. C., and McGill, M.: Cloud detection with MODIS. Part ii: validation, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 25, 1073–1086, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHA1053.1, 2008.
Alerskans, E., Høyer, J. L., Gentemann, C. L., Pedersen, L. T., Nielsen-Englyst, P., and Donlon, C.: Construction of a climate data record of sea surface temperature from passive microwave measurements, Remote Sens. Environ., 236, 11485, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111485, 2020.
Banzon, V., Smith, T. M., Steele, M., Huang, B., and Zhang, H.-M.: Improved estimation of proxy sea surface temperature in the Arctic, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 37, 341–349, https://doi.org/10.1175/jtech-d-19-0177.1, 2020.
Banzon, V. F. and Reynolds, R. W.: Use of windsat to extend a microwave-based daily optimum interpolation sea surface temperature time series, J. Climate, 26, 2557–2562, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00628.1, 2013.
Barton, I. and Pearce, A.: Validation of GLI and other satellite-derived sea surface temperatures using data from the Rottnest Island ferry, Western Australia, J. Oceanogr., 62, 303–310, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-006-0055-5, 2006.
Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr., 23, 559–582, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(76)90001-2, 1976.
Burnett, W., Harper, S., Preller, R., Jacobs, G., and LaCroix, K.: Overview of operational ocean forecasting in the US navy past, present, and future, Oceanography, 27, 24–31, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.65, 2014.
Cao, M., Mao, K., Yan, Y., Shi, J., Wang, H., Xu, T., Fang, S., and Yuan, Z.: A new global gridded sea surface temperature data product based on multisource data (Version 1.0) [Dataset], Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4419804, 2021a.
Cao, M., Mao, K., Yan, Y., Shi, J., Wang, H., Xu, T., Fang, S., and Yuan, Z.: A New Global Gridded Sea Surface Temperature Data Product Based on Multisource Data (Version 1.0) [Code], Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4762067, 2021b.
Carton, J. A. and Giese, B. S.: A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 2999–3017, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr1978.1, 2008.
Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G. A., and Chen, L.: SODA3: A new ocean climate reanalysis, J. Climate, 31, 6967–6983, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0149.1, 2018.
Castro, S. L., Emery, W. J., and Wick, G. A.: Skin and bulk sea surface temperature estimates from passive microwave and thermal infrared satellite imagery and their relationships to atmospheric forcing, Gayana (Concepción), 68, 96–101, https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382004000200018, 2004.
Castro, S. L., Wick, G. A., and Steele, M.: Validation of satellite sea surface temperature analyses in the Beaufort Sea using UpTempO buoys, Remote Sens. Environ., 187, 458–475, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.10.035, 2016.
Chao, Y., Li, Z., Farrara, J. D., and Hung, P.: Blending sea surface temperatures from multiple satellites and in situ observations for coastal oceans, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26, 1415–1426, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jtecho592.1, 2009a.
Chao, Y., Li, Z., Farrara, J., McWilliams, J. C., Bellingham, J., Capet, X., Chavez, F., Choi, J.-K., Davis, R., Doyle, J., Fratantoni, D. M., Li, P., Marchesiello, P., Moline, M. A., Paduan, J., and Ramp, S.: Development, implementation and evaluation of a data-assimilative ocean forecasting system off the central California coast, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 100–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.011, 2009b.
Chassignet, E. P., Hurlburt, H. E., Metzger, E. J., Smedstad, O. M., Cummings, J. A., Halliwell, G. R., Bleck, R., Baraille, R., Wallcraft, A. J., Lozano, C., Tolman, H. L., Srinivasan, A., Hankin, S., Cornillon, P., Weisberg, R., Barth, A., He, R., Werner, F., and Wilkin, J.: US GODAE Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), Oceanography, 22, 64–75, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.39, 2009.
Dash, P., Ignatov, A., Martin, M., Donlon, C., Brasnett, B., Reynolds, R., Banzon, V., Helen, B., Cayula, J.-F., Chao, Y., Grumbine, R., Maturi, E., Harris, A., Mittaz, J., Sapper, J., Chin, T., Vazquez, J., Armstrong, E., Gentemann, C., and Poulter, D.: Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) Analysis Fields Inter Comparisons: Part2. Near real-time web-based Level 4 SST Quality Monitor (L4-SQUAM), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 7, 31–43, 2011.
Donlon, C. J., Minnett, P. J., Gentemann, C., Nightingale, T. J., Barton, I. J., Ward, B., and Murray, M. J.: Toward improved validation of satellite sea surface skin temperature measurements for climate research, J. Climate, 15, 353–369, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0353:TIVOSS>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Fairall, C. W., Bradley, E. F., Godfrey, J. S., Wick, G. A., Edson, J. B., and Young, G. S.: Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 101, 1295–1308, https://doi.org/10.1029/95jc03190, 1996.
