Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Data description paper 18 Feb 2020
Data description paper | 18 Feb 2020
The Tall Tower Dataset: a unique initiative to boost wind energy research
Jaume Ramon et al.
No articles found.
Roberto Bilbao, Simon Wild, Pablo Ortega, Juan Acosta-Navarro, Thomas Arsouze, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Louis-Philippe Caron, Miguel Castrillo, Rubén Cruz-García, Ivana Cvijanovic, Francisco Javier Doblas-Reyes, Markus Donat, Emanuel Dutra, Pablo Echevarría, An-Chi Ho, Saskia Loosveldt-Tomas, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Núria Pérez-Zanon, Arthur Ramos, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Valentina Sicardi, Etienne Tourigny, and Javier Vegas-Regidor
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 173–196,Short summary
This paper presents and evaluates a set of retrospective decadal predictions with the EC-Earth3 climate model. These experiments successfully predict past changes in surface air temperature but show poor predictive capacity in the subpolar North Atlantic, a well-known source region of decadal climate variability. The poor predictive capacity is linked to an initial shock affecting the Atlantic Ocean circulation, ultimately due to a suboptimal representation of the Labrador Sea density.
Ralf Döscher, Mario Acosta, Andrea Alessandri, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Thomas Arsouze, Tommi Bergmann, Raffaele Bernadello, Souhail Bousetta, Louis-Philippe Caron, Glenn Carver, Miguel Castrillo, Franco Catalano, Ivana Cvijanovic, Paolo Davini, Evelien Dekker, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, David Docquier, Pablo Echevarria, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes-Franco, Matthias Gröger, Jost v. Hardenberg, Jenny Hieronymus, M. Pasha Karami, Jukka-Pekka Keskinen, Torben Koenigk, Risto Makkonen, Francois Massonnet, Martin Ménégoz, Paul A. Miller, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Lars Nieradzik, Twan van Noije, Paul Nolan, Declan O’Donnell, Pirrka Ollinaho, Gijs van den Oord, Pablo Ortega, Oriol Tintó Prims, Arthur Ramos, Thomas Reerink, Clement Rousset, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Philippe Le Sager, Torben Schmith, Roland Schrödner, Federico Serva, Valentina Sicardi, Marianne Sloth Madsen, Benjamin Smith, Tian Tian, Etienne Tourigny, Petteri Uotila, Martin Vancoppenolle, Shiyu Wang, David Wårlind, Ulrika Willén, Klaus Wyser, Shuting Yang, Xavier Yepes-Arbós, and Qiong Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The Earth System Model EC-Earth3 is documented here. Key performance metrics show physical behaviour and biases well within the frame known from recent models. With improved physical and dynamic features, new ESM components, community tools, and largely improved physical performance compared to the CMIP5 version, EC-Earth3 represents a clear step forward for the only European community ESM. We demonstrate here that EC-Earth3 is suited for a range of tasks in CMIP6 and beyond.
Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Albert Soret, Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Kim Serradell, Carles Tena, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 773–797,Short summary
Most European countries have imposed lockdowns to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a socioeconomic disruption has resulted in a sudden drop of atmospheric emissions and air pollution levels. This study quantifies the daily reductions in national emissions and associated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) due to the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe, by making use of multiple open-access measured activity data as well as artificial intelligence and modelling techniques.
Katja Weigel, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Kemisola Adeniyi, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Peter Berg, Louis-Philippe Caron, Irene Cionni, Susanna Corti, Niels Drost, Alasdair Hunter, Llorenç Lledó, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Aytaç Paçal, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Valeriu Predoi, Marit Sandstad, Jana Sillmann, Andreas Sterl, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This work presents new diagnostics for the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The ESMValTool v2.0 diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth System Models (ESMs) with focus on the ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Albert Soret, Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Kim Serradell, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11119–11141,Short summary
To control the spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus, the Spanish Government recently implemented a strict lockdown of the population, which strongly reduced the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), one of the most critical air pollutants in Spain. This study quantifies the contribution of the lockdown on these reduced NO2 levels in Spain, taking the confounding effect of meteorology on artificial intelligence techniques into account.
Axel Lauer, Veronika Eyring, Omar Bellprat, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Alasdair Hunter, Ruth Lorenz, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Daniel Senftleben, Katja Weigel, and Sabrina Zechlau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4205–4228,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool is a community software tool designed for evaluation and analysis of climate models. New features of version 2.0 include analysis scripts for important large-scale features in climate models, diagnostics for extreme events, regional model and impact evaluation. In this paper, newly implemented climate metrics, emergent constraints for climate-relevant feedbacks and diagnostics for future model projections are described and illustrated with examples.
