Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Data description paper 03 Dec 2020
Data description paper | 03 Dec 2020
A multi-sensor satellite-based archive of the largest SO2 volcanic eruptions since 2006
Pierre-Yves Tournigand et al.
No articles found.
Valeria Cigala, Giulia Roder, and Heidi Kreibich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
Women constitute a minority in the geoscience professional environment, and they are underrepresented in disaster risk reduction planning. The international agenda has failed, so far, to effectively promote women inclusion in disaster policy, preventing them from career development and recognition. We have put women at the centre of the discussion who shared thoughts, experiences and priorities for action serving as a starting point to expand the discourse and promote intersectional research.
Simon Rosanka, Bruno Franco, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11257–11288,Short summary
The strong El Niño in 2015 led to a particular dry season in Indonesia and favoured severe peatland fires. The smouldering conditions of these fires and the high carbon content of peat resulted in high volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model, we show that these emissions have a significant impact on the tropospheric composition and oxidation capacity. These emissions are transported into to the lower stratosphere, resulting in a depletion of ozone.
Nicolas Theys, Vitali Fioletov, Can Li, Isabelle De Smedt, Christophe Lerot, Chris McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Debora Griffin, Lieven Clarisse, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Antje Innes, Roberto Ribas, François Hendrick, Jonas Vlietinck, Hugues Brenot, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present a new algorithm to retrieve sulfur dioxide from space UV measurements. We apply the technique to TROPOMI high resolution measurements and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the approach to weak SO2 emissions worldwide with an unprecedented limit of detection of 8 kt yr-1. This result has broad implications for atmospheric science studies dealing with improving emission inventories, identifying and quantifying missing sources, in the context of air quality and climate.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Sawaeng Kawichai, Qian Wang, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Tippawan Prapamontol, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7187–7198,Short summary
In this study, we integrated satellite constraints on atmospheric NH3 levels and fire intensity, discrete NH3 concentration measurement, and N isotopic analysis of NH3 in order to assess the regional-scale contribution of biomass burning to ambient atmospheric NH3 in the heartland of Southeast Asia. The combined approach provides a valuable cross-validation framework for source apportioning of NH3 in the lower atmosphere and will thus help to ameliorate predictions of biomass burning emissions.
Hugues Brenot, Nicolas Theys, Lieven Clarisse, Jeroen van Gent, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Sophie Vandenbussche, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Timo Virtanen, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Luca Bugliaro, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Pascal Hedelt, Michelle Maree Parks, Sara Barsotti, Mauro Coltelli, William Moreland, Delia Arnold-Arias, Marcus Hirtl, Tuomas Peltonen, Juhani Lahtinen, Klaus Sievers, Florian Lipok, Rolf Rüfenacht, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Saskia Wagenaar, Wim Som de Cerff, Jos de Laat, Arnoud Apituley, Piet Stammes, Quentin Laffineur, Andy Delcloo, Robertson Lennart, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Arturo Vargas, Markus Kerschbaum, Christian Resch, Raimund Zopp, Matthieu Plu, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Van Roozendael, and Gerhard Wotawa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for NHESSShort summary
The purpose of the EUNADICS prototype Early Warning System (EWS) is to proceed the combined use of harmonise data products from satellite, ground-based and in situ instruments to produce alerts of airborne hazard (volcanic, dust, smoke and radionuclide clouds), satisfying the requirement of ATM stakeholders (www.eunadics.eu).
Karn Vohra, Eloise A. Marais, Shannen Suckra, Louisa Kramer, William J. Bloss, Ravi Sahu, Abhishek Gaur, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6275–6296,Short summary
We find satellite observations of atmospheric composition generally reproduce variability in surface air pollution, so we use their long record to estimate air quality trends in major UK and Indian cities. Our trend analysis shows that pollutants targeted with air quality policies have not declined in Delhi and Kanpur but have in London and Birmingham, with the exception of a recent and dramatic increase in reactive volatile organics in London. Unregulated ammonia has increased only in Delhi.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Chinmay Jena, Andrea Móring, Mark A. Sutton, Santosh Kulkarni, Deen Mani Lal, Divya Surendran, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Xuejun Liu, Gaurav Govardhan, Wen Xu, Jize Jiang, and Tapan Kumar Adhya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6389–6409,Short summary
In this study, simulations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) with MOZART-4 and HTAP-v2 are compared with satellite (IASI) and ground-based measurements to understand the spatial and temporal variability of NH3 over two emission hotspot regions of Asia, the IGP and the NCP. Our simulations indicate that the formation of ammonium aerosols is quicker over the NCP than the IGP, leading to smaller NH3 columns over the higher NH3-emitting NCP compared to the IGP region for comparable emissions.
