Articles | Volume 11, issue 1
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 57–69, 2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
11 Jan 2019
Review article | 11 Jan 2019
A meteorological and blowing snow data set (2000–2016) from a high-elevation alpine site (Col du Lac Blanc, France, 2720 m a.s.l.)
Gilbert Guyomarc'h et al.
No articles found.
Juliane Mai, Hongren Shen, Bryan A. Tolson, Étienne Gaborit, Richard Arsenault, James R. Craig, Vincent Fortin, Lauren M. Fry, Martin Gauch, Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Nicole O'Brien, Daniel G. Princz, Sinan Rasiya Koya, Tirthankar Roy, Frank Seglenieks, Narayan K. Shrestha, André G. T. Temgoua, Vincent Vionnet, and Jonathan W. Waddell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Model intercomparison studies are carried out to test various models and compare the quality of their outputs over the same domain. In this study, 13 diverse models setup using the same input data are evaluated over the Great Lakes region. Various model outputs – such as streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture, and amount of snow on the ground – are compared using standardized methods and metrics. The basin-wise model outputs and observations are made available through an interactive website.
Vincent Vionnet, Colleen Mortimer, Mike Brady, Louise Arnal, and Ross Brown
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4603–4619,Short summary
Water equivalent of snow cover (SWE) is a key variable for water management, hydrological forecasting and climate monitoring. A new Canadian SWE dataset (CanSWE) is presented in this paper. It compiles data collected by multiple agencies and companies at more than 2500 different locations across Canada over the period 1928–2020. Snow depth and derived bulk snow density are also included when available.
Vincent Vionnet, Christopher B. Marsh, Brian Menounos, Simon Gascoin, Nicholas E. Wayand, Joseph Shea, Kriti Mukherjee, and John W. Pomeroy
The Cryosphere, 15, 743–769,Short summary
Mountain snow cover provides critical supplies of fresh water to downstream users. Its accurate prediction requires inclusion of often-ignored processes. A multi-scale modelling strategy is presented that efficiently accounts for snow redistribution. Model accuracy is assessed via airborne lidar and optical satellite imagery. With redistribution the model captures the elevation–snow depth relation. Redistribution processes are required to reproduce spatial variability, such as around ridges.
Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, Andrew J. Newman, Andrew W. Wood, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Vincent Vionnet, and Paul H. Whitfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2381–2409,Short summary
Station observations are critical for hydrological and meteorological studies, but they often contain missing values and have short measurement periods. This study developed a serially complete dataset for North America (SCDNA) from 1979 to 2018 for 27 276 precipitation and temperature stations. SCDNA is built on multiple data sources and infilling/reconstruction strategies to achieve high-quality estimates which can be used for a variety of applications.
Vincent Vionnet, Vincent Fortin, Etienne Gaborit, Guy Roy, Maria Abrahamowicz, Nicolas Gasset, and John W. Pomeroy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2141–2165,Short summary
The 2013 Alberta flood in Canada was typical of late-spring floods in mountain basins combining intense precipitation with rapid melting of late-lying snowpack. Hydrological simulations of this event are mainly influenced by (i) the spatial resolution of the atmospheric forcing due to the best estimate of precipitation at the kilometer scale and changes in turbulent fluxes contributing to snowmelt and (ii) uncertainties in initial snow conditions at high elevations. Soil texture has less impact.
Louis Quéno, Fatima Karbou, Vincent Vionnet, and Ingrid Dombrowski-Etchevers
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2083–2104,Short summary
In mountainous terrain, the snowpack is strongly affected by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation. Satellite-derived products of incoming radiation were assessed in the French Alps and the Pyrenees and compared to meteorological forecasts, reanalyses and in situ measurements. We showed their good quality in mountains. The different radiation datasets were used as radiative forcing for snowpack simulations with the detailed model Crocus. Their impact on the snowpack evolution was explored.
Markus M. Frey, Sarah J. Norris, Ian M. Brooks, Philip S. Anderson, Kouichi Nishimura, Xin Yang, Anna E. Jones, Michelle G. Nerentorp Mastromonaco, David H. Jones, and Eric W. Wolff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2549–2578,Short summary
A winter sea ice expedition to Antarctica provided the first direct observations of sea salt aerosol (SSA) production during snow storms above sea ice, thereby validating a model hypothesis to account for winter time SSA maxima in Antarctica not explained otherwise. Defining SSA sources is important given the critical roles that aerosol plays for climate, for air quality and as a potential ice core proxy for sea ice conditions in the past.
Cristina Pérez-Guillén, Kae Tsunematsu, Kouichi Nishimura, and Dieter Issler
Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 989–1007,Short summary
Avalanches and slush flows from Mt. Fuji are a major natural hazard as they may attain run-out distances of up to 4 km and destroy parts of the forest and infrastructure. We located and tracked them for the first time using seismic data. Numerical simulations were conducted to assess the precision of the seismic tracking. We also inferred dynamical properties characterizing these hazardous mass movements. This information is indispensable for assessing avalanche risk in the Mt. Fuji region.