Veronika Eyring, Lisa Bock, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Omar Bellprat, Björn Brötz, Louis-Philippe Caron, Nuno Carvalhais, Irene Cionni, Nicola Cortesi, Bas Crezee, Edouard L. Davin, Paolo Davini, Kevin Debeire, Lee de Mora, Clara Deser, David Docquier, Paul Earnshaw, Carsten Ehbrecht, Bettina K. Gier, Nube Gonzalez-Reviriego, Paul Goodman, Stefan Hagemann, Steven Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Alasdair Hunter, Christopher Kadow, Stephan Kindermann, Sujan Koirala, Nikolay Koldunov, Quentin Lejeune, Valerio Lembo, Tomas Lovato, Valerio Lucarini, François Massonnet, Benjamin Müller, Amarjiit Pandde, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Adam Phillips, Valeriu Predoi, Joellen Russell, Alistair Sellar, Federico Serva, Tobias Stacke, Ranjini Swaminathan, Verónica Torralba, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, Katja Weigel, and Klaus Zimmermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3383–3438,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool designed to improve comprehensive and routine evaluation of earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). It has undergone rapid development since the first release in 2016 and is now a well-tested tool that provides end-to-end provenance tracking to ensure reproducibility.
Reinhard Schiemann, Panos Athanasiadis, David Barriopedro, Francisco Doblas-Reyes, Katja Lohmann, Malcolm J. Roberts, Dmitry V. Sein, Christopher D. Roberts, Laurent Terray, and Pier Luigi Vidale
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 277–292,Short summary
In blocking situations the westerly atmospheric flow in the midlatitudes is blocked by near-stationary high-pressure systems. Blocking can be associated with extremes such as cold spells and heat waves. Climate models are known to underestimate blocking occurrence. Here, we assess the latest generation of models and find improvements in simulated blocking, partly due to increases in model resolution. These new models are therefore more suitable for studying climate extremes related to blocking.
François Massonnet, Martin Ménégoz, Mario Acosta, Xavier Yepes-Arbós, Eleftheria Exarchou, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1165–1178,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) are one of the cornerstones of modern climate science. They are usually run on high-performance computers (HPCs). Whether the choice of HPC can affect the model results is a question of importance for optimizing the design of scientific studies. Here, we introduce a protocol for testing the replicability of the EC-Earth3 ESM across different HPCs. We find the simulation results to be replicable only if specific precautions are taken at the compilation stage.
Oriol Tintó Prims, Mario C. Acosta, Andrew M. Moore, Miguel Castrillo, Kim Serradell, Ana Cortés, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3135–3148,Short summary
Mixed-precision approaches can provide substantial speed-ups for both computing- and memory-bound codes, requiring little effort. A novel method to enable modern and legacy codes to benefit from a reduction of precision without sacrificing accuracy is presented. Using a precision emulator and a divide-and-conquer algorithm it identifies the parts that cannot handle reduced precision and the ones that can. The method has been proved using two ocean models, NEMO and ROMS, with promising results.
Jaime Benavides, Michelle Snyder, Marc Guevara, Albert Soret, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Fulvio Amato, Xavier Querol, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2811–2835,Short summary
The NO2 annual air quality limit value is systematically exceeded in many European cities. In this context, understanding human exposure, improving policy and planning, and providing forecasts requires the development of accurate air quality models at street level. We describe CALIOPE-Urban, a system coupling an operational mesoscale air quality forecast system with an urban roadway dispersion model over Barcelona city (Spain). The methodology may be replicated for other cities in the future.
N. Pérez-Zanón, J. Sigró, P. Domonkos, and L. Ashcroft
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 111–119,Short summary
The aim of this research is to compare the results of two modern multiple break point homogenization methods, namely ACMANT and HOMER, over a Pyrenees temperature dataset in order to detect differences between their outputs which can affect future studies. Both methods are applied to a dataset of 44 monthly maximum and minimum temperature series placed around central Pyrenees and covering the 1910–2013 period.