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwärz, Florian Ladstädter, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2327–2343,Short summary
We introduce a new method to detect and monitor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) data at high northern latitudes and demonstrate it for the well-known Jan.–Feb. 2009 event. We found that RO data are capable of SSW monitoring. Based on our method, a SSW event can be detected and tracked, and the duration and the strength of the event can be recorded. The results are consistent with other research on the 2009 event.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Sabine Eckhardt, Anne Cozic, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Didier Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4431–4451,Short summary
Ammonia, a substance that has played a key role in sustaining life, has been increasing in the atmosphere, affecting climate and humans. Understanding the reasons for this increase is important for the beneficial use of ammonia. The evolution of satellite products gives us the opportunity to calculate ammonia emissions easier. We calculated global ammonia emissions over the last 10 years, incorporated them into a chemistry model and recorded notable improvement in reproducing observations.
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Shoma Yamanouchi, Camille Viatte, Kimberly Strong, Erik Lutsch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Cathy Clerbaux, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-Francois Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 905–921,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is a major source of pollution in the air. As such, there have been increasing efforts to measure the atmospheric abundance of NH3 and its spatial and temporal variability. In this study, long-term measurements of NH3 over Toronto, Canada, derived from multiscale datasets are examined. These NH3 datasets were compared to each other and to a model to better understand NH3 variability and to assess model performance.
Michael Gorbunov, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Kent B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 853–867,Short summary
Currently, the canonical transform (CT) approach to the processing of radio occultation observations is widely used. For the spherically symmetric atmosphere, the applicability of this method can be strictly proven. However, in the presence of horizontal gradients, this approach may not work. Here we introduce a generalization of the CT method in order to reduce the errors due to horizontal gradients.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Julio J. Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Jerome Demarty, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Isabella Pfeil, Jarret Powers, Jaakko Ikonen, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESS
Jonathan E. Hickman, Niels Andela, Enrico Dammers, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Courtney Di Vittorio, Money Ossohou, Corrine Galy-Lacaux, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Susanne Bauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas emitted from soils and biomass burning and contributes to particulate air pollution. We used satellite observations of the atmosphere over Africa to show that declines in NH3 concentrations over South Sudan's Sudd wetland in 2008–2017 are related to variation in wetland extent. We also find NH3 concentrations increased in West Africa as a result of biomass burning, and increased in the Lake Victoria Region, likely due to agricultural expansion and intensification.
Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Gaëlle Dufour, Karine Dufossé, Florian Couvidat, Jean-Marc Gilliot, Guillaume Siour, Matthias Beekmann, Gilles Foret, Frederik Meleux, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Cathy Clerbaux, and Sophie Génermont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13481–13495,Short summary
Studies have suggested the importance of ammonia emissions on pollution particle formation over Europe, whose main atmospheric source is agriculture. In this study, we performed an inter-comparison of two alternative inventories, both with a reference inventory, that quantify the French ammonia emissions during spring 2011. Over regions with large mineral fertilizer use, like over northeastern France, NH3 emissions are probably considerably underestimated by the reference inventory.
Elżbieta Lasota, Andrea K. Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Riccardo Biondi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2679–2693,Short summary
In this work, we provide a comprehensive archive of tropical cyclone vertical structure for the period 2001–2018. The tropical cyclone best tracks are co-located in time and space with high-vertical-resolution atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, humidity and refractivity) from radio occultations and with climatological profiles. This dataset can be used to analyze the inner vertical thermodynamic structure of tropical cyclones and the pre-cyclone environment.
Alexis Merlaud, Livio Belegante, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Mirjam Den Hoed, Andreas Carlos Meier, Marc Allaart, Magdalena Ardelean, Maxim Arseni, Tim Bösch, Hugues Brenot, Andreea Calcan, Emmanuel Dekemper, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Mariana Carmelia Balanica Dragomir, Lucian Georgescu, Anca Nemuc, Doina Nicolae, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Adrian Rosu, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Reza Shaiganfar, Kerstin Stebel, Frederik Tack, Sorin Nicolae Vâjâiac, Jeni Vasilescu, Jurgen Vanhamel, Thomas Wagner, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5513–5535,Short summary
The AROMAT campaigns took place in Romania in 2014 and 2015. They aimed to test airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality studies and to verify the concept of such campaigns in support of the validation of space-borne atmospheric missions. We show that airborne measurements of NO2 can be valuable for the validation of air quality satellites. For H2CO and SO2, the validation should involve ground-based measurement systems at key locations that the AROMAT measurements help identify.