Satoru Yamaguchi, Masaaki Ishizaka, Hiroki Motoyoshi, Sent Nakai, Vincent Vionnet, Teruo Aoki, Katsuya Yamashita, Akihiro Hashimoto, and Akihiro Hachikubo
The Cryosphere, 13, 2713–2732,Short summary
The specific surface area (SSA) of solid precipitation particles (PPs) includes detailed information of PP. This work is based on field measurement of SSA of PPs in Nagaoka, the city with the heaviest snowfall in Japan. The values of SSA strongly depend on wind speed (WS) and wet-bulb temperature (Tw) on the ground. An equation to empirically estimate the SSA of fresh PPs with WS and Tw was established and the equation successfully reproduced the fluctuation of SSA in Nagaoka.
Xin Yang, Markus M. Frey, Rachael H. Rhodes, Sarah J. Norris, Ian M. Brooks, Philip S. Anderson, Kouichi Nishimura, Anna E. Jones, and Eric W. Wolff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8407–8424,Short summary
This is a comprehensive model–data comparison aiming to evaluate the proposed mechanism of sea salt aerosol (SSA) production from blowing snow on sea ice. Some key parameters such as snow salinity and blowing-snow size distribution were constrained by data collected in the Weddell Sea. The good agreement between modelled SSA and the cruise data strongly indicates that sea ice surface is a large SSA source in polar regions, a process which has not been considered in current climate models.
Philomène Favier, David Bertrand, Nicolas Eckert, Isabelle Ousset, and Mohamed Naaim
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2507–2524,
Christine Lac, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Valéry Masson, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Pierre Tulet, Juan Escobar, Maud Leriche, Christelle Barthe, Benjamin Aouizerats, Clotilde Augros, Pierre Aumond, Franck Auguste, Peter Bechtold, Sarah Berthet, Soline Bielli, Frédéric Bosseur, Olivier Caumont, Jean-Martial Cohard, Jeanne Colin, Fleur Couvreux, Joan Cuxart, Gaëlle Delautier, Thibaut Dauhut, Véronique Ducrocq, Jean-Baptiste Filippi, Didier Gazen, Olivier Geoffroy, François Gheusi, Rachel Honnert, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Quentin Libois, Thibaut Lunet, Céline Mari, Tomislav Maric, Patrick Mascart, Maxime Mogé, Gilles Molinié, Olivier Nuissier, Florian Pantillon, Philippe Peyrillé, Julien Pergaud, Emilie Perraud, Joris Pianezze, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Didier Ricard, Evelyne Richard, Sébastien Riette, Quentin Rodier, Robert Schoetter, Léo Seyfried, Joël Stein, Karsten Suhre, Marie Taufour, Odile Thouron, Sandra Turner, Antoine Verrelle, Benoît Vié, Florian Visentin, Vincent Vionnet, and Philippe Wautelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1929–1969,Short summary
This paper presents the Meso-NH model version 5.4, which is an atmospheric non-hydrostatic research model that is applied on synoptic to turbulent scales. The model includes advanced numerical techniques and state-of-the-art physics parameterization schemes. It has been expanded to provide capabilities for a range of Earth system prediction applications such as chemistry and aerosols, electricity and lightning, hydrology, wildland fires, volcanic eruptions, and cyclones with ocean coupling.
Marion Réveillet, Delphine Six, Christian Vincent, Antoine Rabatel, Marie Dumont, Matthieu Lafaysse, Samuel Morin, Vincent Vionnet, and Maxime Litt
The Cryosphere, 12, 1367–1386,
Lawrence R. Mudryk, Chris Derksen, Stephen Howell, Fred Laliberté, Chad Thackeray, Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, Vincent Vionnet, Paul J. Kushner, and Ross Brown
The Cryosphere, 12, 1157–1176,Short summary
This paper presents changes in both snow and sea ice that have occurred over Canada during the recent past and shows climate model estimates for future changes expected to occur by the year 2050. The historical changes of snow and sea ice are generally coherent and consistent with the regional history of temperature and precipitation changes. It is expected that snow and sea ice will continue to decrease in the future, declining by an additional 15–30 % from present day values by the year 2050.
Martin Beniston, Daniel Farinotti, Markus Stoffel, Liss M. Andreassen, Erika Coppola, Nicolas Eckert, Adriano Fantini, Florie Giacona, Christian Hauck, Matthias Huss, Hendrik Huwald, Michael Lehning, Juan-Ignacio López-Moreno, Jan Magnusson, Christoph Marty, Enrique Morán-Tejéda, Samuel Morin, Mohamed Naaim, Antonello Provenzale, Antoine Rabatel, Delphine Six, Johann Stötter, Ulrich Strasser, Silvia Terzago, and Christian Vincent
The Cryosphere, 12, 759–794,Short summary
This paper makes a rather exhaustive overview of current knowledge of past, current, and future aspects of cryospheric issues in continental Europe and makes a number of reflections of areas of uncertainty requiring more attention in both scientific and policy terms. The review paper is completed by a bibliography containing 350 recent references that will certainly be of value to scholars engaged in the fields of glacier, snow, and permafrost research.
Jesús Revuelto, Grégoire Lecourt, Matthieu Lafaysse, Isabella Zin, Luc Charrois, Vincent Vionnet, Marie Dumont, Antoine Rabatel, Delphine Six, Thomas Condom, Samuel Morin, Alessandra Viani, and Pascal Sirguey
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We evaluated distributed and semi-distributed modeling approaches to simulating the spatial and temporal evolution of snow and ice over an extended mountain catchment, using the Crocus snowpack model. The distributed approach simulated the snowpack dynamics on a 250-m grid, enabling inclusion of terrain shadowing effects. The semi-distributed approach simulated the snowpack dynamics for discrete topographic classes characterized by elevation range, aspect, and slope.