Related subject area
Atmosphere – MeteorologyHydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data): a 25 km global precipitation and temperature data set updated in near-real timeIntegrated water vapour content retrievals from ship-borne GNSS receivers during EUREC4AHydrometeorological data from a Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Station network in Central AsiaWegenerNet high-resolution weather and climate data from 2007 to 2020G2DC-PL+: a gridded 2 km daily climate dataset for the union of the Polish territory and the Vistula and Odra basinsMeteorological observations collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide Experiment (SPADE), April–June 2019High-resolution in situ observations of atmospheric thermodynamics using dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaignRemote-sensing and radiosonde datasets collected in the San Luis Valley during the LAPSE-RATE campaignTen-year return levels of sub-daily extreme precipitation over EuropeAntarctic atmospheric boundary layer observations with the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO)A high-resolution unified observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States for 2004–2017Real-time WRF large-eddy simulations to support uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) flight planning and operations during 2018 LAPSE-RATEAtmospheric radiative profiles during EUREC4AShip- and island-based atmospheric soundings from the 2020 EUREC4A field campaignRadar and ground-level measurements of precipitation collected by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne during the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter gamesClimate benchmarks and input parameters representing locations in 68 countries for a stochastic weather generator, CLIGENA multi-scale daily SPEI dataset for drought characterization at observation stations over mainland China from 1961 to 2018Observations of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the atmospheric boundary layer over the San Luis Valley, CO, using the CopterSonde 2 remotely piloted aircraft system in support of the LAPSE-RATE field campaignMeasurements from mobile surface vehicles during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE)Construction of homogenized daily surface air temperature for Tianjin city during 1887–2019Sub-seasonal forecasts of demand, wind power and solar power generation for 28 European CountriesWinter atmospheric boundary layer observations over sea ice in the coastal zone of the Bay of Bothnia (Baltic Sea)Meteorological observations in tall masts for the mapping of atmospheric flow in Norwegian fjordsData generated during the 2018 LAPSE-RATE campaign: an introduction and overviewUniversity of Colorado and Black Swift Technologies RPAS-based measurements of the lower atmosphere during LAPSE-RATEHigh-resolution global atmospheric moisture connections from evaporation to precipitationBAYWRF: a high-resolution present-day climatological atmospheric dataset for BavariaA long-term (2005–2016) dataset of hourly integrated land–atmosphere interaction observations on the Tibetan PlateauDevelopment of the HadISDH.marine humidity climate monitoring datasetA long-term (2005–2019) eddy covariance data set of CO2 and H2O fluxes from the Tibetan alpine steppeTropical cyclones vertical structure from GNSS radio occultation: an archive covering the period 2001–2018A dataset of microclimate and radiation and energy fluxes from the Lake Taihu eddy flux networkA combined Terra and Aqua MODIS land surface temperature and meteorological station data product for China from 2003 to 2017SCDNA: a serially complete precipitation and temperature dataset for North America from 1979 to 2018The fate of land evaporation – a global datasetUniversity of Kentucky measurements of wind, temperature, pressure and humidity in support of LAPSE-RATE using multisite fixed-wing and rotorcraft unmanned aerial systemsRescue and quality control of sub-daily meteorological data collected at Montevergine Observatory (Southern Apennines), 1884–1963High-resolution (1 km) Polar WRF output for 79° N Glacier and the northeast of Greenland from 2014 to 2018Early instrumental meteorological observations in Switzerland: 1708–1873In situ airborne measurements of atmospheric and sea surface parameters related to offshore wind parks in the German BightDisdrometer measurements under Sense-City rainfall simulatorA 40-year High Arctic climatological dataset of the Polish Polar Station Hornsund (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard)A pan-African high-resolution drought index datasetMeteorological drought lacunarity around the world and its classificationA dataset of tracer concentrations and meteorological observations from the Bolzano Tracer EXperiment (BTEX) to characterize pollutant dispersion processes in an Alpine valleyStatistical downscaling of water vapour satellite measurements from profiles of tropical ice cloudsIberia01: a new gridded dataset of daily precipitation and temperatures over Iberia1 km monthly temperature and precipitation dataset for China from 1901 to 2017The Cumulus And Stratocumulus CloudSat-CALIPSO Dataset (CASCCAD)WHU-SGCC: a novel approach for blending daily satellite (CHIRP) and precipitation observations over the Jinsha River basin
Peter Berg, Fredrik Almén, and Denica Bozhinova
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1531–1545,Short summary
HydroGFD3.0 (Hydrological Global Forcing Data) is a data set of daily precipitation and temperature intended for use in hydrological modelling. The method uses different observational data sources to correct the variables from a model estimation of precipitation and temperature. An openly available data set covers the years 1979–2019, and times after this are available by request.
Pierre Bosser, Olivier Bock, Cyrille Flamant, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Speich
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1499–1517,Short summary
In the framework of the EUREC4A campaign, water vapour measurements were retrieved over the tropical west Atlantic Ocean from GNSS data acquired from three research vessels (R/Vs Atalante, Maria S. Merian and Meteor). The retrievals from R/Vs Atalante and Meteor are shown to be of high quality unlike the results for the R/V Maria S. Merian. These ship-borne retrievals are intended to be used for the description and understanding of meteorological phenomena that occurred during the campaign.
Cornelia Zech, Tilo Schöne, Julia Illigner, Nico Stolarczuk, Torsten Queißer, Matthias Köppl, Heiko Thoss, Alexander Zubovich, Azamat Sharshebaev, Kakhramon Zakhidov, Khurshid Toshpulatov, Yusufjon Tillayev, Sukhrob Olimov, Zabihullah Paiman, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Abror Gafurov, and Bolot Moldobekov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1289–1306,Short summary
The regional research network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) funded by the German Federal Foreign Office consists of 18 remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPSs) in Central Asia, and they are operated by German and Central Asian institutes and national hydrometeorological services. They provide up to 10 years of raw meteorological and hydrological data, especially in remote areas with extreme climate conditions, for applications in climate and water monitoring in Central Asia.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Mikołaj Piniewski, Mateusz Szcześniak, Ignacy Kardel, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, and Tomasz Berezowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1273–1288,Short summary
High-resolution gridded climate data are a key component of earth-system and hydrology models. Here we have described how we updated and extended the previous version of the climate dataset covering Poland and parts of neighbouring countries. The new dataset includes new variables (wind speed and relative humidity), has a higher spatial resolution (2 km) and has been updated to cover the most recent years 2014–2019. Interpolation errors exhibited large spatial and temporal variability.
