Articles | Volume 10, issue 4
Peer-reviewed comment 05 Oct 2018
Peer-reviewed comment | 05 Oct 2018
Integrated high-resolution dataset of high-intensity European and Mediterranean flash floods
William Amponsah et al.
No articles found.
Elena Mondino, Anna Scolobig, Marco Borga, and Giuliano Di Baldassarre
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2811–2828,Short summary
Survey data collected over time can provide new insights on how different people respond to floods and can be used in models to study the complex coevolution of human–water systems. We present two methods to collect such data, and we compare the respective results. Risk awareness decreases only for women, while preparedness takes different trajectories depending on the damage suffered. These results support a more diverse representation of society in flood risk modelling and risk management.
Assaf Hochman, Francesco Marra, Gabriele Messori, Joaquim G. Pinto, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Yizhak Yosef, and Georgios Zittis
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESDShort summary
Gaining a complete understanding of extreme weather, from its physical drivers to its impacts on society, is important in supporting future risk reduction and adaptation measures. Here, we provide a review of the available scientific literature, knowledge gaps and key open questions in the study of extreme weather events over the vulnerable eastern Mediterranean region.
Francesco Marra, Moshe Armon, and Efrat Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
We present a new method for quantifying the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall using radar data and use it to examine coastal and orographic effects on extremes. We identify three regimes, directly related to precipitation physical processes, which respond differently to these forcing. The presented methods and results are of interest for researchers and practitioners using radar for the analysis of extremes, risk managers water resources managers, climate change impact studies.
Nabil Hocini, Olivier Payrastre, François Bourgin, Eric Gaume, Philippe Davy, Dimitri Lague, Lea Poinsignon, and Frederic Pons
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2979–2995,Short summary
Efficient flood mapping methods are needed for large-scale, comprehensive identification of flash flood inundation hazards caused by small upstream rivers. An evaluation of three automated mapping approaches of increasing complexity, i.e., a digital terrain model (DTM) filling and two 1D–2D hydrodynamic approaches, is presented based on three major flash floods in southeastern France. The results illustrate some limits of the DTM filling method and the value of using a 2D hydrodynamic approach.
Maxime Gillet, Corinne Le Gal La Salle, Pierre Alain Ayral, Somar Khaska, Philippe Martin, and Patrick Verdoux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
This paper aims at identifying the key reservoirs sustaining river low flow during dry summer. The reservoirs are discriminated based on the geological nature of the formations and on the geochemical signature of groundwater. Results show the increasing importance to low-flow support of a specific reservoir, showing only a limited outcrop area, and becoming preponderant in the heart of the dry season. This finding will contribute to improve the protective measures for preserving of low.
Yair Rinat, Francesco Marra, Moshe Armon, Asher Metzger, Yoav Levi, Pavel Khain, Elyakom Vadislavsky, Marcelo Rosensaft, and Efrat Morin
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 917–939,Short summary
Flash floods are among the most devastating and lethal natural hazards worldwide. The study of such events is important as flash floods are poorly understood and documented processes, especially in deserts. A small portion of the studied basin (1 %–20 %) experienced extreme rainfall intensities resulting in local flash floods of high magnitudes. Flash floods started and reached their peak within tens of minutes. Forecasts poorly predicted the flash floods mostly due to location inaccuracy.
Magdalena Uber, Guillaume Nord, Cédric Legout, and Luis Cea
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 123–144,Short summary
Understanding soil erosion and suspended sediment transport is an important issue in terms of soil and water resources management. This study analyzes the impact of choices made during numerical model setup on the modeled suspended sediment dynamics at the outlet of two mesoscale watersheds. While the modeled liquid and solid discharges were found to be sensitive to these choices, the actual location of sediment sources in each catchment was the most important feature.
Yoav Ben Dor, Francesco Marra, Moshe Armon, Yehouda Enzel, and Efrat Morin
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for CPShort summary
Laminated sediments from the deepest part of the Dead Sea were studied in order to configure how climate change has affected hydrological phenomena in the eastern Mediterranean during past global climate changes. This study demonstrates the importance of geological archives in complementing modern hydrological measurements that likely do not capture the extent of natural hydroclimatic variability, which is necessary to configure the impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle.
Giulia Zuecco, Anam Amin, Jay Frentress, Michael Engel, Chiara Marchina, Tommaso Anfodillo, Marco Borga, Vinicio Carraro, Francesca Scandellari, Massimo Tagliavini, Damiano Zanotelli, Francesco Comiti, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESS
O. Perrin, S. Christophe, F. Jacquinod, and O. Payrastre
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B4-2020, 795–801,
Guy Delrieu, Anil Kumar Khanal, Nan Yu, Frédéric Cazenave, Brice Boudevillain, and Nicolas Gaussiat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3731–3749,
Isabelle Braud, Lilly-Rose Lagadec, Loïc Moulin, Blandine Chazelle, and Pascal Breil
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 947–966,Short summary
A method for the evaluation of a model that maps the susceptibility of a territory to surface runoff is presented. It is based on proxy data of localized impacts related to runoff. It accounts for the hazard level, the vulnerability of the study area and possible mitigation actions taken to reduce the risk. The evaluation is made on a 80 km railway line in Normandy (north of France), where a comprehensive database of runoff-related impacts on the railway has been gathered over the 20th century.
Guillaume Nord, Yoann Michielin, Romain Biron, Michel Esteves, Guilhem Freche, Thomas Geay, Alexandre Hauet, Cédric Legoût, and Bernard Mercier
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 41–67,Short summary
We present the development of the RIPLE platform that is designed for the monitoring at high temporal frequency (~ 10 min) of water discharge, solid fluxes (bedload and suspended load) and properties of fine particles (settling velocity) in mesoscale rivers. Many instruments are integrated into this single centralized device, which is autonomous in energy and connected to the 2G/3G network. A user-friendly interface has been developed enabling us to visualize the data collected by the platform.
Moshe Armon, Francesco Marra, Yehouda Enzel, Dorita Rostkier-Edelstein, and Efrat Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1227–1249,Short summary
Heavy precipitation events (HPEs), occurring around the globe, lead to natural hazards as well as to water resource recharge. Rainfall patterns during HPEs vary from one case to another and govern their effect. Thus, correct prediction of these patterns is crucial for coping with HPEs. However, the ability of weather models to generate such patterns is unclear. Here, we characterise rainfall patterns during HPEs based on weather radar data and evaluate weather model simulations of these events.