Gentemann, C. L.: Microwave sea surface temperatures for climate, available at: http://www.wcrp-climate.org/conference2011/posters/C14/C14_Gentemann_T45B.pdf (last access: 2 March 2020), 2011.
Gentemann, C. L.: Three way validation of MODIS and AMSR-E sea surface temperatures, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 119, 2583–2598, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jc009716, 2014.
Gentemann, C. L., Meissner, T., and Wentz, F. J.: Accuracy of satellite sea surface temperatures at 7 and 11 GHz, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 48, 1009–1018, https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2009.2030322, 2010.
Guan, L. and Kawamura, H.: SST availabilities of satellite infrared and microwave measurements, J. Oceanogr., 59, 201–209, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025543305658, 2003.
Guan, L. and Kawamura, H.: Merging satellite infrared and microwave SSTs: Methodology and evaluation of the new SST, J. Oceanogr., 60, 905–912, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-004-5782-x, 2004.
Han, G., Li, W., Zhang, X., Li, D., He, Z., Wang, X., Wu, X., Yu, T., and Ma, J.: A regional ocean reanalysis system for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 682, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-010-9184-2, 2011.
Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Hirahara, S., Horányi, A., Muñoz-Sabater, j., Nicolas, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R., Schepers, D., Simmons, D., Soci, C., Abdalla, S., Abellan, X., Balsamo, G., Bechtold, P., Biavati, G., Bidlot, J., Bonavita, M., De Chiara, G., Dahlgren, P., Dee, D., Diamantakis, M., Dragani, R., Flemming, J., Forbes, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A., Haimberger, L., Healy, S., Hogan, R. J., Hólm, E., Janisková, M., Keeley, S., Laloyaux, P., Lopez, P., Lupu, C., Radnoti, G., de Rosnay, P., Rozum, I., Vamborg, F., Villaume, S., and Thépaut, J. N.: The ERA5 global reanalysis, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 146, 1999–2049, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3803,2020.
Hosoda, K. and Sakaida, F.: Global daily high-resolution satellite-based foundation sea surface temperature dataset: development and validation against two definitions of foundation SST, Remote Sens., 8, 962, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8110962, 2016.
Hosoda, K., Kawamura, H., and Sakaida, F.: Improvement of New Generation Sea Surface Temperature for Open ocean (NGSST-O): a new sub-sampling method of blending microwave observations, J. Oceanogr., 71, 205–220, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-015-0272-x, 2015.
Høyer, J. L., Karagali, I., Dybkjær, G., and Tonboe, R.: Multi sensor validation and error characteristics of Arctic satellite sea surface temperature observations, Remote Sens. Environ., 121, 335–346, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.01.013, 2012.
Huang, B., Wang, W., Liu, C., Banzon, V., Zhang, H., and Lawrimore, J.: Bias adjustment of AVHRR SST and its impacts on two SST analyses, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 32, 372–387, https://doi.org/10.1175/jtech-d-14-00121.1, 2015.
Huang, S., Cheng, L., and Sheng, Z.: A method of making up the satellite retrieval data of sea surface temperature, Scientia Meteorologica Snica, 28, 237–243, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-0827.2008.03.001, 2008 (in Chinese).
Karagali, I., Høyer, J. L., and Donlon, C. J.: Using a 1-D model to reproduce the diurnal variability of SST, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 122, 2945–2959, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012542, 2017.
Kawai, Y. and Wada, A.: Diurnal sea surface temperature variation and its impact on the atmosphere and ocean: A review, J. Oceanogr., 63, 721–744, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-007-0063-0, 2007.
Kilpatrick, K. A., Podesta, G. P., and Evans, R.: Overview of the NOAA/NASA advanced very high resolution radiometer Pathfinder algorithm for sea surface temperature and associated matchup database, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 106, 9179–9197, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999jc000065, 2001.
Kilpatrick, K. A., Podestá, G., Walsh, S., Williams, E., Halliwell, V., Szczodrak, M., Brown, O. B., Minnett, P. J., and Evans, R.: A decade of sea surface temperature from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 165, 27–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.04.023, 2015.
Li, A., Bo, Y., Zhu, Y., Guo, P., Bi, J., and He, Y.: Blending multi-resolution satellite sea surface temperature (SST) products using Bayesian maximum entropy method, Remote Sens. Environ., 135, 52–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.03.021, 2013.
Li, W., Xie, Y., He, Z., Han, G., Liu, K., Ma, J., and Li, D.: Application of the multigrid data assimilation scheme to the China seas' temperature forecast, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 25, 2106–2116, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jtecho510.1, 2008.