Julie M. Thériault, Stephen J. Déry, John W. Pomeroy, Hilary M. Smith, Juris Almonte, André Bertoncini, Robert W. Crawford, Aurélie Desroches-Lapointe, Mathieu Lachapelle, Zen Mariani, Selina Mitchell, Jeremy E. Morris, Charlie Hébert-Pinard, Peter Rodriguez, and Hadleigh D. Thompson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1233–1249,Short summary
This article discusses the data that were collected during the Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide (SPADE) field campaign in spring 2019 in the Canadian Rockies, along the Alberta and British Columbia border. Various instruments were installed at five field sites to gather information about atmospheric conditions focussing on precipitation. Details about the field sites, the instrumentation used, the variables collected, and the collection methods and intervals are presented.
Holger Vömel, Mack Goodstein, Laura Tudor, Jacquelyn Witte, Željka Fuchs-Stone, Stipo Sentić, David Raymond, Jose Martinez-Claros, Ana Juračić, Vijit Maithel, and Justin W. Whitaker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1107–1117,Short summary
We provide an extensive data set of in situ vertical profile observations for pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds from 648 NCAR NRD41 dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaign. The measurements were taken during 22 flights of the NSF/NCAR G-V research aircraft in August and September 2019 over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The data allow a detailed study of atmospheric dynamics and convection over the tropical ocean.
Tyler M. Bell, Petra M. Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, and Sean Waugh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1041–1051,Short summary
In July 2018, numerous weather sensing remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) were flown in a flight week called Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE). As part of LAPSE-RATE, ground-based remote and in situ systems were also deployed to supplement and enhance observations from the RPASs. These instruments include multiple Doppler lidars, thermodynamic profilers, and radiosondes. This paper describes data from these systems.
Benjamin Poschlod, Ralf Ludwig, and Jana Sillmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 983–1003,Short summary
This study provides a homogeneous data set of 10-year rainfall return levels based on 50 simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model v5 (CRCM5). In order to evaluate its quality, the return levels are compared to those of observation-based rainfall of 16 European countries from 32 different sources. The CRCM5 is able to capture the general spatial pattern of observed extreme precipitation, and also the intensity is reproduced in 77 % of the area for rainfall durations of 3 h and longer.
John J. Cassano, Melissa A. Nigro, Mark W. Seefeldt, Marwan Katurji, Kelly Guinn, Guy Williams, and Alice DuVivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 969–982,Short summary
Between January 2012 and June 2017, a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS), or drone, known as the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO), was used to observe the lowest 1000 m of the Antarctic atmosphere. During six Antarctic field campaigns, 116 SUMO flights were completed. These flights took place during all seasons over both permanent ice and ice-free locations on the Antarctic continent and over sea ice in the western Ross Sea providing unique observations of the Antarctic atmosphere.
Jianfeng Li, Zhe Feng, Yun Qian, and L. Ruby Leung
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 827–856,Short summary
Deep convection has different properties at different scales. We develop a 4 km h−1 observational data product of mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convection in the United States from 2004–2017. We find that both types of convective systems contribute significantly to precipitation east of the Rocky Mountains but with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics. The data product will be useful for observational analyses and model evaluations of convection events at different scales.
James O. Pinto, Anders A. Jensen, Pedro A. Jiménez, Tracy Hertneky, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Arnaud Dumont, and Matthias Steiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 697–711,Short summary
The dataset produced here was generated as part of a real-time demonstration of a new capability to provide fine-scale weather guidance to support small UAS operations. The nested model configuration enabled us to resolve large turbulent eddies that developed in response to daytime heating and demonstrated the current state of the science in coupling mesoscale forcing with a large eddy simulation (LES) model. Output from these real-time simulations was used for planning IOPs during LAPSE-RATE.
Anna Lea Albright, Benjamin Fildier, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Robert Pincus, Jessica Vial, and Caroline Muller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 617–630,Short summary
A number of climate mysteries are rooted in uncertainties in how clouds respond to their environment in the trades, the global belt of easterly winds. Differences in radiative heating play a role in the couplings between clouds and their environment. We calculate radiative profiles from 2580 dropsondes and radiosondes from the EUREC4A field campaign (downstream Atlantic trades, winter 2020). We describe the method, assess uncertainty, and discuss radiative heating variability on multiple scales.