Mathieu Barrere, Florent Domine, Bertrand Decharme, Samuel Morin, Vincent Vionnet, and Matthieu Lafaysse
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3461–3479,Short summary
Global warming projections still suffer from a limited representation of the permafrost–carbon feedback. This study assesses the capacity of snow-soil coupled models to simulate the permafrost thermal regime at Bylot Island, a high Arctic site. Significant flaws are found in the description of Arctic snow properties, resulting in erroneous heat transfers between the soil and the snow in simulations. Improved snow schemes are needed to accurately predict the future of permafrost.
Koji Fujita, Hiroshi Inoue, Takeki Izumi, Satoru Yamaguchi, Ayako Sadakane, Sojiro Sunako, Kouichi Nishimura, Walter W. Immerzeel, Joseph M. Shea, Rijan B. Kayastha, Takanobu Sawagaki, David F. Breashears, Hiroshi Yagi, and Akiko Sakai
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 749–764,Short summary
We create multiple DEMs from photographs taken by helicopter and UAV and reveal the deposit volumes over the Langtang village, which was destroyed by avalanches induced by the Gorkha earthquake. Estimated snow depth in the source area is consistent with anomalously large snow depths observed at a neighboring glacier. Comparing with a long-term observational data, we conclude that this anomalous winter snow amplified the disaster induced by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal.
Matthieu Lafaysse, Bertrand Cluzet, Marie Dumont, Yves Lejeune, Vincent Vionnet, and Samuel Morin
The Cryosphere, 11, 1173–1198,Short summary
Physically based multilayer snowpack models suffer from various modelling errors. To represent these errors, we built the new multiphysical ensemble system ESCROC by implementing new representations of different physical processes in a coupled multilayer ground/snowpack model. This system is a promising tool to integrate snow modelling errors in ensemble forecasting and ensemble assimilation systems in support of avalanche hazard forecasting and other snowpack modelling applications.
Louis Quéno, Vincent Vionnet, Ingrid Dombrowski-Etchevers, Matthieu Lafaysse, Marie Dumont, and Fatima Karbou
The Cryosphere, 10, 1571–1589,Short summary
Simulations are carried out in the Pyrenees with the snowpack model Crocus, driven by meteorological forecasts from the model AROME at kilometer resolution. The evaluation is done with ground-based measurements, satellite data and reference simulations. Studying daily snow depth variations allows to separate different physical processes affecting the snowpack. We show the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behavior in terms of snowpack spatial variability in a mountain range.
P. Hagenmuller, G. Chambon, and M. Naaim
The Cryosphere, 9, 1969–1982,Short summary
This paper deals with a mechanical model that exploits a granular description of the snow microstructure. Its originality is that the geometry of the snow grains and of the inter-granular bonding system are explicitly defined from microtomographic data. It enables to model large deformations controlled by grain-rearrangements, which is of particular interest to study the collapse of weak layers or the characterization of the snowpack with an indenter.
J. Gaume, G. Chambon, N. Eckert, M. Naaim, and J. Schweizer
The Cryosphere, 9, 795–804,Short summary
Slab tensile failure propensity is examined using a mechanical--statistical model of the slab–-weak layer (WL) system based on the finite element method. This model accounts for WL heterogeneity, stress redistribution by elasticity of the slab and the slab possible tensile failure. For realistic values of the parameters, the tensile failure propensity is mainly driven by slab properties. Hard and thick snow slabs are more prone to wide–scale crack propagation and thus lead to larger avalanches.
E. A. Podolskiy, G. Chambon, M. Naaim, and J. Gaume
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 119–134,
E. A. Podolskiy, M. Barbero, F. Barpi, G. Chambon, M. Borri-Brunetto, O. Pallara, B. Frigo, B. Chiaia, and M. Naaim
The Cryosphere, 8, 1651–1659,
J. T. M. Lenaerts, C. J. P. P. Smeets, K. Nishimura, M. Eijkelboom, W. Boot, M. R. van den Broeke, and W. J. van de Berg
The Cryosphere, 8, 801–814,
P. Favier, D. Bertrand, N. Eckert, and M. Naaim
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 689–704,
V. Vionnet, E. Martin, V. Masson, G. Guyomarc'h, F. Naaim-Bouvet, A. Prokop, Y. Durand, and C. Lac
The Cryosphere, 8, 395–415,
V. Masson, P. Le Moigne, E. Martin, S. Faroux, A. Alias, R. Alkama, S. Belamari, A. Barbu, A. Boone, F. Bouyssel, P. Brousseau, E. Brun, J.-C. Calvet, D. Carrer, B. Decharme, C. Delire, S. Donier, K. Essaouini, A.-L. Gibelin, H. Giordani, F. Habets, M. Jidane, G. Kerdraon, E. Kourzeneva, M. Lafaysse, S. Lafont, C. Lebeaupin Brossier, A. Lemonsu, J.-F. Mahfouf, P. Marguinaud, M. Mokhtari, S. Morin, G. Pigeon, R. Salgado, Y. Seity, F. Taillefer, G. Tanguy, P. Tulet, B. Vincendon, V. Vionnet, and A. Voldoire
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 929–960,
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Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2749–2766,Short summary
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Yuan Qiu, Jinming Feng, Zhongwei Yan, and Jun Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2195–2208,Short summary
A high-resolution climate projection dataset in central Asia, named the HCPD-CA dataset, is derived from the dynamically downscaled results based on three bias-corrected global climate models and contains 4 geostatic variables and 10 meteorological elements that are widely used to drive ecological and hydrological models. This dataset can serve as a scientific basis for assessing the potential impacts of projected climate changes over central Asia on many sectors.