Philippe Weyrich, Elena Mondino, Marco Borga, Giuliano Di Baldassarre, Anthony Patt, and Anna Scolobig
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 287–298,
Mattia Zaramella, Marco Borga, Davide Zoccatelli, and Luca Carturan
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5251–5265,Short summary
This paper presents TOPMELT, a parsimonious snowpack simulation model integrated into a basin-scale hydrological model. TOPMELT implements the full spatial distribution of clear-sky potential solar radiation by means of a statistical representation: this approach reduces computational burden, which is a key potential advantage when parameter sensitivity and uncertainty estimation procedures are carried out. The model is assessed by examining different resolutions of its domain.
Davide Zoccatelli, Francesco Marra, Moshe Armon, Yair Rinat, James A. Smith, and Efrat Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2665–2678,Short summary
This study presents a comparison of flood properties over multiple Mediterranean and desert catchments. While in Mediterranean areas floods are related to rainfall amount, in deserts we observed a strong connection with the characteristics of the more intense part of storms. Because of the different mechanisms involved, despite having significantly shorter and more localized storms, deserts are able to produce floods with a magnitude comparable to Mediterranean areas.
Claudio Durán-Alarcón, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Jacopo Grazioli, Niels Souverijns, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 13, 247–264,Short summary
Precipitation is the main input in the surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet, but it is still poorly understood due to a lack of observations in this region. We analyzed the vertical structure of the precipitation using multiyear observation of vertically pointing micro rain radars (MRRs) at two stations located in East Antarctica. The use of MRRs showed the potential to study the effect of climatology and hydrometeor microphysics on the vertical structure of Antarctic precipitation.
Niels Souverijns, Alexandra Gossart, Stef Lhermitte, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Jacopo Grazioli, Alexis Berne, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Scarchilli, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 12, 3775–3789,Short summary
Snowfall observations over Antarctica are scarce and currently limited to information from the CloudSat satellite. Here, a first evaluation of the CloudSat snowfall record is performed using observations of ground-based precipitation radars. Results indicate an accurate representation of the snowfall climatology over Antarctica, despite the low overpass frequency of the satellite, outperforming state-of-the-art model estimates. Individual snowfall events are however not well represented.
Magdalena Uber, Jean-Pierre Vandervaere, Isabella Zin, Isabelle Braud, Maik Heistermann, Cédric Legoût, Gilles Molinié, and Guillaume Nord
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6127–6146,Short summary
We investigate how rivers in a flash-flood-prone region in southern France respond to rainfall depending on initial soil moisture. Therefore, high-resolution data of rainfall, river discharge and soil moisture were used. We find that during dry initial conditions, the rivers hardly respond even for heavy rain events, but for wet initial conditions, the response remains unpredictable: for some rain events almost all rainfall is transformed to discharge, whereas this is not the case for others.
Giuliano Di Baldassarre, Heidi Kreibich, Sergiy Vorogushyn, Jeroen Aerts, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Marlies Barendrecht, Paul Bates, Marco Borga, Wouter Botzen, Philip Bubeck, Bruna De Marchi, Carmen Llasat, Maurizio Mazzoleni, Daniela Molinari, Elena Mondino, Johanna Mård, Olga Petrucci, Anna Scolobig, Alberto Viglione, and Philip J. Ward
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5629–5637,Short summary
One common approach to cope with floods is the implementation of structural flood protection measures, such as levees. Numerous scholars have problematized this approach and shown that increasing levels of flood protection can generate a false sense of security and attract more people to the risky areas. We briefly review the literature on this topic and then propose a research agenda to explore the unintended consequences of structural flood protection.
Christophe Genthon, Alexis Berne, Jacopo Grazioli, Claudio Durán Alarcón, Christophe Praz, and Brice Boudevillain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1605–1612,Short summary
Antarctica suffers from a severe shortage of in situ observations of precipitation. The APRES3 program contributes to improving observation from both the surface and from space. A field campaign with various instruments was deployed at the coast of Adélie Land, with an intensive observing period in austral summer 2015–16, then continuous radar monitoring through 2016 and beyond. This paper provides a compact presentation of the APRES3 dataset, which is now made open to the scientific community.
Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Elisa Destro, Md Abul Ehsan Bhuiyan, Marco Borga, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2331–2343,Short summary
Debris flows, following wildfires, constitute a significant threat to downstream populations and infrastructure. Therefore, developing measures to reduce the vulnerability of local communities to debris flows is of paramount importance. This work proposes a new model for predicting post-fire debris flow occurrence on a regional scale and demonstrates that the proposed model has notably higher skill than the currently used approaches.
