Articles | Volume 14, issue 6
Data description paper
23 Jun 2022
Data description paper | 23 Jun 2022
Improving intelligent dasymetric mapping population density estimates at 30 m resolution for the conterminous United States by excluding uninhabited areas
Jeremy Baynes et al.
Related subject area
Land Cover and Land UseHigh-resolution map of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil using a phenology-based methodGISD30: global 30 m impervious-surface dynamic dataset from 1985 to 2020 using time-series Landsat imagery on the Google Earth Engine platformHigh-resolution land use and land cover dataset for regional climate modelling: a plant functional type map for Europe 2015A national extent map of cropland and grassland for Switzerland based on Sentinel-2 dataImplementation of the CCDC algorithm to produce the LCMAP Collection 1.0 annual land surface change productHarmonized in situ datasets for agricultural land use mapping and monitoring in tropical countriesNESEA-Rice10: high-resolution annual paddy rice maps for Northeast and Southeast Asia from 2017 to 2019Refined burned-area mapping protocol using Sentinel-2 data increases estimate of 2019 Indonesian burningThe dataset of walled cities and urban extent in late imperial China in the 15th–19th centuriesGCI30: a global dataset of 30 m cropping intensity using multisource remote sensing imageryLand-use harmonization datasets for annual global carbon budgetsAn update and beyond: key landscapes for conservation land cover and change monitoring, thematic and validation datasets for the African, Caribbean and Pacific regionsA historical reconstruction of cropland in China from 1900 to 2016Dataset of 1 km cropland cover from 1690 to 1999 in ScandinaviaThe RapeseedMap10 database: annual maps of rapeseed at a spatial resolution of 10 m based on multi-source dataGLC_FCS30: global land-cover product with fine classification system at 30 m using time-series Landsat imageryA 30 m terrace mapping in China using Landsat 8 imagery and digital elevation model based on the Google Earth EngineMid-19th-century building structure locations in Galicia and Austrian Silesia under the Habsburg MonarchyHigh-resolution global map of smallholder and industrial closed-canopy oil palm plantationsFine-grained, spatiotemporal datasets measuring 200 years of land development in the United StatesA 30 m resolution dataset of China's urban impervious surface area and green space, 2000–2018A cultivated planet in 2010 – Part 2: The global gridded agricultural-production mapsEarly-season mapping of winter wheat in China based on Landsat and Sentinel imagesKey landscapes for conservation land cover and change monitoring, thematic and validation datasets for sub-Saharan AfricaEarth transformed: detailed mapping of global human modification from 1990 to 2017A cultivated planet in 2010 – Part 1: The global synergy cropland mapDevelopment of a global 30 m impervious surface map using multisource and multitemporal remote sensing datasets with the Google Earth Engine platformAnnual oil palm plantation maps in Malaysia and Indonesia from 2001 to 2016ChinaCropPhen1km: a high-resolution crop phenological dataset for three staple crops in China during 2000–2015 based on leaf area index (LAI) products
Yi Zheng, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Luciano, Jie Dong, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2065–2080,Short summary
Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer. Sugarcane in Brazil can be harvested all year round. The flexible phenology makes it difficult to identify sugarcane in Brazil at a country scale. We developed a phenology-based method which can identify sugarcane with limited training data. The sugarcane maps for Brazil obtain high accuracy through comparison against field samples and statistical data. The maps can be used to monitor growing conditions and evaluate the feedback to climate of sugarcane.
Xiao Zhang, Liangyun Liu, Tingting Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xidong Chen, and Jun Mi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1831–1856,Short summary
Accurately mapping impervious-surface dynamics has great scientific significance and application value for research on urban sustainable development, the assessment of anthropogenic carbon emissions and global ecological-environment modeling. In this study, a novel and accurate global 30 m impervious surface dynamic dataset (GISD30) for 1985 to 2020 was produced using the spectral-generalization method and time-series Landsat imagery on the Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform.