Eun-Gyeong Yang, Hyun Mee Kim, and Dae-Hui Kim
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2109–2127,Short summary
The East Asia Regional Reanalysis (EARR) system is developed based on the advanced hybrid gain data assimilation method (AdvHG) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and conventional observations. Based on EARR, high-resolution regional reanalysis and reforecast fields are produced with 12 km horizontal resolution over East Asia for the period 2010–2019. Compared to ERA5, EARR represents precipitation better for January and July 2017 over East Asia.
Sandrine Bony, Marie Lothon, Julien Delanoë, Pierre Coutris, Jean-Claude Etienne, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Thierry André, Hubert Bellec, Alexandre Baron, Jean-François Bourdinot, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Aurélien Bourdon, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Christophe Caudoux, Patrick Chazette, Michel Cluzeau, Céline Cornet, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Dominique Duchanoy, Cyrille Flamant, Benjamin Fildier, Christophe Gourbeyre, Laurent Guiraud, Tetyana Jiang, Claude Lainard, Christophe Le Gac, Christian Lendroit, Julien Lernould, Thierry Perrin, Frédéric Pouvesle, Pascal Richard, Nicolas Rochetin, Kevin Salaün, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Guillaume Seurat, Bjorn Stevens, Julien Totems, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Gilles Vergez, Jessica Vial, Leonie Villiger, and Raphaela Vogel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2021–2064,Short summary
The French ATR42 research aircraft participated in the EUREC4A international field campaign that took place in 2020 over the tropical Atlantic, east of Barbados. We present the extensive instrumentation of the aircraft, the research flights and the different measurements. We show that the ATR measurements of humidity, wind, aerosols and cloudiness in the lower atmosphere are robust and consistent with each other. They will make it possible to advance understanding of cloud–climate interactions.
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Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1621–1637,Short summary
A major goal of the Springtime Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE) aircraft campaign was to observe atmospheric conditions during marine cold-air outbreaks (MCAOs) originating from the sea-ice-covered Arctic ocean. Quality-controlled measurements of several meteorological variables collected during 15 vertical aircraft profiles and by 22 dropsondes are presented. The comprehensive data set may be used for validating model results to improve the understanding of future trends in MCAOs.
Christophe Genthon, Dana E. Veron, Etienne Vignon, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Luc Piard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1571–1580,Short summary
The surface atmosphere of the high Antarctic Plateau is very cold and clean. Such conditions favor water vapor supersaturation. A 3-year quasi-continuous series of atmospheric moisture in a ~40 m atmospheric layer at Dome C is reported that documents time variability, vertical profiles and occurrences of supersaturation. Supersaturation with respect to ice is frequently observed throughout the column, with relative humidities occasionally reaching values near liquid water saturation.
Aoqi Zhang, Chen Chen, Yilun Chen, Weibiao Li, Shumin Chen, and Yunfei Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1433–1445,Short summary
We constructed an event-based precipitation dataset with life cycle evolution based on coordinated application of observations from spaceborne active precipitation radar and geostationary satellites. The dataset provides both three-dimensional structures of the precipitation system and its corresponding life cycle evolution. The dataset greatly reduces the data size and avoids complex data processing algorithms for studying the life cycle evolution of precipitation microphysics.
Shu Fang, Kebiao Mao, Xueqi Xia, Ping Wang, Jiancheng Shi, Sayed M. Bateni, Tongren Xu, Mengmeng Cao, Essam Heggy, and Zhihao Qin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1413–1432,Short summary
Air temperature is an important parameter reflecting climate change, and the current method of obtaining daily temperature is affected by many factors. In this study, we constructed a temperature model based on weather conditions and established a correction equation. The dataset of daily air temperature (Tmax, Tmin, and Tavg) in China from 1979 to 2018 was obtained with a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Accuracy verification shows that the dataset has reliable accuracy and high spatial resolution.
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1233–1256,Short summary
Trade wind clouds are often organized on the mesoscale (O(100 km)), forming different cloud patterns. We present C3ONTEXT (a Common Consensus on Convective OrgaNizaTion during the EUREC4A eXperimenT), a dataset that contains information about the mesoscale cloud patterns identified during the EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of clouds–circulation coupling in climate) field campaign in January–February 2020 and thereby provide the mesoscale context for the campaign's measurements.
Falu Hong, Wenfeng Zhan, Frank-M. Göttsche, Zihan Liu, Pan Dong, Huyan Fu, Fan Huang, and Xiaodong Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Daily mean land surface temperature (LST) acquired from satellite thermal sensors is crucial for various applications such as global and regional climate change analysis. This study proposed a framework to generate global spatiotemporally seamless daily mean LST products (2003–2019). Validations show that the products outperform the traditional method with satisfying accuracy. Our further analysis reveals that the LST-based global land surface warming rate is 0.029 K/year from 2003 to 2019.
Karl Lapo, Anita Freundorfer, Antonia Fritz, Johann Schneider, Johannes Olesch, Wolfgang Babel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 885–906,Short summary
The layer of air near the surface is poorly understood during conditions with weak winds. Further, it is even difficult to observe. In this experiment we used distributed temperature sensing to observe air temperature and wind speed at thousands of points simultaneously every couple of seconds. This incredibly rich data set can be used to examine and understand what drives the mixing between the atmosphere and surface during these weak-wind periods.