Mehdi Rahmati, Lutz Weihermüller, Jan Vanderborght, Yakov A. Pachepsky, Lili Mao, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Niloofar Moosavi, Hossein Kheirfam, Carsten Montzka, Kris Van Looy, Brigitta Toth, Zeinab Hazbavi, Wafa Al Yamani, Ammar A. Albalasmeh, Ma'in Z. Alghzawi, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo, Antônio Celso Dantas Antonino, George Arampatzis, Robson André Armindo, Hossein Asadi, Yazidhi Bamutaze, Jordi Batlle-Aguilar, Béatrice Béchet, Fabian Becker, Günter Blöschl, Klaus Bohne, Isabelle Braud, Clara Castellano, Artemi Cerdà, Maha Chalhoub, Rogerio Cichota, Milena Císlerová, Brent Clothier, Yves Coquet, Wim Cornelis, Corrado Corradini, Artur Paiva Coutinho, Muriel Bastista de Oliveira, José Ronaldo de Macedo, Matheus Fonseca Durães, Hojat Emami, Iraj Eskandari, Asghar Farajnia, Alessia Flammini, Nándor Fodor, Mamoun Gharaibeh, Mohamad Hossein Ghavimipanah, Teamrat A. Ghezzehei, Simone Giertz, Evangelos G. Hatzigiannakis, Rainer Horn, Juan José Jiménez, Diederik Jacques, Saskia Deborah Keesstra, Hamid Kelishadi, Mahboobeh Kiani-Harchegani, Mehdi Kouselou, Madan Kumar Jha, Laurent Lassabatere, Xiaoyan Li, Mark A. Liebig, Lubomír Lichner, María Victoria López, Deepesh Machiwal, Dirk Mallants, Micael Stolben Mallmann, Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques, Miles R. Marshall, Jan Mertens, Félicien Meunier, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Binayak P. Mohanty, Mansonia Pulido-Moncada, Suzana Montenegro, Renato Morbidelli, David Moret-Fernández, Ali Akbar Moosavi, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Seyed Bahman Mousavi, Hasan Mozaffari, Kamal Nabiollahi, Mohammad Reza Neyshabouri, Marta Vasconcelos Ottoni, Theophilo Benedicto Ottoni Filho, Mohammad Reza Pahlavan-Rad, Andreas Panagopoulos, Stephan Peth, Pierre-Emmanuel Peyneau, Tommaso Picciafuoco, Jean Poesen, Manuel Pulido, Dalvan José Reinert, Sabine Reinsch, Meisam Rezaei, Francis Parry Roberts, David Robinson, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Otto Corrêa Rotunno Filho, Tadaomi Saito, Hideki Suganuma, Carla Saltalippi, Renáta Sándor, Brigitta Schütt, Manuel Seeger, Nasrollah Sepehrnia, Ehsan Sharifi Moghaddam, Manoj Shukla, Shiraki Shutaro, Ricardo Sorando, Ajayi Asishana Stanley, Peter Strauss, Zhongbo Su, Ruhollah Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Encarnación Taguas, Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira, Ali Reza Vaezi, Mehdi Vafakhah, Tomas Vogel, Iris Vogeler, Jana Votrubova, Steffen Werner, Thierry Winarski, Deniz Yilmaz, Michael H. Young, Steffen Zacharias, Yijian Zeng, Ying Zhao, Hong Zhao, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1237–1263,Short summary
This paper presents and analyzes a global database of soil infiltration data, the SWIG database, for the first time. In total, 5023 infiltration curves were collected across all continents in the SWIG database. These data were either provided and quality checked by the scientists or they were digitized from published articles. We are convinced that the SWIG database will allow for a better parameterization of the infiltration process in land surface models and for testing infiltration models.
Roland Baatz, Pamela L. Sullivan, Li Li, Samantha R. Weintraub, Henry W. Loescher, Michael Mirtl, Peter M. Groffman, Diana H. Wall, Michael Young, Tim White, Hang Wen, Steffen Zacharias, Ingolf Kühn, Jianwu Tang, Jérôme Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, Alejandro N. Flores, Praveen Kumar, Henry Lin, Teamrat Ghezzehei, Julia Jones, Henry L. Gholz, Harry Vereecken, and Kris Van Looy
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 593–609,Short summary
Focusing on the usage of integrated models and in situ Earth observatory networks, three challenges are identified to advance understanding of ESD, in particular to strengthen links between biotic and abiotic, and above- and below-ground processes. We propose developing a model platform for interdisciplinary usage, to formalize current network infrastructure based on complementarities and operational synergies, and to extend the reanalysis concept to the ecosystem and critical zone.
Guillaume Le Bihan, Olivier Payrastre, Eric Gaume, David Moncoulon, and Frédéric Pons
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5911–5928,Short summary
This paper illustrates how an integrated flash flood monitoring (or forecasting) system may be designed to directly provide information on possibly flooded areas and associated impacts on a very detailed river network and over large territories. The approach is extensively tested in the regions of Alès and Draguignan, located in south-eastern France. Validation results are presented in terms of accuracy of the estimated flood extents and related impacts (based on insurance claim data).
Idit Belachsen, Francesco Marra, Nadav Peleg, and Efrat Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5165–5180,Short summary
Spatiotemporal rainfall patterns in arid environments are not well-known. We derived properties of convective rain cells over the arid Dead Sea region from a long-term radar archive. We found differences in cell properties between synoptic systems and between flash-flood and non-flash-flood events. Large flash floods are associated with slow rain cells, directed downstream with the main catchment axis. Results from this work can be used for hydrological models and stochastic storm simulations.
Francesco Marra, Elisa Destro, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Davide Zoccatelli, Jean Dominique Creutin, Fausto Guzzetti, and Marco Borga
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4525–4532,Short summary
Previous studies have reported a systematic underestimation of debris flow occurrence thresholds, due to the use of sparse networks in non-stationary rain fields. We analysed high-resolution radar data to show that spatially aggregated estimates (e.g. satellite data) largely reduce this issue, in light of a reduced estimation variance. Our findings are transferable to other situations in which lower envelope curves are used to predict point-like events in the presence of non-stationary fields.
Jacopo Grazioli, Christophe Genthon, Brice Boudevillain, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Massimo Del Guasta, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 11, 1797–1811,Short summary
We present medium and long-term measurements of precipitation in a coastal region of Antarctica. These measurements are among the first of their kind on the Antarctic continent and combine remote sensing with in situ observations. The benefits of this synergy are demonstrated and the lessons learned from this measurements, which are still ongoing, are very important for the creation of similar observatories elsewhere on the continent.
Francesco Marra, Efrat Morin, Nadav Peleg, Yiwen Mei, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2389–2404,Short summary
Rainfall frequency analyses from radar and satellite estimates over the eastern Mediterranean are compared examining different climatic conditions. Correlation between radar and satellite results is high for frequent events and decreases with return period. The uncertainty related to record length is larger for drier climates. The agreement between different sensors instills confidence on their use for rainfall frequency analysis in ungauged areas of the Earth.
Guillaume Nord, Brice Boudevillain, Alexis Berne, Flora Branger, Isabelle Braud, Guillaume Dramais, Simon Gérard, Jérôme Le Coz, Cédric Legoût, Gilles Molinié, Joel Van Baelen, Jean-Pierre Vandervaere, Julien Andrieu, Coralie Aubert, Martin Calianno, Guy Delrieu, Jacopo Grazioli, Sahar Hachani, Ivan Horner, Jessica Huza, Raphaël Le Boursicaud, Timothy H. Raupach, Adriaan J. Teuling, Magdalena Uber, Béatrice Vincendon, and Annette Wijbrans
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 221–249,Short summary
A high space–time resolution dataset linking hydrometeorological forcing and hydro-sedimentary response in a mesoscale catchment (Auzon, 116 km2) of the Ardèche region (France) is presented. This region is subject to precipitating systems of Mediterranean origin, which can result in significant rainfall amount. The data presented cover a period of 4 years (2011–2014) and aim at improving the understanding of processes triggering flash floods.