Clara Hohmann, Gottfried Kirchengast, Sungmin O, Wolfgang Rieger, and Ulrich Foelsche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Heavy precipitation events are still feeding with a large uncertainty into hydrological models. Based on the highly dense station network WegenerNet (one station per 2 km2) we analyzed the sensitivity of runoff simulations to different rain network densities and interpolation methods in small catchments. We find, and quantify relevant characteristics, that runoff curves especially from short-duration convective rainfall events are strongly influenced by gauge station density and distribution.
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Gaetane Ronsmans, Catherine Wespes, Lieven Clarisse, Susan Solomon, Daniel Hurtmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The first 10-year data-record (2008–2017) of HNO3 total columns measured by the IASI-A/Metop infrared sounder, is exploited to monitor the relationship between the temperature decrease and the HNO3 loss observed each year in the Antarctic stratosphere during the polar night. We verify the recurrence of specific regimes in the cycle of IASI HNO3 and identify, for each year, the day and the 50 hPa-temperature (
drop temperature) corresponding to the onset of denitrification in Antarctic winter.
Marcus Hirtl, Delia Arnold, Rocio Baro, Hugues Brenot, Mauro Coltelli, Kurt Eschbacher, Helmut Hard-Stremayer, Florian Lipok, Christian Maurer, Dieter Meinhard, Lucia Mona, Marie D. Mulder, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Michael Pernsteiner, Matthieu Plu, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Klaus Sievers, Mikhail Sofiev, Wim Som de Cerff, Martin Steinheimer, Martin Stuefer, Nicolas Theys, Andreas Uppstu, Saskia Wagenaar, Roland Winkler, Gerhard Wotawa, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1719–1739,Short summary
The paper summarizes the set-up and outcome of a volcanic-hazard demonstration exercise, with the goals of assessing and mitigating the impacts of volcanic ash clouds on civil and military aviation. Experts in the field simulated the sequence of procedures for an artificial eruption of the Etna volcano in Italy. The scope of the exercise ranged from the detection of the assumed event to the issuance of early warnings and optimized rerouting of flights.
Andrea K. Steiner, Florian Ladstädter, Chi O. Ao, Hans Gleisner, Shu-Peng Ho, Doug Hunt, Torsten Schmidt, Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Kent B. Lauritsen, Anthony J. Mannucci, Johannes K. Nielsen, William Schreiner, Marc Schwärz, Sergey Sokolovskiy, Stig Syndergaard, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2547–2575,Short summary
High-quality observations are critically important for monitoring the Earth’s changing climate. We provide information on the consistency and long-term stability of observations from GPS radio occultation (RO). We assess, for the first time, RO records from multiple RO missions and all major RO data providers. Our results quantify where RO can be used for reliable trend assessment and confirm its climate quality.
Wei Wang, Cheng Liu, Lieven Clarisse, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Yu Xie, Changgong Shan, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, and Nicholas Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Ground-based FTIR observations are used to obtain the total columns and vertical profiles of atmospheric NH3 at a measurement site in Hefei, China. The spatial distribution, temporal variation, seasonal trend, and emission sources of NH3 are analyzed. FTIR observations captured the seasonal cycle of NH3. The IASI data are in broad agreement with our FTIR data. This is the first time that ground-based FTIR remote sensing of NH3 columns and comparison with satellite data are reported in China.
Camille Viatte, Tianze Wang, Martin Van Damme, Enrico Dammers, Frederik Meleux, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Simon Whitburn, Pierre François Coheur, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 577–596,Short summary
We study concentrations and spatiotemporal variabilities of atmospheric NH3 from the agricultural sector to gain insights on its effects on the Paris megacity air quality using satellite data from IASI and CrIS. We evaluate the regional CHIMERE model capacity to reproduce NH3 and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and variabilities in the domain of study. We quantify the main meteorological parameters driving the optimal conditions involved in the PM2.5 formation from NH3 in Paris.