Li, Y. and He, R.: Spatial and temporal variability of SST and ocean color in the Gulf of Maine based on cloud-free SST and chlorophyll reconstructions in 2003–2012, Remote Sens. Environ., 144, 98–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.01.019, 2014.
Liu, M., Guan, L., Zhao, W., and Chen, G.: Evaluation of sea surface temperature from the HY-2 scanning microwave radiometer, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 55, 1372–1380, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2016.2623641, 2017.
Liu, Y., Chin, T. M., and Minnett, P. J.: Sampling errors in satellite-derived infrared sea-surface temperatures. Part II: Sensitivity and parameterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 198, 297–309, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.06.011, 2017.
Luo, B., Minnett, P. J., Gentemann, C., and Szczodrak, G.: Improving satellite retrieved night-time infrared sea surface temperatures in aerosol contaminated regions, Remote Sens. Environ., 223, 8–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.01.009, 2019.
Mao, K., Yuan, Z., Zuo, Z., Xu, T., Shen, X., and Gao, C.: Changes in global cloud cover based on remote sensing data from 2003 to 2012, Chinese Geogr. Sci., 29, 306–315, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-019-1030-6, 2019.
Martin, A. J., Hines, A., and Bell, M. J.: Data assimilation in the FOAM operational short-range ocean forecasting system: A description of the scheme and its impact, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 981–995, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.74, 2007.
McCoy, D. T., Eastman, R., Hartmann, D. L., and Wood, R.: The change in low cloud cover in a warmed climate inferred from AIRS, MODIS, and ERA-Interim, J. Climate, 30, 3609–3620, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0734.1, 2017.
Minnett, P. J.: Consequences of sea surface temperature variability on the validation and applications of satellite measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 96, 18475–18489, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JC01816, 1991.
Minnett, P. J.: Radiometric measurements of the sea-surface skin temperature: the competing roles of the diurnal thermocline and the cool skin, Int. J. Remote Sens., 24, 5033–5047, https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116031000095880, 2003.
Minnett, P. J., Smith, M., and Ward, B.: Measurements of the oceanic thermal skin effect, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 861–868, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.024, 2011.
Minnett, P. J., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Chin, T. M., Corlett, G. K., Gentemann, C. L., Karagali, I., Li, X., Marsouin, A., Marullo, S., Maturi, E., Santoleri, R., Saux Picart, S., Steele, M., and Vazquez-Cuervo, J.: Half a century of satellite remote sensing of sea-surface temperature, Remote Sens. Environ., 233, 111366, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111366, 2019.
Ng, H. G., MatJafri, M. Z., Abdullah, K., and Othman, N.: Merging infrared and microwave SST data at south China sea, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization (CGIV 2009), Tianjin, China, 11–14 August 2009, 530–535, 2009.
Oke, P. R., Brassington, G. B., Griffin, D. A., and Schiller, A.: The Bluelink ocean data assimilation system (BODAS), Ocean Model., 21, 46–70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.11.002, 2008.
Peres, L. F., Franca, G. B., Paes, R. C. O. V., Sousa, R. C., and Oliveira, A. N.: Analyses of the positive bias of remotely sensed SST retrievals in the coastal waters of Rio de Janeiro, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 55, 6344–6353, https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2017.2726344, 2017.
Pimentel, S., Tse, W.-H., Xu, H., Denaxa, D., Jansen, E., Korres, G., Mirouze, I., and Storto, A.: Modeling the near-surface diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 124, 171–183, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014289, 2018.
Pisano, A., Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Tronconi, C., and Santoleri, R.: The new Mediterranean optimally interpolated pathfinder AVHRR SST Dataset (1982–2012), Remote Sens. Environ., 176, 107–116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.01.019, 2016.
Purdy, W. E., Gaiser, P. W., Poe, G. A., Uliana, E. A., Eissner, T., and Wentz, F. J.: Geolocation and pointing accuracy analysis for the WindSat sensor, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 44, 496–505, https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2005.858415, 2006.
Reynolds, R. W. and Smith, T. M.: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation, J. Climate, 7, 929–948, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0929:IGSSTA>2.0.CO;2, 1994.
Reynolds, R. W. and Smith, T. M.: A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology, J. Climate, 8, 1571–1583, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1571:Ahrgss>2.0.Co;2, 1995.
Reynolds, R. W., Rayner, N. A., Smith, T. M., Stokes, D. C., and Wang, W. Q.: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate, J. Climate, 15, 1609–1625, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1609:Aiisas>2.0.Co;2, 2002.