Sebastien Doutreloup, Xavier Fettweis, Ramin Rahif, Essam A. Elnagar, Mohsen S. Pourkiaei, Deepak Amaripadath, and Shady Attia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This dataset provides Historical (1980–2014) and Future (2015–2100) Weather Data for 12 cities in Belgium. This dataset is intended for architects or Building or energy designers. In particular, it makes available to all users hourly open-access weather data according to certain standards to recreate Typical & Extreme Meteorological Year. In addition, it provides hourly data on Heatwaves from 1980 to 2100. Weather data were produced from the outputs of the MAR model simulations.
Yinghong Jing, Xinghua Li, and Huanfeng Shen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Snow variation is a vital factor in global climate change. Satellite-based approaches are effective for large-scale environmental monitoring. Nevertheless, the high cloud fraction seriously impedes the remote-sensed investigation. Therefore, a recent 20-year cloud-free snow cover collection for China is generated for the first time. This collection can serve as a basic dataset for hydrological and climatic modeling to explore various critical environmental issues.
Qian Ma, Kaicun Wang, Yanyi He, Liangyuan Su, Qizhong Wu, Han Liu, and Youren Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 463–477,Short summary
Surface incident solar radiation plays a key role in atmospheric circulation, the water cycle, and ecological equilibrium on Earth. A homogenized century-long surface incident solar radiation dataset was obtained over Japan.
Claudia Acquistapace, Richard Coulter, Susanne Crewell, Albert Garcia-Benadi, Rosa Gierens, Giacomo Labbri, Alexander Myagkov, Nils Risse, and Jan H. Schween
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 33–55,Short summary
This publication describes the unprecedented high-resolution cloud and precipitation dataset collected by two radars deployed on the Maria S. Merian research vessel. The ship operated in the west Atlantic Ocean during the measurement campaign called EUREC4A, between 19 January and 19 February 2020. The data collected are crucial to investigate clouds and precipitation and understand how they form and change over the ocean, where it is so difficult to measure them.
Martin Hagen, Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Lothar Oswald, David A. Farrell, Marvin Forde, Manuel Gutleben, Johann Heumos, Jens Reimann, Eleni Tetoni, Gregor Köcher, Eleni Marinou, Christoph Kiemle, Qiang Li, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Alton Daley, Delando Grant, and Kashawn Hall
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5899–5914,Short summary
The German polarimetric weather radar Poldirad was deployed for the international campaign EUREC4A on Barbados. The focus was monitoring clouds and precipitation in the trade wind region east of Barbados. Observations were with a temporal sequence of 5 min and a maximum range of 375 km. Examples of mesoscale precipitation patterns, rain rate accumulation, diurnal cycle, and vertical distribution show the potential for further studies on the life cycle of precipitating shallow cumulus clouds.
Mark W. Seefeldt, Taydra M. Low, Scott D. Landolt, and Thomas H. Nylen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5803–5817,Short summary
The Antarctic Precipitation System project deployed and maintained four sites across Antarctica from November 2017 to November 2019. The goals for the project included the collection of in situ observations of precipitation in Antarctica, an improvement in the understanding of precipitation in Antarctica, and the ability to validate precipitation data from atmospheric numerical models. The collected dataset represents some of the first year-round observations of precipitation in Antarctica.
Xuebo Li, Yongxiang Huang, Guohua Wang, and Xiaojing Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5819–5830,Short summary
High-frequency observatory data (50 Hz 3D wind velocity, 50 Hz temperature and 1 Hz PM10) for studying the features of the fluid and dust field during sand and dust storms were presented. It is anticipated that data collected in this work will be of utility not only specifically for the boundary layer community in building a model for sand and dust storms but also broadly for communities studying the exchange of the dust and fluid field and energy transfer for the particle-laden two-phase flow.
Christophe Genthon, Dana Veron, Etienne Vignon, Delphine Six, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Emmanuelle Sultan, and François Forget
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5731–5746,Short summary
A 10-year dataset of observation in the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C on the high Antarctic plateau is presented. This is obtained with sensors at six levels along a tower higher than 40 m. The temperature inversion can reach more than 25 °C along the tower in winter, while full mixing by convection can occur in summer. Different amplitudes of variability for wind and temperature at the different levels reflect different signatures of solar vs. synoptic forcing of the boundary layer.
Qian He, Ming Wang, Kai Liu, Kaiwen Li, and Ziyu Jiang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We used three machine learning models and determined that Gaussian process regression (GPR) is best suited to interpolation of air temperature data for China. The GPR-derived results were compared with that of traditional interpolation techniques and existing datasets and it was found that the accuracy of the GPR-derived data was better. Finally, we generated a gridded monthly air temperature dataset with 1 km resolution and high accuracy for China (1951–2020) using the GPR model.