Vanessa Reinhart, Peter Hoffmann, Diana Rechid, Jürgen Böhner, and Benjamin Bechtel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1735–1794,Short summary
The LANDMATE plant functional type (PFT) land cover dataset for Europe 2015 (Version 1.0) is a gridded, high-resolution dataset for use in regional climate models. LANDMATE PFT is prepared using the expertise of regional climate modellers all over Europe and is easily adjustable to fit into different climate model families. We provide comprehensive spatial quality information for LANDMATE PFT, which can be used to reduce uncertainty in regional climate model simulations.
Robert Pazúr, Nica Huber, Dominique Weber, Christian Ginzler, and Bronwyn Price
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 295–305,Short summary
We mapped the distribution of cropland and permanent grassland across Switzerland, where the agricultural land is considerably spatially heterogeneous due to strong variability in topography and climate, thus presenting challenges to mapping. The resulting map has high accuracy in lowlands as well as in mountainous areas. Thus, we believe that the presented mapping approach and resulting map will provide a solid ground for further research in agricultural land cover and landscape structure.
George Z. Xian, Kelcy Smith, Danika Wellington, Josephine Horton, Qiang Zhou, Congcong Li, Roger Auch, Jesslyn F. Brown, Zhe Zhu, and Ryan R. Reker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 143–162,Short summary
Continuous change detection algorithms were implemented with time series satellite records to produce annual land surface change products for the conterminous United States. The land change products are in 30 m spatial resolution and represent land cover and change from 1985 to 2017 across the country. The LCMAP product suite provides useful information for land resource management and facilitates studies to improve the understanding of terrestrial ecosystems.
Audrey Jolivot, Valentine Lebourgeois, Louise Leroux, Mael Ameline, Valérie Andriamanga, Beatriz Bellón, Mathieu Castets, Arthur Crespin-Boucaud, Pierre Defourny, Santiana Diaz, Mohamadou Dieye, Stéphane Dupuy, Rodrigo Ferraz, Raffaele Gaetano, Marie Gely, Camille Jahel, Bertin Kabore, Camille Lelong, Guerric le Maire, Danny Lo Seen, Martha Muthoni, Babacar Ndao, Terry Newby, Cecília Lira Melo de Oliveira Santos, Eloise Rasoamalala, Margareth Simoes, Ibrahima Thiaw, Alice Timmermans, Annelise Tran, and Agnès Bégué
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5951–5967,Short summary
This paper presents nine standardized crop type reference datasets collected between 2013 and 2020 in seven tropical countries. It aims at participating in the difficult exercise of mapping agricultural land use through satellite image classification in those complex areas where few ground truth or census data are available. These quality-controlled datasets were collected in the framework of the international JECAM initiative and contain 27 074 polygons documented by detailed keywords.
Jichong Han, Zhao Zhang, Yuchuan Luo, Juan Cao, Liangliang Zhang, Fei Cheng, Huimin Zhuang, Jing Zhang, and Fulu Tao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5969–5986,Short summary
The accurate planting area and spatial distribution information is the basis for ensuring food security at continental scales. We constructed a paddy rice map database in Southeast and Northeast Asia for 3 years (2017–2019) at a 10 m spatial resolution. There are fewer mixed pixels in our paddy rice map. The large-scale and high-resolution maps of paddy rice are useful for water resource management and yield monitoring.
David L. A. Gaveau, Adrià Descals, Mohammad A. Salim, Douglas Sheil, and Sean Sloan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5353–5368,Short summary
Severe burning struck Indonesia in 2019. Drawing on new satellite imagery, we present and validate new 2019 burned-area estimates for Indonesia. We show that > 3.11 million hectares (Mha) burned in 2019, double the official estimate from the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Our relatively more accurate estimates have important implications for carbon-emission calculations from forest and peatland fires in Indonesia.