A. Lucía, F. Comiti, M. Borga, M. Cavalli, and L. Marchi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1741–1755,
J. Hall, B. Arheimer, G. T. Aronica, A. Bilibashi, M. Boháč, O. Bonacci, M. Borga, P. Burlando, A. Castellarin, G. B. Chirico, P. Claps, K. Fiala, L. Gaál, L. Gorbachova, A. Gül, J. Hannaford, A. Kiss, T. Kjeldsen, S. Kohnová, J. J. Koskela, N. Macdonald, M. Mavrova-Guirguinova, O. Ledvinka, L. Mediero, B. Merz, R. Merz, P. Molnar, A. Montanari, M. Osuch, J. Parajka, R. A. P. Perdigão, I. Radevski, B. Renard, M. Rogger, J. L. Salinas, E. Sauquet, M. Šraj, J. Szolgay, A. Viglione, E. Volpi, D. Wilson, K. Zaimi, and G. Blöschl
Proc. IAHS, 370, 89–95,
M. Adamovic, I. Braud, F. Branger, and J. W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2427–2449,Short summary
This study explores how catchment heterogeneity and variability can be summarized in simplified models, representing the dominant hydrological processes. We apply simple dynamical system approach (Kirchner, 2009) in the Ardèche catchment (south-east France). The simple dynamical system hypothesis works especially well in wet conditions (peaks and recessions are well modelled) and for granite catchments, which are likely to be characterized by shallow subsurface flow.
E. I. Nikolopoulos, M. Borga, F. Marra, S. Crema, and L. Marchi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 647–656,Short summary
This study examines the seasonal and synoptic forcing patterns linked to debris flows occurring in the eastern Italian Alps. Results highlight that seasonal and synoptic pattern dependence is pronounced in both the debris-flow occurrence and the properties of triggering rainfall. Therefore, considering classification of debris flow events according to season and atmospheric circulation patterns can be used to improve existing warning systems that are operating on the basis of rainfall thresholds
A.-J. Tinet, A. Chanzy, I. Braud, D. Crevoisier, and F. Lafolie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 969–980,Short summary
In agricultural management, a good timing in operations is essential to enhance economical and environmental performance. To improve such timing, predictive software is of particular interest. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of a physically based model with high efficiency. Compared to a more complex software (TEC) under bare soil conditions, a coupled model shows mostly improved efficiency and balance and a good capacity to predict water content thresholds.
N. Peleg, E. Shamir, K. P. Georgakakos, and E. Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 567–581,
C. Velluet, J. Demarty, B. Cappelaere, I. Braud, H. B.-A. Issoufou, N. Boulain, D. Ramier, I. Mainassara, G. Charvet, M. Boucher, J.-P. Chazarin, M. Oï, H. Yahou, B. Maidaji, F. Arpin-Pont, N. Benarrosh, A. Mahamane, Y. Nazoumou, G. Favreau, and J. Seghieri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5001–5024,Short summary
Long-term average water and energy cycles are described for two main land cover types in the cultivated Sahel (millet crop and fallow bush). Mean seasonal cycles and annual budgets for all component variables were estimated from detailed field and model analysis. Evapotranspiration totals over 80% of rainfall for both covers, but with different time distribution and soil/plant contributions. The remainder is shared between runoff and deep drainage for the crop, but is only runoff for the fallow.
I. Braud, P.-A. Ayral, C. Bouvier, F. Branger, G. Delrieu, J. Le Coz, G. Nord, J.-P. Vandervaere, S. Anquetin, M. Adamovic, J. Andrieu, C. Batiot, B. Boudevillain, P. Brunet, J. Carreau, A. Confoland, J.-F. Didon-Lescot, J.-M. Domergue, J. Douvinet, G. Dramais, R. Freydier, S. Gérard, J. Huza, E. Leblois, O. Le Bourgeois, R. Le Boursicaud, P. Marchand, P. Martin, L. Nottale, N. Patris, B. Renard, J.-L. Seidel, J.-D. Taupin, O. Vannier, B. Vincendon, and A. Wijbrans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3733–3761,
J. Hall, B. Arheimer, M. Borga, R. Brázdil, P. Claps, A. Kiss, T. R. Kjeldsen, J. Kriaučiūnienė, Z. W. Kundzewicz, M. Lang, M. C. Llasat, N. Macdonald, N. McIntyre, L. Mediero, B. Merz, R. Merz, P. Molnar, A. Montanari, C. Neuhold, J. Parajka, R. A. P. Perdigão, L. Plavcová, M. Rogger, J. L. Salinas, E. Sauquet, C. Schär, J. Szolgay, A. Viglione, and G. Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2735–2772,
D. Penna, M. Borga, G. T. Aronica, G. Brigandì, and P. Tarolli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2127–2139,
N. Peleg, M. Ben-Asher, and E. Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2195–2208,
E. Shamir, L. Ben-Moshe, A. Ronen, T. Grodek, Y. Enzel, K. P. Georgakakos, and E. Morin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1021–1034,
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the city of Tianjin during 1887–2019JOANNE : Joint dropsonde Observations of the Atmosphere in tropical North atlaNtic meso-scale EnvironmentsHydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data): a 25 km global precipitation and temperature data set updated in near-real timeIntegrated water vapour content retrievals from ship-borne GNSS receivers during EUREC4AHydrometeorological data from a Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Station network in Central AsiaWegenerNet high-resolution weather and climate data from 2007 to 2020G2DC-PL+: a gridded 2 km daily climate dataset for the union of the Polish territory and the Vistula and Odra basinsMeteorological observations collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide Experiment (SPADE), April–June 2019High-resolution in situ observations of atmospheric thermodynamics using dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaignRemote-sensing and radiosonde datasets collected in the San Luis Valley during the LAPSE-RATE campaignTen-year return levels of sub-daily extreme precipitation over EuropeAntarctic atmospheric boundary layer observations with the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO)A high-resolution unified observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States for 2004–2017Real-time WRF large-eddy simulations to support uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) flight planning and operations during 2018 LAPSE-RATEAtmospheric radiative profiles during EUREC4AThe Large-eddy Observatory Voitsumra Experiment 2019 (LOVE19) with high-resolution, spatially-distributed observations of air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction from fiber-optic distributed sensing, towers, and ground-based remote sensingShip- and island-based atmospheric soundings from the 2020 EUREC4A field campaignRadar and ground-level measurements of precipitation collected by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne during the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter gamesClimate benchmarks and input parameters representing locations in 68 countries for a stochastic weather generator, CLIGENA multi-scale daily SPEI dataset for drought characterization at observation stations over mainland China from 1961 to 2018Observations of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the atmospheric boundary layer over the San Luis Valley, CO, using the CopterSonde 2 remotely piloted aircraft system in support of the LAPSE-RATE field campaignMeasurements from mobile surface vehicles during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE)Winter atmospheric boundary layer observations over sea ice in the coastal zone of the Bay of Bothnia (Baltic Sea)Meteorological observations in tall masts for the mapping of atmospheric flow in Norwegian fjordsData generated during the 2018 LAPSE-RATE campaign: an introduction and overviewHigh-resolution global atmospheric moisture connections from evaporation to precipitationBAYWRF: a high-resolution present-day climatological atmospheric dataset for BavariaA long-term (2005–2016) dataset of hourly integrated land–atmosphere interaction observations on the Tibetan PlateauDevelopment of the HadISDH.marine humidity climate monitoring dataset
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Nina Škrk, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Katarina Čufar, Maks Merela, Zalika Črepinšek, Lučka Kajfež Bogataj, and Martín de Luis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3577–3592,Short summary
SLOCLIM is the first climatic reconstruction for Slovenia with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km, providing daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation from 1950 to 2018. This new daily gridded dataset contributes significantly to the climate description of the country and is expected to facilitate research activities in numerous scientific disciplines dealing with climate trends, environment, human and animal populations, agriculture, and forestry.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez, Julie K. Lundquist, Petra M. Klein, and Tyler M. Bell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3539–3549,Short summary
In July 2018, the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely-piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a flight week to demonstrate unmanned aircraft systems' capabilities in sampling the atmospheric boundary layer. Three Doppler lidars were deployed during this week-long experiment. We use data from these lidars to estimate turbulence dissipation rate. We observe large temporal variability and significant differences in dissipation for lidars with different sampling techniques.