Xiao Liu, Jiyao Xu, Jia Yue, You Yu, Paulo P. Batista, Vania F. Andrioli, Zhengkuan Liu, Tao Yuan, Chi Wang, Ziming Zou, Guozhu Li, and James M. Russell III
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5643–5661,Short summary
Based on the gradient balance wind theory and the SABER observations, a dataset of monthly mean zonal wind has been developed at heights of 18–100 km and latitudes of 50° Sndash;50° N from 2002 to 2019. The dataset agrees with the zonal wind from models (MERRA2, UARP, HWM14) and observations by meteor radar and lidar at seven stations. The dataset can be used to study seasonal and interannual variations and can serve as a background for wave studies of tides and planetary waves.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5545–5563,Short summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Vera Thiemig, Goncalo N. Gomes, Jon O. Skøien, Markus Ziese, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Elke Rustemeier, Kira Rehfeldt, Jakub P. Walawender, Christine Kolbe, Damien Pichon, Christoph Schweim, and Peter Salamon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
EMO-5 is a European high-resolution, sub-daily, multi-variable, multi-decadal meteorological data set based on quality-controlled observations coming from almost 30,000 stations across Europe, and is produced in near real-time. EMO-5 covers the time period from 1990 to 2019. In this paper we have provided insight into the source data, the applied methods and the quality assessment of EMO-5.
Geet George, Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, Robert Pincus, Chris Fairall, Hauke Schulz, Tobias Kölling, Quinn T. Kalen, Marcus Klingebiel, Heike Konow, Ashley Lundry, Marc Prange, and Jule Radtke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5253–5272,Short summary
Dropsondes measure atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity and horizontal winds. The EUREC4A field campaign deployed 1215 dropsondes during January–February 2020 in the north Atlantic trade-wind region in order to characterize the thermodynamic and the dynamic structure of the atmosphere, primarily at horizontal scales of ~ 200 km. We present JOANNE, the dataset that provides these dropsonde measurements and thereby a rich characterization of the trade-wind atmosphere.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Hongyu Wu, Jinan Lin, Fan Wang, Shuntian Wang, and Meng Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4897–4912,Short summary
Observations of atmospheric composition, especially vertical profile observations, remain sparse and rare on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), due to extremely high altitude, topographical heterogeneity and the grinding environment. This paper introduces a high-time-resolution (~ 15 min) vertical profile observational dataset of atmospheric composition (aerosols, NO2, HCHO and HONO) on the TP for more than 1 year (2017–2019) using a passive remote sensing technique.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Nina Škrk, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Katarina Čufar, Maks Merela, Zalika Črepinšek, Lučka Kajfež Bogataj, and Martín de Luis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3577–3592,Short summary
SLOCLIM is the first climatic reconstruction for Slovenia with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km, providing daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation from 1950 to 2018. This new daily gridded dataset contributes significantly to the climate description of the country and is expected to facilitate research activities in numerous scientific disciplines dealing with climate trends, environment, human and animal populations, agriculture, and forestry.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez, Julie K. Lundquist, Petra M. Klein, and Tyler M. Bell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3539–3549,Short summary
In July 2018, the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely-piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a flight week to demonstrate unmanned aircraft systems' capabilities in sampling the atmospheric boundary layer. Three Doppler lidars were deployed during this week-long experiment. We use data from these lidars to estimate turbulence dissipation rate. We observe large temporal variability and significant differences in dissipation for lidars with different sampling techniques.
Cunbo Han, Yaoming Ma, Binbin Wang, Lei Zhong, Weiqiang Ma, Xuelong Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3513–3524,Short summary
Actual terrestrial evapotranspiration (ETa) is a key parameter controlling the land–atmosphere interaction processes and water cycle. However, the spatial distribution and temporal changes in ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remain very uncertain. Here we estimate the multiyear (2001–2018) monthly ETa and its spatial distribution on the TP by a combination of meteorological data and satellite products. Results have been validated at six eddy-covariance monitoring sites and show high accuracy.
Marie-Louise Zeller, Jannis-Michael Huss, Lena Pfister, Karl E. Lapo, Daniela Littmann, Johann Schneider, Alexander Schulz, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3439–3452,Short summary
The boundary layer (BL) is well understood when convectively mixed, yet we lack this understanding when it becomes stable and no longer follows classic similarity theories. The NYTEFOX campaign collected a unique meteorological data set in the Arctic BL of Svalbard during polar night, where it tends to be highly stable. Using innovative fiber-optic distributed sensing, we are able to provide unique insight into atmospheric motions across large distances resolved continuously in space and time.
Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Marie Lothon, Jean-Claude Etienne, Pascal Richard, Sandrine Bony, Julien Lernoult, Hubert Bellec, Gilles Vergez, Thierry Perrin, Julien Delanoë, Tetyana Jiang, Frédéric Pouvesle, Claude Lainard, Michel Cluzeau, Laurent Guiraud, Patrice Medina, and Theotime Charoy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3379–3398,Short summary
During the EUREC4A field experiment that took place over the tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, the French ATR 42 environment research aircraft of SAFIRE aimed to characterize the shallow cloud properties near cloud base and the turbulent structure of the subcloud layer. The high-frequency measurements of wind, temperature and humidity as well as their translation in terms of turbulent fluctuations, turbulent moments and characteristic length scales of turbulence are presented.
Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Andrew J. Newman, Andrew W. Wood, Dominique Brunet, and Paul H. Whitfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3337–3362,Short summary
Probabilistic estimates are useful to quantify the uncertainties in meteorological datasets. This study develops the Ensemble Meteorological Dataset for North America (EMDNA). EMDNA has 100 members with daily precipitation amount, mean daily temperature, and daily temperature range at 0.1° spatial resolution from 1979 to 2018. It is expected to be useful for hydrological and meteorological applications in North America.