Qiaofeng Xue, Xiaobin Jin, Yinong Cheng, Xuhong Yang, and Yinkang Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5071–5085,Short summary
We reconstructed the walled cities of China that extend from the 15th century to 19th century based on multiple historical documents. By restoring the extent of the city walls, it is helpful to explore the urban area in this period. The correlation and integration of the lifetime and the spatial data led to the creation of the China City Wall Areas Dataset (CCWAD). Based on the proximity to the time of most of the city walls, we produce the China Urban Extent Dataset (CUED) from CCWAD.
Miao Zhang, Bingfang Wu, Hongwei Zeng, Guojin He, Chong Liu, Shiqi Tao, Qi Zhang, Mohsen Nabil, Fuyou Tian, José Bofana, Awetahegn Niguse Beyene, Abdelrazek Elnashar, Nana Yan, Zhengdong Wang, and Yiliang Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4799–4817,Short summary
Cropping intensity (CI) is essential for agricultural land use management, but fine-resolution global CI is not available. We used multiple satellite data on Google Earth Engine to develop a first 30 m resolution global CI (GCI30). GCI30 performed well, with an overall accuracy of 92 %. GCI30 not only exhibited high agreement with existing CI products but also provided many spatial details. GCI30 can facilitate research on sustained cropland intensification to improve food production.
Louise Chini, George Hurtt, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Stephen Sitch, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Lei Ma, Lesley Ott, Julia Pongratz, and Benjamin Poulter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4175–4189,Short summary
Carbon emissions from land-use change are a large and uncertain component of the global carbon cycle. The Land-Use Harmonization 2 (LUH2) dataset was developed as an input to carbon and climate simulations and has been updated annually for the Global Carbon Budget (GCB) assessments. Here we discuss the methodology for producing these annual LUH2 updates and describe the 2019 version which used new cropland and grazing land data inputs for the globally important region of Brazil.
Zoltan Szantoi, Andreas Brink, and Andrea Lupi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3767–3789,Short summary
The ever-evolving landscapes in the African, Caribbean and Pacific regions should be monitored for land cover changes. The Global Land Monitoring Service of the Copernicus Programme, and in particular the Hot Spot Monitoring activity, developed a satellite-imagery-based workflow to monitor such areas. Here, we present a total of 852 025 km2 of areas mapped with up to 32 land cover classes. Thematic land cover and land cover change maps, as well as validation datasets, are presented.
Zhen Yu, Xiaobin Jin, Lijuan Miao, and Xuhong Yang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3203–3218,Short summary
We reconstructed the annual, 5 km × 5 km resolution cropland percentage map that covers mainland China and spans from 1900 to 2016. Our results are advantageous, as they reconcile accuracy, temporal coverage, and spatial resolutions. We further examined the cropland shift pattern and its driving factors in China using the reconstructed maps. This work will greatly contribute to the field of global ecology and land surface modeling.
Xueqiong Wei, Mats Widgren, Beibei Li, Yu Ye, Xiuqi Fang, Chengpeng Zhang, and Tiexi Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3035–3056,Short summary
The cropland area of each administrative unit based on statistics in Scandinavia from 1690 to 1999 is allocated into 1 km grid cells. The cropland area increased from 1690 to 1950 and then decreasd in the following years, especially in southeastern Scandinavia. Comparing global datasets with this study, the spatial patterns show considerable differences. Our dataset is validated using satellite-based cropland cover data and results in previous studies.
Jichong Han, Zhao Zhang, Yuchuan Luo, Juan Cao, Liangliang Zhang, Jing Zhang, and Ziyue Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2857–2874,Short summary
Large-scale and high-resolution maps of rapeseed are important for ensuring global energy security. We generated a new database for the rapeseed planting area (2017–2019) at 10 m spatial resolution based on multiple data. Also, we analyzed the rapeseed rotation patterns in 25 representative areas from different countries. The derived rapeseed maps are useful for many purposes including crop growth monitoring and production and optimizing planting structure.