Marie Boichu, Olivier Favez, Véronique Riffault, Jean-Eudes Petit, Yunjiang Zhang, Colette Brogniez, Jean Sciare, Isabelle Chiapello, Lieven Clarisse, Shouwen Zhang, Nathalie Pujol-Söhne, Emmanuel Tison, Hervé Delbarre, and Philippe Goloub
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14253–14287,Short summary
This study, benefiting especially from recently developed mass spectrometry observations of aerosols, highlights unknown properties of volcanic sulfates in the troposphere. It shows their specific chemical fingerprint, distinct from those of freshly emitted industrial sulfates and background aerosols. We also demonstrate the large-scale persistence of the volcanic sulfate pollution over weeks. Hence, these results cast light on the impact of tropospheric eruptions on air quality and climate.
Pascal Hedelt, Dmitry S. Efremenko, Diego G. Loyola, Robert Spurr, and Lieven Clarisse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5503–5517,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during volcanic eruptions poses not only a major threat to local populations, air quality, and aviation but also has an impact on the climate. The satellite-based detection of the SO2 plume is easy; however, it requires exact knowledge of the SO2 layer height. This paper presents a new method for the extremely fast and accurate determination of the layer height, which is essential in volcanic plume forecasts and the exact determination of the SO2 density.
Lieven Clarisse, Martin Van Damme, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5457–5473,Short summary
An imaging technique called superresolution is applied to IASI satellite measurements of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). Taking into account wind fields, this technique reveals NH3 emission sources much better than previously possible. We present a new global NH3 point-source catalog consisting of more than 500 localized and categorized point sources related to agriculture and five different types of industry.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
Christoph Schlager, Gottfried Kirchengast, Juergen Fuchsberger, Alexander Kann, and Heimo Truhetz
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2855–2873,Short summary
Empirical high-resolution surface wind fields from two study areas, automatically generated by a weather diagnostic application, were intercompared with wind fields of different modeling approaches. The focus is on evaluating spatial differences and displacements between the different datasets. In general, the spatial verification indicates a better statistical agreement for the first study area (hilly WegenerNet Feldbach Region), than for the second one (mountainous WegenerNet Johnsbachtal).
Sarah Safieddine, Ana Claudia Parracho, Maya George, Filipe Aires, Victor Pellet, Lieven Clarisse, Simon Whitburn, Olivier Lezeaux, Jean-Noel Thepaut, Hans Hersbach, Gabor Radnoti, Frank Goettsche, Maria Martin, Marie Doutriaux Boucher, Dorothee Coppens, Thomas August, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Skin temperature is one of the essential climate variables (ECVs), and is relevant for the current and future understanding of our climate. This work presents a method to retrieve skin temperature from the thermal infrared sounder IASI that provides a global observation of Earth’s surface and atmosphere twice a day. With this method, the first consistent long-term [2007-present] skin temperature record from IASI can be constructed.
Mathieu Lachatre, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Gilles Foret, Guillaume Siour, Gaëlle Dufour, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6701–6716,Short summary
It has been observed from satellite-based instruments that ammonia levels strongly increased between 2011 and 2015. We have used the CHIMERE CTM to understand what could explain such an increase. We first focused on meteorological condition variations, and it has been concluded that meteorology did not explain ammonia evolution. Then, we focused on SO2 and NOx emission evolution rates to evaluate their influences on ammonia. It appears that theses decreases were the main explanation.
Kang Sun, Lei Zhu, Karen Cady-Pereira, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Gonzalo González Abad, Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Martin Van Damme, Kai Yang, and Mark Zondlo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6679–6701,Short summary
An agile, physics-based approach is developed to oversample irregular satellite observations to a high-resolution common grid. Instead of assuming each sounding as a point or a polygon as in previous methods, the proposed physical oversampling represents soundings as distributions of sensitivity on the ground. This sensitivity distribution can be determined by the spatial response function of each satellite sensor, parameterized as generalized 2-D super Gaussian functions.
Roeland Van Malderen, Eric Pottiaux, Gintautas Stankunavicius, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Hugues Brenot, and Carine Bruyninx
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The study investigates the long-term time variability of the integrated water vapour retrieved by different techniques (GPS, UV/VIS satellites and numerical weather prediction reanalyses) for a global dataset of almost 120 sites and for the time period 1995–2010. A stepwise multiple linear regression technique is applied to ascribe the time variability of integrated water vapour to surface measurements at the sites, but also using teleconnection patterns or climate/oceanic indices.
Hugues Brenot, Witold Rohm, Michal Kačmařík, Gregor Möller, André Sá, Damian Tondaś, Lukas Rapant, Riccardo Biondi, Toby Manning, and Cédric Champollion
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The increasing number of navigation satellites orbiting the Earth and the continuous world wide deployment of dense networks will enable more present and future GNSS applications in the field of atmospheric monitoring. This study suggests some elements of progress in methodology to highlight the interest of ensemble tomography solution for improving the understanding of severe weather conditions, especially the initiation of the deep convection.