Fabio Raicich and Renato R. Colucci
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3363–3377,Short summary
To understand climate change, it is essential to analyse long time series of atmospheric data. Here we studied the atmospheric pressure observed at Trieste (Italy) from 1841 to 2018. We examined the available information on the characteristics and elevations of the barometers and on the data sampling. A basic data quality control was also applied. As a result, we built a homogeneous time series of daily mean pressures at mean sea level, from which a trend of 0.5 hPa per century was estimated.
Robert Pincus, Chris W. Fairall, Adriana Bailey, Haonan Chen, Patrick Y. Chuang, Gijs de Boer, Graham Feingold, Dean Henze, Quinn T. Kalen, Jan Kazil, Mason Leandro, Ashley Lundry, Ken Moran, Dana A. Naeher, David Noone, Akshar J. Patel, Sergio Pezoa, Ivan PopStefanija, Elizabeth J. Thompson, James Warnecke, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3281–3296,Short summary
This paper describes observations taken from a research aircraft during a field experiment in the western Atlantic Ocean during January and February 2020. The plane made 11 flights, most 8-9 h long, and measured the properties of the atmosphere and ocean with a combination of direct measurements, sensors falling from the plane to profile the atmosphere and ocean, and remote sensing measurements of clouds and the ocean surface.
Jed O. Kaplan and Katie Hong-Kiu Lau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3219–3237,Short summary
Lightning is an important atmospheric phenomenon and natural hazard, but few long-term data are freely available on lightning stroke location, timing, and power. Here, we present a new, open-access dataset of lightning strokes covering 2010–2020, based on a network of low-frequency radio detectors. The dataset is comprised of GIS maps and is intended for researchers, government, industry, and anyone for whom knowing when and where lightning is likely to strike is useful information.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Alice Crespi, Michael Matiu, Giacomo Bertoldi, Marcello Petitta, and Marc Zebisch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2801–2818,Short summary
A 250 m gridded dataset of 1980–2018 daily mean temperature and precipitation records for Trentino–South Tyrol (north-eastern Italian Alps) was derived from a quality-controlled and homogenized archive of station observations. The errors associated with the final interpolated fields were assessed and thoroughly discussed. The product will be regularly updated and is meant to support regional climate studies and local monitoring and applications in integration with other fine-resolution data.
Egor Dyukarev, Nina Filippova, Dmitriy Karpov, Nikolay Shnyrev, Evgeny Zarov, Ilya Filippov, Nadezhda Voropay, Vitaly Avilov, Arseniy Artamonov, and Elena Lapshina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2595–2605,Short summary
A hydrological and meteorological dataset collected at the Mukhrino peatland, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Russia, over the period of 8 May 2010 to 31 December 2019 is presented. Northern peatlands represent one of the largest carbon pools in the biosphere. The carbon they store is increasingly vulnerable to perturbation. Meteorological observations directly at peatland areas in Siberia are rare, while peatlands are characterized by a specific local climate.
Gijs de Boer, Cory Dixon, Steven Borenstein, Dale A. Lawrence, Jack Elston, Daniel Hesselius, Maciej Stachura, Roger Laurence III, Sara Swenson, Christopher M. Choate, Abhiram Doddi, Aiden Sesnic, Katherine Glasheen, Zakariya Laouar, Flora Quinby, Eric Frew, and Brian M. Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2515–2528,Short summary
This paper describes data collected by uncrewed aircraft operated by the University of Colorado Boulder and Black Swift Technologies during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – A Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. This effort was conducted in the San Luis Valley of Colorado in July 2018 and included intensive observing of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper describes data collected by four aircraft operated by these entities.
Noemi Imfeld, Leopold Haimberger, Alexander Sterin, Yuri Brugnara, and Stefan Brönnimann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2471–2485,Short summary
Upper-air data form the backbone of reanalysis products, particularly in the pre-satellite era. However, historical upper-air data are error-prone because measurements at high altitude were especially challenging. Here, we present a collection of data from historical intercomparisons of radiosondes and error assessments reaching back to the 1930s that may allow us to better characterize such errors. The full database, including digitized data, images, and metadata, is made publicly available.
Ashraful Islam, Ajay Shankar, Adam Houston, and Carrick Detweiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2457–2470,Short summary
This paper describes the dataset containing thermodynamic measurements (pressure, temperature, humidity) from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln unmanned aerial system multirotors during the LAPSE-RATE campaign from 14–19 July 2018. The paper describes the placements, shielding, and aspiration of the sensors. The paper also describes the research objective for data collected each day. The dataset contains 171 files from two multirotors recording the vertical atmospheric boundary layer profile.
Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, Cyrille Flamant, Erik Doerflinger, Friedhelm Jansen, Romain Fages, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Schnitt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2407–2436,Short summary
Measurements from a network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers operated from the eastern Caribbean islands are used to monitor the total water vapour content in the atmosphere during the EUREC4A field campaign. These data help describe the moisture environment of mesoscale cloud patterns in the trade winds with high temporal sampling. They are also useful to assess the accuracy of collocated radiosonde measurements and numerical weather model reanalyses.
Hannah C. Bloomfield, David J. Brayshaw, Paula L. M. Gonzalez, and Andrew Charlton-Perez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2259–2274,Short summary
Energy systems are becoming more exposed to weather as more renewable generation is built. This means access to high-quality weather forecasts is becoming more important. This paper showcases past forecasts of electricity demand and wind power and solar power generation across 28 European countries. The timescale of interest is from 5 d out to 1 month ahead. This paper highlights the recent improvements in forecast skill and hopes to promote collaboration in the energy–meteorology community.