Xiao Zhang, Liangyun Liu, Xidong Chen, Yuan Gao, Shuai Xie, and Jun Mi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2753–2776,Short summary
Over past decades, a lot of global land-cover products have been released; however, these still lack a global land-cover map with a fine classification system and spatial resolution simultaneously. In this study, a novel global 30 m landcover classification with a fine classification system for the year 2015 (GLC_FCS30-2015) was produced by combining time series of Landsat imagery and high-quality training data from the GSPECLib on the Google Earth Engine computing platform.
Bowen Cao, Le Yu, Victoria Naipal, Philippe Ciais, Wei Li, Yuanyuan Zhao, Wei Wei, Die Chen, Zhuang Liu, and Peng Gong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2437–2456,Short summary
In this study, the first 30 m resolution terrace map of China was developed through supervised pixel-based classification using multisource, multi-temporal data based on the Google Earth Engine platform. The classification performed well with an overall accuracy of 94 %. The terrace mapping algorithm can be used to map large-scale terraces in other regions globally, and the terrace map will be valuable for studies on soil erosion, carbon cycle, and ecosystem service assessments.
Dominik Kaim, Marcin Szwagrzyk, Monika Dobosz, Mateusz Troll, and Krzysztof Ostafin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1693–1709,Short summary
We present a dataset of mid-19th-century building structure locations in former Galicia and Austrian Silesia (parts of the Habsburg Monarchy), located in present-day Czechia, Poland, and Ukraine. It consists of two kinds of building structures: residential and farm-related buildings. The dataset may serve as an important input in studying long-term socio-economic processes and human–environmental interactions or as a valuable reference for continental settlement reconstructions.
Adrià Descals, Serge Wich, Erik Meijaard, David L. A. Gaveau, Stephen Peedell, and Zoltan Szantoi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1211–1231,Short summary
Decision-making for sustainable vegetable oil production requires accurate global oil crop maps. We used high-resolution satellite data to train a deep learning model that accurately classified industrial and smallholder oil palm, the main oil-producing crop. Our results outperformed previous studies and proved the suitability of deep learning for land use mapping. The global oil palm area was 21±0.42 Mha for 2019; however, young and sparse plantations were not included in this estimate.
Johannes H. Uhl, Stefan Leyk, Caitlin M. McShane, Anna E. Braswell, Dylan S. Connor, and Deborah Balk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 119–153,Short summary
Fine-grained geospatial data on the spatial distribution of human settlements are scarce prior to the era of remote-sensing-based Earth observation. In this paper, we present datasets derived from a large, novel building stock database, enabling the spatially explicit analysis of 200 years of land development in the United States at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These datasets greatly facilitate long-term studies of socio-environmental systems in the conterminous USA.
Wenhui Kuang, Shu Zhang, Xiaoyong Li, and Dengsheng Lu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 63–82,Short summary
We propose a hierarchical principle for remotely sensed urban land use and land cover change for mapping intra-urban structure and component dynamics. China’s Land Use/cover Dataset (CLUD) is updated, delineating the imperviousness and green surface conditions in cities from 2000 to 2018. The newly developed datasets can be used to enhance our understanding of urbanization impacts on ecological and regional climatic conditions and on urban dwellers' environments.
Qiangyi Yu, Liangzhi You, Ulrike Wood-Sichra, Yating Ru, Alison K. B. Joglekar, Steffen Fritz, Wei Xiong, Miao Lu, Wenbin Wu, and Peng Yang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3545–3572,Short summary
SPAM makes plausible estimates of crop distribution within disaggregated units. It moves the data from coarser units such as countries and provinces to finer units such as grid cells and creates a global gridscape at the confluence between earth and agricultural-production systems. It improves spatial understanding of crop production systems and allows policymakers to better target agricultural- and rural-development policies for increasing food security with minimal environmental impacts.
Jie Dong, Yangyang Fu, Jingjing Wang, Haifeng Tian, Shan Fu, Zheng Niu, Wei Han, Yi Zheng, Jianxi Huang, and Wenping Yuan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3081–3095,Short summary
For the first time, we produced a 30 m winter wheat distribution map in China for 3 years during 2016–2018. Validated with 33 776 survey samples, the map had perfect performance with an overall accuracy of 89.88 %. Moreover, the method can identify planting areas of winter wheat 3 months prior to harvest; that is valuable information for production predictions and is urgently necessary for policymakers to reduce economic loss and assess food security.