Claudia Christine Stephan, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, Hugo Bellenger, Simon P. de Szoeke, Claudia Acquistapace, Katharina Baier, Thibaut Dauhut, Rémi Laxenaire, Yanmichel Morfa-Avalos, Renaud Person, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Tobias Böck, Alton Daley, Johannes Güttler, Kevin C. Helfer, Sebastian A. Los, Almuth Neuberger, Johannes Röttenbacher, Andreas Raeke, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Pauline Sadoulet, Imke Schirmacher, M. Katharina Stolla, Ethan Wright, Benjamin Charpentier, Alexis Doerenbecher, Richard Wilson, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Gilles Reverdin, Sabrina Speich, Sandrine Bony, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 491–514,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign took place in the western tropical Atlantic during January and February 2020. A total of 811 radiosondes, launched regularly (usually 4-hourly) from Barbados, and 4 ships measured wind, temperature, and relative humidity. They sampled atmospheric variability associated with different ocean surface conditions, synoptic variability, and mesoscale convective organization. The methods of data collection and post-processing for the radiosonde data are described here.
Josué Gehring, Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Nikola Besic, Kwang Deuk Ahn, GyuWon Lee, and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 417–433,Short summary
This article describes a dataset of precipitation and cloud measurements collected from November 2017 to March 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The dataset includes weather radar data and images of snowflakes. It allows for studying the snowfall intensity; wind conditions; and shape, size and fall speed of snowflakes. Classifications of the types of snowflakes show that aggregates of ice crystals were dominant. This dataset represents a unique opportunity to study snowfall in this region.
Andrew T. Fullhart, Mark A. Nearing, Gerardo Armendariz, and Mark A. Weltz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 435–446,Short summary
This dataset represents CLIGEN input parameters for locations in 68 countries. CLIGEN is a point-scale stochastic weather generator that produces long-term weather simulations with daily output. The input parameters are essentially monthly climate statistics that also serve as climate benchmarks. CLIGEN has various applications including being used to force soil erosion models. This dataset may reduce the effort needed in preparing climate inputs for such applications.
Qianfeng Wang, Jingyu Zeng, Junyu Qi, Xuesong Zhang, Yue Zeng, Wei Shui, Zhanghua Xu, Rongrong Zhang, Xiaoping Wu, and Jiang Cong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 331–341,Short summary
(1) The SPEI has been widely used to monitor and assess drought characteristics. (2) A multi-scale daily SPEI dataset was developed across mainland China from 1961 to 2018. (3) The daily SPEI dataset can identify the start and end days of a drought event. (4) The daily SPEI dataset developed is free, open, and publicly available from this study.
Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Brian R. Greene, Francesca M. Lappin, Tyler M. Bell, Antonio R. Segales, Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, William Doyle, Sai Teja Kanneganti, Daniel D. Tripp, and Phillip B. Chilson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 269–280,Short summary
During July 2018, researchers from OU participated in the LAPSE-RATE field campaign in San Luis Valley, Colorado. The OU team completed 180 flights using three RPASs over the course of 6 d of operation to collect vertical profiles of the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the ABL. This article describes sampling strategies, data collection, platform intercomparibility, data quality, and the dataset's possible applications to convective initiation, drainage flows, and ABL transitions.
Gijs de Boer, Sean Waugh, Alexander Erwin, Steven Borenstein, Cory Dixon, Wafa'a Shanti, Adam Houston, and Brian Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 155–169,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of measurements collected in south-central Colorado (USA) during the 2018 LAPSE-RATE campaign. The measurements described in this article were collected by mobile surface vehicles, including cars, trucks, and vans, and include measurements of thermodynamic quantities (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) and winds. These measurements can be used to study the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer at a high-elevation site under a variety of conditions.
Peng Si, Qingxiang Li, and Phil Jones
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper documents the various procedures necessary to construct a homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature series since 1887 for Tianjin. The newly constructed temperature series provides a set of new baseline data for the field of extreme climate change over the century-long scale and a reference for construction of other long-term reliable daily time series in the region.
Hannah C. Bloomfield, David J. Brayshaw, Paula L. M. Gonzalez, and Andrew Charlton-Perez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Energy systems are becoming more exposed to weather as more renewable generation is built. This means access to high quality weather forecasts is becoming more important. This paper showcases past forecasts of electricity demand, wind power and solar power generation across 28 European countries. The timescale of interest is from 5 days out to 1 month ahead. This paper highlights the recent improvements in forecast skill and hopes to promote collaboration in the energy-meteorology community.
Marta Wenta, David Brus, Konstantinos Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, and Agnieszka Herman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 33–42,Short summary
Representations of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice are a challenge for numerical weather prediction models. To increase our understanding of the relevant processes, a field campaign was carried out over the sea ice in the Baltic Sea from 27 February to 2 March 2020. Observations included 27 unmanned aerial vehicle flights, four photogrammetry missions, and shore-based automatic weather station and lidar wind measurements. The dataset obtained is used to validate model results.