Cunbo Han, Yaoming Ma, Binbin Wang, Lei Zhong, Weiqiang Ma, Xuelong Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3513–3524,Short summary
Actual terrestrial evapotranspiration (ETa) is a key parameter controlling the land–atmosphere interaction processes and water cycle. However, the spatial distribution and temporal changes in ETa over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remain very uncertain. Here we estimate the multiyear (2001–2018) monthly ETa and its spatial distribution on the TP by a combination of meteorological data and satellite products. Results have been validated at six eddy-covariance monitoring sites and show high accuracy.
Marie-Louise Zeller, Jannis-Michael Huss, Lena Pfister, Karl E. Lapo, Daniela Littmann, Johann Schneider, Alexander Schulz, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3439–3452,Short summary
The boundary layer (BL) is well understood when convectively mixed, yet we lack this understanding when it becomes stable and no longer follows classic similarity theories. The NYTEFOX campaign collected a unique meteorological data set in the Arctic BL of Svalbard during polar night, where it tends to be highly stable. Using innovative fiber-optic distributed sensing, we are able to provide unique insight into atmospheric motions across large distances resolved continuously in space and time.
Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Marie Lothon, Jean-Claude Etienne, Pascal Richard, Sandrine Bony, Julien Lernoult, Hubert Bellec, Gilles Vergez, Thierry Perrin, Julien Delanoë, Tetyana Jiang, Frédéric Pouvesle, Claude Lainard, Michel Cluzeau, Laurent Guiraud, Patrice Medina, and Theotime Charoy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3379–3398,Short summary
During the EUREC4A field experiment that took place over the tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, the French ATR 42 environment research aircraft of SAFIRE aimed to characterize the shallow cloud properties near cloud base and the turbulent structure of the subcloud layer. The high-frequency measurements of wind, temperature and humidity as well as their translation in terms of turbulent fluctuations, turbulent moments and characteristic length scales of turbulence are presented.
Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Andrew J. Newman, Andrew W. Wood, Dominique Brunet, and Paul H. Whitfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3337–3362,Short summary
Probabilistic estimates are useful to quantify the uncertainties in meteorological datasets. This study develops the Ensemble Meteorological Dataset for North America (EMDNA). EMDNA has 100 members with daily precipitation amount, mean daily temperature, and daily temperature range at 0.1° spatial resolution from 1979 to 2018. It is expected to be useful for hydrological and meteorological applications in North America.
Fabio Raicich and Renato R. Colucci
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3363–3377,Short summary
To understand climate change, it is essential to analyse long time series of atmospheric data. Here we studied the atmospheric pressure observed at Trieste (Italy) from 1841 to 2018. We examined the available information on the characteristics and elevations of the barometers and on the data sampling. A basic data quality control was also applied. As a result, we built a homogeneous time series of daily mean pressures at mean sea level, from which a trend of 0.5 hPa per century was estimated.
Robert Pincus, Chris W. Fairall, Adriana Bailey, Haonan Chen, Patrick Y. Chuang, Gijs de Boer, Graham Feingold, Dean Henze, Quinn T. Kalen, Jan Kazil, Mason Leandro, Ashley Lundry, Ken Moran, Dana A. Naeher, David Noone, Akshar J. Patel, Sergio Pezoa, Ivan PopStefanija, Elizabeth J. Thompson, James Warnecke, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3281–3296,Short summary
This paper describes observations taken from a research aircraft during a field experiment in the western Atlantic Ocean during January and February 2020. The plane made 11 flights, most 8-9 h long, and measured the properties of the atmosphere and ocean with a combination of direct measurements, sensors falling from the plane to profile the atmosphere and ocean, and remote sensing measurements of clouds and the ocean surface.
Jed O. Kaplan and Katie Hong-Kiu Lau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3219–3237,Short summary
Lightning is an important atmospheric phenomenon and natural hazard, but few long-term data are freely available on lightning stroke location, timing, and power. Here, we present a new, open-access dataset of lightning strokes covering 2010–2020, based on a network of low-frequency radio detectors. The dataset is comprised of GIS maps and is intended for researchers, government, industry, and anyone for whom knowing when and where lightning is likely to strike is useful information.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Hongyu Wu, Jinan Lin, Shuntian Wang, and Meng Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Observations of atmospheric composition, especially vertical profile observations, remain sparse and rare on the TP, due to extremely high altitude, topographical heterogeneity and grinding environment. This paper introduces a high time-resolution (~15 min) vertical profile observational dataset of atmospheric composition (aerosol, NO2, HCHO and HONO) on the TP for more than one year (2017–2019) using a passive remote sensing technique.