Zoltan Szantoi, Andreas Brink, Andrea Lupi, Claudio Mammone, and Gabriel Jaffrain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3001–3019,Short summary
Larger ecological zones and wildlife corridors in sub-Saharan Africa require monitoring, as social and economic demands put high pressure on them. Copernicus’ Hot-Spot Monitoring service developed a satellite-imagery-based monitoring workflow to map such areas. Here, we present a total of 560 442 km2 from which 153 665 km2 is mapped with eight land cover classes while 406 776 km2 is mapped with up to 32 classes. Besides presenting the thematic products, we also present our validation datasets.
David M. Theobald, Christina Kennedy, Bin Chen, James Oakleaf, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, and Joe Kiesecker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1953–1972,Short summary
We developed a global, high-resolution dataset and quantified recent rates of land transformation and current patterns of human modification for 2017, globally. Briefly, we found that increased human activities and land use modification have caused 1.6 × 106 km2 of natural land to be lost between 1990 and 2015 and the rate of loss has increased over that time. While troubling, we believe these findings are invaluable to underpinning global and national discussions of conservation priorities.
Miao Lu, Wenbin Wu, Liangzhi You, Linda See, Steffen Fritz, Qiangyi Yu, Yanbing Wei, Di Chen, Peng Yang, and Bing Xue
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1913–1928,Short summary
Global cropland distribution is critical for agricultural monitoring and food security. We propose a new Self-adapting Statistics Allocation Model (SASAM) to develop the global map of cropland distribution. SASAM is based on the fusion of multiple existing cropland maps and multilevel statistics of cropland area, which is independent of training samples. The synergy map has higher accuracy than the input datasets and better consistency with the cropland statistics.
Xiao Zhang, Liangyun Liu, Changshan Wu, Xidong Chen, Yuan Gao, Shuai Xie, and Bing Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1625–1648,Short summary
The amount of impervious surface is an important indicator in the monitoring of the intensity of human activity and environmental change. In this study, a global 30 m impervious surface map was developed by using multisource, multitemporal remote sensing data based on the Google Earth Engine platform. The accuracy assessment indicated that the generated map had more optimal measurement accuracy compared with other state-of-art impervious surface products.
Yidi Xu, Le Yu, Wei Li, Philippe Ciais, Yuqi Cheng, and Peng Gong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 847–867,Short summary
The first annual oil palm area dataset (AOPD) for Malaysia and Indonesia from 2001 to 2016 was produced by integrating multiple satellite datasets and a change-detection algorithm (BFAST). This dataset reveals that oil palm plantations have expanded from 5.69 to 19.05 M ha in the two countries during the past 16 years. The AOPD is useful in understanding the deforestation process in Southeast Asia and may serve as land-use change inputs in dynamic global vegetation models.
Yuchuan Luo, Zhao Zhang, Yi Chen, Ziyue Li, and Fulu Tao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 197–214,Short summary
For the first time, we generated a 1 km gridded-phenology product for three staple crops in China during 2000–2015, called ChinaCropPhen1km. Compared with the phenological observations from the agricultural meteorological stations, the dataset had high accuracy, with errors of retrieved phenological date of less than 10 d. The well-validated dataset is sufficiently reliable for many applications, including improving the agricultural-system or earth-system modeling over a large area.
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Census data are typically provided in irregularly shaped spatial units. To get a more refined estimate of population density, we downscaled population counts from United States (US) census blocks to a 30 m grid using intelligent dasymetric mapping. Furthermore, we improved our density estimates by using multiple spatial datasets to identify and mask uninhabited areas. Masking these uninhabited areas improved density estimates for every state in the conterminous US.
Census data are typically provided in irregularly shaped spatial units. To get a more refined...