Birgitte Rugaard Furevik, Hálfdán Ágústsson, Anette Lauen Borg, Zakari Midjiyawa, Finn Nyhammer, and Magne Gausen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3621–3640,Short summary
The Norwegian west coast is mountainous with narrow fjords. Local wind conditions at the shoreline of the fjords are often decoupled from the wind on the coast or in the mountains. Wind measurements are generally obtained at lighthouses or airports and thus do not represent the wind in the fjords. This paper describes wind, turbulence and other meteorological measurements from 11 masts in three fjords. The first masts were erected in 2014, and measurements will continue until at least 2024.
Gijs de Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David Schmale III, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, and Anders Jensen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3357–3366,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign, held from 14 to 20 July 2018. This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. This overview paper provides insight into the campaign for a special issue focused on the datasets collected during LAPSE-RATE.
Gijs de Boer, Cory Dixon, Steven Borenstein, Dale A. Lawrence, Jack Elston, Daniel Hesselius, Maciej Stachura, Roger Laurence III, Sara Swenson, Christopher M. Choate, Abhiram Doddi, Aiden Sesnic, Katherine Glasheen, Zakariya Laouar, Flora Quinby, Eric Frew, and Brian M. Argrow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper describes data collected by uncrewed aircraft operated by the University of Colorado Boulder and Black Swift Technologies during the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation - A Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. This effort was conducted in the San Luis Valley of Colorado in July 2018, and included intensive observing of the atmospheric boundary layer. This manuscript describes data collected by four aircraft operated by these entities.
Obbe A. Tuinenburg, Jolanda J. E. Theeuwen, and Arie Staal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3177–3188,Short summary
We provide a global database of moisture flows through the atmosphere using the most recent ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis. Using this database, it is possible to determine where evaporation will rain out again. However, the reverse is also possible, to determine where precipitation originated from as evaporation. This dataset can be used to determine atmospheric moisture recycling rates and therefore how much water is lost for a catchment through the atmosphere.
Emily Collier and Thomas Mölg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3097–3112,Short summary
As part of a recent project that aims to investigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems in Bavaria, we developed a high-resolution atmospheric dataset, BAYWRF, for this region that covers the period of September 1987 to August 2018. The data reproduce observed variability in recent meteorological conditions well and provide a useful tool for linking large-scale climate change to local impacts on economic, societal, ecological, and agricultural processes.
Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Zhipeng Xie, Weiqiang Ma, Binbin Wang, Xuelong Chen, Maoshan Li, Lei Zhong, Fanglin Sun, Lianglei Gu, Cunbo Han, Lang Zhang, Xin Liu, Zhangwei Ding, Genhou Sun, Shujin Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Zhongyan Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2937–2957,Short summary
In comparison with other terrestrial regions of the world, meteorological observations are scarce over the Tibetan Plateau. This has limited our understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex interactions between the different earth spheres with heterogeneous land surface conditions. The release of this continuous and long-term dataset with high temporal resolution is expected to facilitate broad multidisciplinary communities in understanding key processes on the
Third Pole of the world.
Kate M. Willett, Robert J. H. Dunn, John J. Kennedy, and David I. Berry
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2853–2880,Short summary
We describe the development and validation of a new near-global gridded marine humidity monitoring product, HadISDH.marine, from air temperature and dew point temperature reported by ships. Erroneous data, biases, and inhomogeneities have been removed where possible through checks for outliers, supersaturated values, repeated values, and adjustments for known biases in non-aspirated instruments and ship heights. We have also estimated uncertainty in the data at the grid box and regional level.
Felix Nieberding, Christian Wille, Gerardo Fratini, Magnus O. Asmussen, Yuyang Wang, Yaoming Ma, and Torsten Sachs
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2705–2724,Short summary
We present the first long-term eddy covariance CO2 and H2O flux measurements from the large but underrepresented alpine steppe ecosystem on the central Tibetan Plateau. We applied careful corrections and rigorous quality filtering and analyzed the turbulent flow regime to provide meaningful fluxes. This comprehensive data set allows potential users to put the gas flux dynamics into context with ecosystem properties and potential flux drivers and allows for comparisons with other data sets.
Elżbieta Lasota, Andrea K. Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Riccardo Biondi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2679–2693,Short summary
In this work, we provide a comprehensive archive of tropical cyclone vertical structure for the period 2001–2018. The tropical cyclone best tracks are co-located in time and space with high-vertical-resolution atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, humidity and refractivity) from radio occultations and with climatological profiles. This dataset can be used to analyze the inner vertical thermodynamic structure of tropical cyclones and the pre-cyclone environment.
Zhen Zhang, Mi Zhang, Chang Cao, Wei Wang, Wei Xiao, Chengyu Xie, Haoran Chu, Jiao Wang, Jiayu Zhao, Lei Jia, Qiang Liu, Wenjing Huang, Wenqing Zhang, Yang Lu, Yanhong Xie, Yi Wang, Yini Pu, Yongbo Hu, Zheng Chen, Zhihao Qin, and Xuhui Lee
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2635–2645,Short summary
Inland lakes play an important role in regulating local climate. In this paper, we describe a dataset on microclimate and eddy covariance variables measured at a network of sites across Lake Taihu. The dataset, which appears to be the first of its kind for lake systems, can be used for validation of lake–air flux parameterizations, investigation of climatic controls on lake evaporation, evaluation of remote-sensing surface data products and global synthesis on lake–air interactions.