Alice Crespi, Michael Matiu, Giacomo Bertoldi, Marcello Petitta, and Marc Zebisch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2801–2818,Short summary
A 250 m gridded dataset of 1980–2018 daily mean temperature and precipitation records for Trentino–South Tyrol (north-eastern Italian Alps) was derived from a quality-controlled and homogenized archive of station observations. The errors associated with the final interpolated fields were assessed and thoroughly discussed. The product will be regularly updated and is meant to support regional climate studies and local monitoring and applications in integration with other fine-resolution data.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive a combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Egor Dyukarev, Nina Filippova, Dmitriy Karpov, Nikolay Shnyrev, Evgeny Zarov, Ilya Filippov, Nadezhda Voropay, Vitaly Avilov, Arseniy Artamonov, and Elena Lapshina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2595–2605,Short summary
A hydrological and meteorological dataset collected at the Mukhrino peatland, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Russia, over the period of 8 May 2010 to 31 December 2019 is presented. Northern peatlands represent one of the largest carbon pools in the biosphere. The carbon they store is increasingly vulnerable to perturbation. Meteorological observations directly at peatland areas in Siberia are rare, while peatlands are characterized by a specific local climate.
Gijs de Boer, Cory Dixon, Steven Borenstein, Dale A. Lawrence, Jack Elston, Daniel Hesselius, Maciej Stachura, Roger Laurence III, Sara Swenson, Christopher M. Choate, Abhiram Doddi, Aiden Sesnic, Katherine Glasheen, Zakariya Laouar, Flora Quinby, Eric Frew, and Brian M. Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2515–2528,Short summary
This paper describes data collected by uncrewed aircraft operated by the University of Colorado Boulder and Black Swift Technologies during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – A Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. This effort was conducted in the San Luis Valley of Colorado in July 2018 and included intensive observing of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper describes data collected by four aircraft operated by these entities.
Noemi Imfeld, Leopold Haimberger, Alexander Sterin, Yuri Brugnara, and Stefan Brönnimann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2471–2485,Short summary
Upper-air data form the backbone of reanalysis products, particularly in the pre-satellite era. However, historical upper-air data are error-prone because measurements at high altitude were especially challenging. Here, we present a collection of data from historical intercomparisons of radiosondes and error assessments reaching back to the 1930s that may allow us to better characterize such errors. The full database, including digitized data, images, and metadata, is made publicly available.
Ashraful Islam, Ajay Shankar, Adam Houston, and Carrick Detweiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2457–2470,Short summary
This paper describes the dataset containing thermodynamic measurements (pressure, temperature, humidity) from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln unmanned aerial system multirotors during the LAPSE-RATE campaign from 14–19 July 2018. The paper describes the placements, shielding, and aspiration of the sensors. The paper also describes the research objective for data collected each day. The dataset contains 171 files from two multirotors recording the vertical atmospheric boundary layer profile.
Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, Cyrille Flamant, Erik Doerflinger, Friedhelm Jansen, Romain Fages, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Schnitt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2407–2436,Short summary
Measurements from a network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers operated from the eastern Caribbean islands are used to monitor the total water vapour content in the atmosphere during the EUREC4A field campaign. These data help describe the moisture environment of mesoscale cloud patterns in the trade winds with high temporal sampling. They are also useful to assess the accuracy of collocated radiosonde measurements and numerical weather model reanalyses.
Hannah C. Bloomfield, David J. Brayshaw, Paula L. M. Gonzalez, and Andrew Charlton-Perez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2259–2274,Short summary
Energy systems are becoming more exposed to weather as more renewable generation is built. This means access to high-quality weather forecasts is becoming more important. This paper showcases past forecasts of electricity demand and wind power and solar power generation across 28 European countries. The timescale of interest is from 5 d out to 1 month ahead. This paper highlights the recent improvements in forecast skill and hopes to promote collaboration in the energy–meteorology community.
Peng Si, Qingxiang Li, and Phil Jones
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2211–2226,Short summary
This paper documents the various procedures necessary to construct a homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature series starting in 1887 for Tianjin. The newly constructed temperature series provides a set of new baseline data for the field of extreme climate change at the century-long scale and a reference for construction of other long-term reliable daily time series in the region.
Geet George, Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, Robert Pincus, Chris Fairall, Hauke Schulz, Tobias Kölling, Quinn T. Kalen, Marcus Klingebiel, Heike Konow, Ashley Lundry, Marc Prange, and Jule Radtke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Dropsondes measure atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity and horizontal winds. The EUREC4A field campaign deployed 1216 dropsondes during January–February, 2020 in the north Atlantic trade-wind region in order to characterize the thermodynamic and the dynamic structure of the atmosphere, primarily at horizontal scales of ~200 km. We present JOANNE, the dataset that provides these dropsonde measurements and thereby a rich characterization of the trade-wind atmosphere.
Peter Berg, Fredrik Almén, and Denica Bozhinova
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1531–1545,Short summary
HydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data) is a data set of daily precipitation and temperature intended for use in hydrological modelling. The method uses different observational data sources to correct the variables from a model estimation of precipitation and temperature. An openly available data set covers the years 1979–2019, and times after this are available by request.
Pierre Bosser, Olivier Bock, Cyrille Flamant, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Speich
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1499–1517,Short summary
In the framework of the EUREC4A campaign, water vapour measurements were retrieved over the tropical west Atlantic Ocean from GNSS data acquired from three research vessels (R/Vs Atalante, Maria S. Merian and Meteor). The retrievals from R/Vs Atalante and Meteor are shown to be of high quality unlike the results for the R/V Maria S. Merian. These ship-borne retrievals are intended to be used for the description and understanding of meteorological phenomena that occurred during the campaign.
Cornelia Zech, Tilo Schöne, Julia Illigner, Nico Stolarczuk, Torsten Queißer, Matthias Köppl, Heiko Thoss, Alexander Zubovich, Azamat Sharshebaev, Kakhramon Zakhidov, Khurshid Toshpulatov, Yusufjon Tillayev, Sukhrob Olimov, Zabihullah Paiman, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Abror Gafurov, and Bolot Moldobekov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1289–1306,Short summary
The regional research network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) funded by the German Federal Foreign Office consists of 18 remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPSs) in Central Asia, and they are operated by German and Central Asian institutes and national hydrometeorological services. They provide up to 10 years of raw meteorological and hydrological data, especially in remote areas with extreme climate conditions, for applications in climate and water monitoring in Central Asia.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Mikołaj Piniewski, Mateusz Szcześniak, Ignacy Kardel, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, and Tomasz Berezowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1273–1288,Short summary
High-resolution gridded climate data are a key component of earth-system and hydrology models. Here we have described how we updated and extended the previous version of the climate dataset covering Poland and parts of neighbouring countries. The new dataset includes new variables (wind speed and relative humidity), has a higher spatial resolution (2 km) and has been updated to cover the most recent years 2014–2019. Interpolation errors exhibited large spatial and temporal variability.