Reynolds, R. W., Smith, T. M., Liu, C., Chelton, D. B., Casey, K. S., and Schlax, M. G.: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature, J. Climate, 20, 5473–5496, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1824.1, 2007.
Sakalli, A. and Basusta, N.: Sea surface temperature change in the Black Sea under climate change: A simulation of the sea surface temperature up to 2100, Int. J. Climatol., 38, 4687–4698, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5688, 2018.
Satyamurty, P. and Rosa, M. B.: Synoptic climatology of tropical and subtropical South America and adjoining seas as inferred from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite imagery, Int. J. Climatol., 40, 378–399, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6217, 2020.
Saunders, P. M.: The temperature at the ocean-air interface, Asia-Pac, J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 269–273, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1967)024<0269:TTATOA>2.0.CO;2, 1967.
Shi, Y., Zhou, X., Yang, X., Shi, L., and Ma, S.: Merging satellite ocean color data with bayesian maximum entropy method, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ., 8, 3294–3304, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2425691, 2015.
Smith, T. M. and Reynolds, R. W.: Extended reconstruction of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS data (1854–1997), J. Climate, 16, 1495–1510, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442-16.10.1495, 2003.
Sun, W., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Ma, Y., Meng, J., Yang, L., and Miao, J.: A new global gridded sea surface temperature product constructed from infrared and microwave radiometer data using the optimum interpolation method, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 37, 41–49, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-018-1206-4, 2018.
Taylor, K. E.: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 7183–7192, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jd900719, 2001.
Thiebaux, J., Rogers, E., Wang, W. Q., and Katz, B.: A new high-resolution blended real-time global sea surface temperature analysis, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 645–656, https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-84-5-645, 2003.
Vincent, R. F., Marsden, R. F., Minnett, P. J., Creber, K. A. M., and Buckley, J. R.: Arctic waters and marginal ice zones: A composite Arctic sea surface temperature algorithm using satellite thermal data, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, C04021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jc004353, 2008.
Wang, Y., Guan, L., and Qu, L.: Merging sea surface temperature observed by satellite infrared and microwave radiometers using kalma, Periodical of Ocean University of China, 40, 126–130, https://doi.org/10.16441/j.cnki.hdxb.2010.12.019, 2010 (in Chinese).
Wentz, F. J., Gentemann, C., Smith, D., and Chelton, D.: Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds, Science, 288, 847–850, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.288.5467.847, 2000.
Wick, G. A., Jackson, D. L., and Castro, S. L.: Production of an enhanced blended infrared and microwave sea surface temperature product, IGARSS 2004. 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 20–24 September 2004, Anchorage, AK, USA, 2004.
Xie, J., Zhu, J., and Li, Y.: Assessment and inter-comparison of five high-resolution sea surface temperature products in the shelf and coastal seas around China, Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 1286–1293, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.02.020, 2008.
Xu, F. and Ignatov, A.: In situ SST Quality Monitor (iQuam), J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 31, 164–180, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00121.1, 2014.
Xu, S. and Cheng, J.: A new land surface temperature fusion strategy based on cumulative distribution function matching and multiresolution Kalman filtering, Remote Sens. Environ., 254, 112256, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112256, 2021.
Yan, Y., Mao, K., Shi, J., Piao, S., Shen, X., Dozier, J., Liu, Y., Ren, H., and Bao, Q.: Driving forces of land surface temperature anomalous changes in North America in 2002–2018, Sci. Rep.-UK, 10, 6931, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63701-5, 2020.
Zabolotskikh, E. V., Mitnik, L. M., Reul, N., and Chapron, B.: New possibilities for geophysical parameter retrievals opened by GCOM-W1 AMSR2, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ., 8, 4248–4261, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2416514, 2015.
Zhao, B., Mao, K., Cai, Y., Shi, J., Li, Z., Qin, Z., Meng, X., Shen, X., and Guo, Z.: A combined Terra and Aqua MODIS land surface temperature and meteorological station data product for China from 2003 to 2017, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2555–2577, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-2555-2020, 2020.
Zhu, J., Zhou, G., Yan, C., Fu, W., and You, X.: A three-dimensional variational ocean data assimilation system: Scheme and preliminary results, Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 49, 1212–1222, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-006-1212-9, 2006 (in Chinese).
We constructed a temperature depth and observation time correction model to eliminate the sampling depth and temporal differences among different data. Then, we proposed a reconstructed spatial model that filters and removes missing pixels and low-quality pixels contaminated by clouds from raw SST images and retrieves real sea surface temperatures under cloud coverage based on multisource data to generate a high-quality unified global SST product with long-term spatiotemporal continuity.
We constructed a temperature depth and observation time correction model to eliminate the...