Peng Si, Qingxiang Li, and Phil Jones
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2211–2226,Short summary
This paper documents the various procedures necessary to construct a homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature series starting in 1887 for Tianjin. The newly constructed temperature series provides a set of new baseline data for the field of extreme climate change at the century-long scale and a reference for construction of other long-term reliable daily time series in the region.
Peter Berg, Fredrik Almén, and Denica Bozhinova
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1531–1545,Short summary
HydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data) is a data set of daily precipitation and temperature intended for use in hydrological modelling. The method uses different observational data sources to correct the variables from a model estimation of precipitation and temperature. An openly available data set covers the years 1979–2019, and times after this are available by request.
Pierre Bosser, Olivier Bock, Cyrille Flamant, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Speich
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1499–1517,Short summary
In the framework of the EUREC4A campaign, water vapour measurements were retrieved over the tropical west Atlantic Ocean from GNSS data acquired from three research vessels (R/Vs Atalante, Maria S. Merian and Meteor). The retrievals from R/Vs Atalante and Meteor are shown to be of high quality unlike the results for the R/V Maria S. Merian. These ship-borne retrievals are intended to be used for the description and understanding of meteorological phenomena that occurred during the campaign.
Cornelia Zech, Tilo Schöne, Julia Illigner, Nico Stolarczuk, Torsten Queißer, Matthias Köppl, Heiko Thoss, Alexander Zubovich, Azamat Sharshebaev, Kakhramon Zakhidov, Khurshid Toshpulatov, Yusufjon Tillayev, Sukhrob Olimov, Zabihullah Paiman, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Abror Gafurov, and Bolot Moldobekov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1289–1306,Short summary
The regional research network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) funded by the German Federal Foreign Office consists of 18 remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPSs) in Central Asia, and they are operated by German and Central Asian institutes and national hydrometeorological services. They provide up to 10 years of raw meteorological and hydrological data, especially in remote areas with extreme climate conditions, for applications in climate and water monitoring in Central Asia.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Mikołaj Piniewski, Mateusz Szcześniak, Ignacy Kardel, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, and Tomasz Berezowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1273–1288,Short summary
High-resolution gridded climate data are a key component of earth-system and hydrology models. Here we have described how we updated and extended the previous version of the climate dataset covering Poland and parts of neighbouring countries. The new dataset includes new variables (wind speed and relative humidity), has a higher spatial resolution (2 km) and has been updated to cover the most recent years 2014–2019. Interpolation errors exhibited large spatial and temporal variability.
Bellot, H., Guyomarc'h, G., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Vionnet, V., Fontaine, F., and Deliot, Y.: Available data from the French experimental site Col du Lac Blanc dedicated to studies on drifting snow: a 15-year database, in: Proceeding of International Snow Science Workshop, Breckenridge, Colorado, 3–7 October 2016, 613–620, 2016.
Cierco, F. X., Naaim-Bouvet, F., and Bellot, H.: Acoustic sensors for snowdrift measurements: How should they be used for research purposes?, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 49, 74–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.01.002, 2007.
Dumont, M., Durand, Y., Arnaud, Y., and Six, D.: Variational assimilation of albedo in a snowpack model and reconstruction of the spatial mass-balance distribution of an alpine glacier, J. Glaciol., 58, 151–164, https://doi.org/10.3189/2012JoG11J163, 2012.
Durand, Y., Brun, E., Merindol, L., Guyomarch, G., Lesaffre, B., and Martin, E.: A meteorological estimation of relevant parameters for snow models, Ann. Glaciol., 18, 65–71, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0260305500011277, 1993.
Durand, Y., Guyomarc'h, G., Mérindol, L., and Corripio, J. G.: Improvement of a numerical snow drift model and field validation, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 43, 93–103, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2005.05.008, 2005.
Durand, Y., Laternser, M., Giraud, G., Etchevers, P., Lesaffre, B., and Mérindol, L.: Reanalysis of 44 yr of climate in the french alps (1958–2002): Methodology, model validation, climatology, and trends for air temperature and precipitation, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 48, 429–449, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAMC1808.1, 2009.
Egli, L., Jonas, T., Grünewald, T., Schirmer, M., and Burlando, P.: Dynamics of snow ablation in a small Alpine catchment observed by repeated terrestrial laser scans, Hydrol. Process., 26, 1574–1585, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8244, 2012.
Filhol, S. and Sturm, M.: Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model, J. Geophy. Res.-Earth, 120, 1645–1669, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003529, 2015.
Gaillardet, J., Braud, I., Hankard, F., et al.: OZCAR: the French network of critical zone observatories, Vadose Zone J., 17, 180067, https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2018.04.0067, 2018.
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The paper introduces a meteorological and blowing snow data set from Col du Lac Blanc (2720 m a.s.l., French Alps) allowing physical parameterizations and numerical models of blowing snow to be developed and evaluated. In situ winter season data consist of wind, snow depth, air temperature measurements and a database of blowing snow occurrence (2000–2016) complemented by measurements of blowing snow fluxes (2010–2016). Atmospheric data from a meteorological reanalysis and a DEM are also provided.
The paper introduces a meteorological and blowing snow data set from Col du Lac Blanc (2720 m...