Julie M. Thériault, Stephen J. Déry, John W. Pomeroy, Hilary M. Smith, Juris Almonte, André Bertoncini, Robert W. Crawford, Aurélie Desroches-Lapointe, Mathieu Lachapelle, Zen Mariani, Selina Mitchell, Jeremy E. Morris, Charlie Hébert-Pinard, Peter Rodriguez, and Hadleigh D. Thompson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1233–1249,Short summary
This article discusses the data that were collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide (SPADE) field campaign in spring 2019 in the Canadian Rockies, along the Alberta and British Columbia border. Various instruments were installed at five field sites to gather information about atmospheric conditions focussing on precipitation. Details about the field sites, the instrumentation used, the variables collected, and the collection methods and intervals are presented.
Holger Vömel, Mack Goodstein, Laura Tudor, Jacquelyn Witte, Željka Fuchs-Stone, Stipo Sentić, David Raymond, Jose Martinez-Claros, Ana Juračić, Vijit Maithel, and Justin W. Whitaker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1107–1117,Short summary
We provide an extensive data set of in situ vertical profile observations for pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds from 648 NCAR NRD41 dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaign. The measurements were taken during 22 flights of the NSF/NCAR G-V research aircraft in August and September 2019 over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The data allow a detailed study of atmospheric dynamics and convection over the tropical ocean.
Tyler M. Bell, Petra M. Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, and Sean Waugh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1041–1051,Short summary
In July 2018, numerous weather sensing remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) were flown in a flight week called Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE). As part of LAPSE-RATE, ground-based remote and in situ systems were also deployed to supplement and enhance observations from the RPASs. These instruments include multiple Doppler lidars, thermodynamic profilers, and radiosondes. This paper describes data from these systems.
Benjamin Poschlod, Ralf Ludwig, and Jana Sillmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 983–1003,Short summary
This study provides a homogeneous data set of 10-year rainfall return levels based on 50 simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model v5 (CRCM5). In order to evaluate its quality, the return levels are compared to those of observation-based rainfall of 16 European countries from 32 different sources. The CRCM5 is able to capture the general spatial pattern of observed extreme precipitation, and also the intensity is reproduced in 77 % of the area for rainfall durations of 3 h and longer.
John J. Cassano, Melissa A. Nigro, Mark W. Seefeldt, Marwan Katurji, Kelly Guinn, Guy Williams, and Alice DuVivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 969–982,Short summary
Between January 2012 and June 2017, a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS), or drone, known as the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO), was used to observe the lowest 1000 m of the Antarctic atmosphere. During six Antarctic field campaigns, 116 SUMO flights were completed. These flights took place during all seasons over both permanent ice and ice-free locations on the Antarctic continent and over sea ice in the western Ross Sea providing unique observations of the Antarctic atmosphere.
Jianfeng Li, Zhe Feng, Yun Qian, and L. Ruby Leung
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 827–856,Short summary
Deep convection has different properties at different scales. We develop a 4 km h−1 observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States from 2004–2017. We find that both types of convective systems contribute significantly to precipitation east of the Rocky Mountains but with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics. The data product will be useful for observational analyses and model evaluations of convection events at different scales.
James O. Pinto, Anders A. Jensen, Pedro A. Jiménez, Tracy Hertneky, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Arnaud Dumont, and Matthias Steiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 697–711,Short summary
The dataset produced here was generated as part of a real-time demonstration of a new capability to provide fine-scale weather guidance to support small UAS operations. The nested model configuration enabled us to resolve large turbulent eddies that developed in response to daytime heating and demonstrated the current state of the science in coupling mesoscale forcing with a large eddy simulation (LES) model. Output from these real-time simulations was used for planning IOPs during LAPSE-RATE.
Anna Lea Albright, Benjamin Fildier, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Robert Pincus, Jessica Vial, and Caroline Muller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 617–630,Short summary
A number of climate mysteries are rooted in uncertainties in how clouds respond to their environment in the trades, the global belt of easterly winds. Differences in radiative heating play a role in the couplings between clouds and their environment. We calculate radiative profiles from 2580 dropsondes and radiosondes from the EUREC4A field campaign (downstream Atlantic trades, winter 2020). We describe the method, assess uncertainty, and discuss radiative heating variability on multiple scales.
Karl Lapo, Anita Freundorfer, Antonia Fritz, Johann Schneider, Johannes Olesch, Wolfgang Babel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The layer of air near the surface is poorly understood during conditions with weak winds. Further, it is even difficult to observe. In this experiment we used distributed temperature sensing to observe air temperature and wind speed at 1000 s of points simultaneously every couple of seconds. This incredibly rich data set can be used to examine and understand what drives the mixing between the atmosphere and surface during these weak-wind periods.
Claudia Christine Stephan, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, Hugo Bellenger, Simon P. de Szoeke, Claudia Acquistapace, Katharina Baier, Thibaut Dauhut, Rémi Laxenaire, Yanmichel Morfa-Avalos, Renaud Person, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Tobias Böck, Alton Daley, Johannes Güttler, Kevin C. Helfer, Sebastian A. Los, Almuth Neuberger, Johannes Röttenbacher, Andreas Raeke, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Pauline Sadoulet, Imke Schirmacher, M. Katharina Stolla, Ethan Wright, Benjamin Charpentier, Alexis Doerenbecher, Richard Wilson, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Gilles Reverdin, Sabrina Speich, Sandrine Bony, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 491–514,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign took place in the western tropical Atlantic during January and February 2020. A total of 811 radiosondes, launched regularly (usually 4-hourly) from Barbados, and 4 ships measured wind, temperature, and relative humidity. They sampled atmospheric variability associated with different ocean surface conditions, synoptic variability, and mesoscale convective organization. The methods of data collection and post-processing for the radiosonde data are described here.