Bing Zhao, Kebiao Mao, Yulin Cai, Jiancheng Shi, Zhaoliang Li, Zhihao Qin, Xiangjin Meng, Xinyi Shen, and Zhonghua Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2555–2577,Short summary
Land surface temperature is a key variable for climate and ecological environment research. We reconstructed a land surface temperature dataset (2003–2017) to take advantage of the ground observation site through building a reconstruction model which overcomes the effects of cloud. The reconstructed dataset exhibited significant improvements and can be used for the spatiotemporal evaluation of land surface temperature and for high-temperature and drought-monitoring studies.
Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, Andrew J. Newman, Andrew W. Wood, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Vincent Vionnet, and Paul H. Whitfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2381–2409,Short summary
Station observations are critical for hydrological and meteorological studies, but they often contain missing values and have short measurement periods. This study developed a serially complete dataset for North America (SCDNA) from 1979 to 2018 for 27 276 precipitation and temperature stations. SCDNA is built on multiple data sources and infilling/reconstruction strategies to achieve high-quality estimates which can be used for a variety of applications.
Andreas Link, Ruud van der Ent, Markus Berger, Stephanie Eisner, and Matthias Finkbeiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1897–1912,Short summary
This work provides a global dataset on the fate of land evaporation for a fine-meshed grid of source and receptor cells. The dataset was created through a global run of the numerical moisture-tracking model WAM-2layers. The dataset could be used for investigations into average annual, seasonal, and interannual sink and source regions of atmospheric moisture from land masses for most of the regions in the world and comes with example scripts for the readout and plotting of the data.
Sean C. C. Bailey, Michael P. Sama, Caleb A. Canter, L. Felipe Pampolini, Zachary S. Lippay, Travis J. Schuyler, Jonathan D. Hamilton, Sean B. MacPhee, Isaac S. Rowe, Christopher D. Sanders, Virginia G. Smith, Christina N. Vezzi, Harrison M. Wight, Jesse B. Hoagg, Marcelo I. Guzman, and Suzanne Weaver Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1759–1773,Short summary
This article describes the systems, processes and procedures used by researchers from the University of Kentucky (UK) for the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) in the San Luis Valley in Colorado, USA. Using unmanned aerial systems (UASs) as the primary data-gathering tool, UK supported multipoint, multisystem measurements of drainage flow, boundary layer transition, convection initiation and aerosol concentration.
Vincenzo Capozzi, Yuri Cotroneo, Pasquale Castagno, Carmela De Vivo, and Giorgio Budillon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1467–1487,Short summary
This work describes the entire rescue process, from digitization to quality control, of a new historical dataset that includes sub-daily meteorological observations collected in Montevergine (southern Italy) since the late 19th century. These data enhance and supplement sub-daily datasets currently available in Mediterranean regions. Moreover, they offer a unique opportunity to investigate meteorological and climatological features of the mountainous environment prior to the 1950s.
Jenny V. Turton, Thomas Mölg, and Emily Collier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1191–1202,Short summary
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream drains approximately 12 % of the entire Greenland ice sheet and could contribute over 1 m of sea level rise if it were to completely disappear. However, this region is a relatively new research area. Here we provide an atmospheric modelling dataset from 2014 to 2018, which includes many meteorological and radiation variables. The model data have been compared to weather stations and show good agreement. This dataset has many future applications.
Yuri Brugnara, Lucas Pfister, Leonie Villiger, Christian Rohr, Francesco Alessandro Isotta, and Stefan Brönnimann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1179–1190,Short summary
Early instrumental meteorological observations in Switzerland made before 1863, the year a national station network was created, were until recently largely unexplored. After a systematic compilation of the documents available in Swiss archives, we digitised a large part of the data so that they can be used in climate research. In this paper we give an overview of the development of meteorological observations in Switzerland and describe our approach to convert them into modern units.
Astrid Lampert, Konrad Bärfuss, Andreas Platis, Simon Siedersleben, Bughsin Djath, Beatriz Cañadillas, Robert Hunger, Rudolf Hankers, Mark Bitter, Thomas Feuerle, Helmut Schulz, Thomas Rausch, Maik Angermann, Alexander Schwithal, Jens Bange, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, Thomas Neumann, and Stefan Emeis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 935–946,Short summary
With the research aircraft Do-128 of TU Braunschweig, meteorological measurements were performed in the wakes of offshore wind parks during the project WIPAFF. During stable atmospheric conditions, the areas of reduced wind speed and enhanced turbulence behind wind parks had an extension larger than 45 km downwind. The data set consisting of 41 measurement flights is presented. Parameters include wind vector, temperature, humidity and significant wave height.