Josué Gehring, Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Nikola Besic, Kwang Deuk Ahn, GyuWon Lee, and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 417–433,Short summary
This article describes a dataset of precipitation and cloud measurements collected from November 2017 to March 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The dataset includes weather radar data and images of snowflakes. It allows for studying the snowfall intensity; wind conditions; and shape, size and fall speed of snowflakes. Classifications of the types of snowflakes show that aggregates of ice crystals were dominant. This dataset represents a unique opportunity to study snowfall in this region.
Andrew T. Fullhart, Mark A. Nearing, Gerardo Armendariz, and Mark A. Weltz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 435–446,Short summary
This dataset represents CLIGEN input parameters for locations in 68 countries. CLIGEN is a point-scale stochastic weather generator that produces long-term weather simulations with daily output. The input parameters are essentially monthly climate statistics that also serve as climate benchmarks. CLIGEN has various applications including being used to force soil erosion models. This dataset may reduce the effort needed in preparing climate inputs for such applications.
Qianfeng Wang, Jingyu Zeng, Junyu Qi, Xuesong Zhang, Yue Zeng, Wei Shui, Zhanghua Xu, Rongrong Zhang, Xiaoping Wu, and Jiang Cong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 331–341,Short summary
(1) The SPEI has been widely used to monitor and assess drought characteristics. (2) A multi-scale daily SPEI dataset was developed across mainland China from 1961 to 2018. (3) The daily SPEI dataset can identify the start and end days of a drought event. (4) The daily SPEI dataset developed is free, open, and publicly available from this study.
Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Brian R. Greene, Francesca M. Lappin, Tyler M. Bell, Antonio R. Segales, Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, William Doyle, Sai Teja Kanneganti, Daniel D. Tripp, and Phillip B. Chilson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 269–280,Short summary
During July 2018, researchers from OU participated in the LAPSE-RATE field campaign in San Luis Valley, Colorado. The OU team completed 180 flights using three RPASs over the course of 6 d of operation to collect vertical profiles of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the ABL. This article describes sampling strategies, data collection, platform intercomparibility, data quality, and the dataset's possible applications to convective initiation, drainage flows, and ABL transitions.
Gijs de Boer, Sean Waugh, Alexander Erwin, Steven Borenstein, Cory Dixon, Wafa'a Shanti, Adam Houston, and Brian Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 155–169,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of measurements collected in south-central Colorado (USA) during the 2018 LAPSE-RATE campaign. The measurements described in this article were collected by mobile surface vehicles, including cars, trucks, and vans, and include measurements of thermodynamic quantities (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) and winds. These measurements can be used to study the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer at a high-elevation site under a variety of conditions.
Marta Wenta, David Brus, Konstantinos Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, and Agnieszka Herman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 33–42,Short summary
Representations of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice are a challenge for numerical weather prediction models. To increase our understanding of the relevant processes, a field campaign was carried out over the sea ice in the Baltic Sea from 27 February to 2 March 2020. Observations included 27 unmanned aerial vehicle flights, four photogrammetry missions, and shore-based automatic weather station and lidar wind measurements. The dataset obtained is used to validate model results.
Birgitte Rugaard Furevik, Hálfdán Ágústsson, Anette Lauen Borg, Zakari Midjiyawa, Finn Nyhammer, and Magne Gausen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3621–3640,Short summary
The Norwegian west coast is mountainous with narrow fjords. Local wind conditions at the shoreline of the fjords are often decoupled from the wind on the coast or in the mountains. Wind measurements are generally obtained at lighthouses or airports and thus do not represent the wind in the fjords. This paper describes wind, turbulence and other meteorological measurements from 11 masts in three fjords. The first masts were erected in 2014, and measurements will continue until at least 2024.
Gijs de Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David Schmale III, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, and Anders Jensen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3357–3366,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign, held from 14 to 20 July 2018. This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. This overview paper provides insight into the campaign for a special issue focused on the datasets collected during LAPSE-RATE.
Obbe A. Tuinenburg, Jolanda J. E. Theeuwen, and Arie Staal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3177–3188,Short summary
We provide a global database of moisture flows through the atmosphere using the most recent ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis. Using this database, it is possible to determine where evaporation will rain out again. However, the reverse is also possible, to determine where precipitation originated from as evaporation. This dataset can be used to determine atmospheric moisture recycling rates and therefore how much water is lost for a catchment through the atmosphere.
Emily Collier and Thomas Mölg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3097–3112,Short summary
As part of a recent project that aims to investigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems in Bavaria, we developed a high-resolution atmospheric dataset, BAYWRF, for this region that covers the period of September 1987 to August 2018. The data reproduce observed variability in recent meteorological conditions well and provide a useful tool for linking large-scale climate change to local impacts on economic, societal, ecological, and agricultural processes.
Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Zhipeng Xie, Weiqiang Ma, Binbin Wang, Xuelong Chen, Maoshan Li, Lei Zhong, Fanglin Sun, Lianglei Gu, Cunbo Han, Lang Zhang, Xin Liu, Zhangwei Ding, Genhou Sun, Shujin Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Zhongyan Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2937–2957,Short summary
In comparison with other terrestrial regions of the world, meteorological observations are scarce over the Tibetan Plateau. This has limited our understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex interactions between the different earth spheres with heterogeneous land surface conditions. The release of this continuous and long-term dataset with high temporal resolution is expected to facilitate broad multidisciplinary communities in understanding key processes on the
Third Pole of the world.
Kate M. Willett, Robert J. H. Dunn, John J. Kennedy, and David I. Berry
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2853–2880,Short summary
We describe the development and validation of a new near-global gridded marine humidity monitoring product, HadISDH.marine, from air temperature and dew point temperature reported by ships. Erroneous data, biases, and inhomogeneities have been removed where possible through checks for outliers, supersaturated values, repeated values, and adjustments for known biases in non-aspirated instruments and ship heights. We have also estimated uncertainty in the data at the grid box and regional level.
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The EuroMedeFF database comprises 49 events that occurred in France, Israel, Germany, Slovenia, Romania, and Italy. The dataset may be of help to hydrologists as well as other scientific communities because it offers benchmark data for the verification of flash flood hydrological models and for hydro-meteorological forecast systems. It provides, moreover, a sample of rainfall and flood discharge extremes in different climates.
The EuroMedeFF database comprises 49 events that occurred in France, Israel, Germany, Slovenia,...