Auguste Gires, Philippe Bruley, Anne Ruas, Daniel Schertzer, and Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 835–845,Short summary
The Hydrology, Meteorology and Complexity Laboratory of École des Ponts ParisTech (hmco.enpc.fr) and the Sense-City consortium (http://sense-city.ifsttar.fr/) make available a dataset of optical disdrometer measurements stemming from a campaign that took place in September 2017 under the rainfall simulator of the Sense-City climatic chamber, which is located near Paris.
Tomasz Wawrzyniak and Marzena Osuch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 805–815,Short summary
The article presents a climatological dataset from the Polish Polar Station Hornsund (SW Spitsbergen). With a positive trend of mean annual temperature of +1.14 °C per decade during 1979–2018, the climate in Hornsund is warming over 6 times more than the global average. Due to a general lack of long-term in situ measurements and observations, the High Arctic remains one of the largest climate-data-deficient regions on the Earth. Therefore, the described series is of unique value.
Jian Peng, Simon Dadson, Feyera Hirpa, Ellen Dyer, Thomas Lees, Diego G. Miralles, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, and Chris Funk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 753–769,Short summary
Africa has been severely influenced by intense drought events, which has led to crop failure, food shortages, famine, epidemics and even mass migration. The current study developed a high spatial resolution drought dataset entirely from satellite-based products. The dataset has been comprehensively inter-compared with other drought indicators and may contribute to an improved characterization of drought risk and vulnerability and minimize drought's impact on water and food security in Africa.
Robert Monjo, Dominic Royé, and Javier Martin-Vide
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 741–752,
Marco Falocchi, Werner Tirler, Lorenzo Giovannini, Elena Tomasi, Gianluca Antonacci, and Dino Zardi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 277–291,Short summary
This paper describes a dataset of tracer concentrations and meteorological measurements collected during the Bolzano Tracer EXperiment (BTEX) to evaluate the pollutant dispersion from a waste incinerator close to Bolzano (Italian Alps). BTEX represents one of the few experiments available in the literature performed over complex mountainous terrain to evaluate dispersion processes by means of controlled tracer releases. This dataset represents a useful benchmark for testing dispersion models.
Giulia Carella, Mathieu Vrac, Hélène Brogniez, Pascal Yiou, and Hélène Chepfer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1–20,Short summary
Observations of relative humidity for ice clouds over the tropical oceans from a passive microwave sounder are downscaled by incorporating the high-resolution variability derived from simultaneous co-located cloud profiles from a lidar. By providing a method to generate pseudo-observations of relative humidity at high spatial resolution, this work will help revisit some of the current key barriers in atmospheric science.
Sixto Herrera, Rita Margarida Cardoso, Pedro Matos Soares, Fátima Espírito-Santo, Pedro Viterbo, and José Manuel Gutiérrez
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1947–1956,Short summary
A new observational dataset of daily precipitation and temperatures for the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands has been developed and made publicly available for the community. In this work the capabilities of the new dataset to reproduce the mean and extreme regimes of precipitation and temperature are assessed and compared with the E-OBS dataset (including the ensemble version for observational uncertainty assessment).
Shouzhang Peng, Yongxia Ding, Wenzhao Liu, and Zhi Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1931–1946,Short summary
This study describes a 1 km monthly minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures and precipitation dataset for the mainland area of China during 1901–2017. It is the first dataset developed with such a high spatiotemporal resolution over such a long time period for China. The dataset is well evaluated by the observations using 496 national weather stations, and the evaluation indicated the dataset is sufficiently reliable for use in investigation of climate change across China.
Grégory Cesana, Anthony D. Del Genio, and Hélène Chepfer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1745–1764,Short summary
Low clouds (cloud top below 3 km) drive most of the uncertainty in future climate projections. Here we create a new dataset, the Cumulus And Stratocumulus CloudSat-CALIPSO Dataset (CASCCAD), which identifies the different types of low clouds – stratocumulus and cumulus – based on their morphology. CASCCAD provides a basis to evaluate climate models and potentially improve our understanding of the cloud response to climate warming, as well as reduce the uncertainty in future climate projection.
Gaoyun Shen, Nengcheng Chen, Wei Wang, and Zeqiang Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1711–1744,Short summary
The development of effective methods for high-accuracy precipitation estimates over complex terrain and on a daily scale is important for mountainous hydrological applications. This study offers a novel approach called WHU-SGCC by blending rain gauge and satellite data to estimate daily precipitation at 0.05° resolution over the Jinsha River basin, the complicated mountainous terrain with sparse rain gauge data, considering the spatial correlation and historical precipitation characteristics.
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A dataset containing quality-controlled wind observations from 222 tall towers has been created. Wind speed and wind direction records have been collected from existing tall towers in an effort to boost the utilization of these non-standard atmospheric datasets. Observations are compiled in a unique collection with a common format, access, documentation and quality control (QC). For the latter, a total of 18 QC checks have been considered to ensure the high quality of the wind data.
A dataset containing quality-controlled wind observations from 222 tall towers has been created....