Yueqiang Sun, Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Yan Liu, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xiangguang Meng, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5797–5811,Short summary
The GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS) is one of the new-generation payloads on board the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3) series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. FY-3C GNOS, on board the FY-3 series C satellite launched in September 2013, was designed to acquire setting and rising radio occultation (RO) data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BDS and the US GPS. This paper reviews the FY-3C GNOS mission.
Christoph Schlager, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Juergen Fuchsberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5607–5627,Short summary
In this work we further developed and evaluated an operational weather diagnostic application, the WegenerNet Wind Product Generator (WPG), and applied it to the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal (JBT), a dense meteorological station network located in a mountainous Alpine region. The WPG automatically generates gridded high-resolution wind fields in near-real time with a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 100 m x 100 m.
Christoph Brühl, Jennifer Schallock, Klaus Klingmüller, Charles Robert, Christine Bingen, Lieven Clarisse, Andreas Heckel, Peter North, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12845–12857,Short summary
Use of multi-instrument satellite data is important to get consistent simulations of aerosol radiative forcing by a complex chemistry climate model, here with a main focus on the lower stratosphere. The satellite data at different wavelengths together with the patterns in the simulated size distribution point to a significant contribution from moist mineral dust lifted to the tropopause region by the Asian summer monsoon.
Rodrigo Hierro, Andrea K. Steiner, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Pablo Llamedo, and Pablo Cremades
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3523–3539,Short summary
This paper analyzed the collocated GPS radio occultation profiles near the convective systems identified from ISCCP over two orographic regions of the Alps and Andes. Gravity wave (GW) analysis over both selected regions was also carried out. The gravity wave signature from the two case studies were investigated using mesoscale WRF simulations, ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and measured RO temperature profiles. The absence of fronts or jets during both case studies reveals similar relevant GWs.
Congliang Liu, Gottfried Kirchengast, Yueqiang Sun, Kefei Zhang, Robert Norman, Marc Schwaerz, Weihua Bai, Qifei Du, and Ying Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2427–2440,Short summary
In this study, we focused on investigating the causes of the higher-order residual ionospheric error (RIE) in the GNSS RO events, by employing detailed along-ray-path analyses of atmospheric and ionospheric refractivities, impact parameter changes, and bending angles and RIEs under asymmetric and symmetric ionospheric structures. We found that the main causes of the high RIEs are a combination of physics-based effects, where asymmetric ionospheric conditions play the primary role.
Andrea K. Steiner, Bettina C. Lackner, and Mark A. Ringer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4657–4672,Short summary
We evaluate the representation of tropical convection regimes in atmospheric climate models with satellite-based observations from GPS radio occultation. We find that models have large temperature biases in the tropopause region. In moist convection regions, models underestimate moisture up to 40 % over oceans whereas in dry regions they overestimate it by 100 %. Our findings show that RO observations are a valuable data source for the evaluation and development of next generation climate models.
Hallgeir Wilhelmsen, Florian Ladstädter, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, and Andrea K. Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1333–1346,Short summary
Tropical atmospheric variability is often described using proxy indices of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We introduce new proxies derived from GNSS radio occultation (RO) satellite measurements. Using the high vertical resolution of the RO temperature fields we obtain altitude-resolved indices which can improve the description of atmospheric variability patterns and can be used in climate studies where a detailed knowledge of these patterns is required.
Thibaut Lurton, Fabrice Jégou, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Anja Schmidt, Colette Brogniez, and Tjarda J. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3223–3247,Short summary
We quantify the chemical and microphysical effects of volcanic SO2 and HCl from the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption using a comprehensive aerosol–chemistry model combined with in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Our results suggest that previous studies underestimated the eruption's atmospheric and climatic impact, mainly because previous model-to-satellite comparisons had to make assumptions about the aerosol size distribution and were based on biased satellite retrievals of AOD.
Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Xiangguang Meng, Yueqiang Sun, Gottfried Kirchengast, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, Lijun Liu, and Dongwei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 819–833,Short summary
In this study we focus on evaluating zero-difference processing of BDS RO data vs. single-difference processing. From the statistics, average bias (and standard deviation) of the bending angle and refractivity profiles were found to be as small as about 0.05–0.2 % (and 0.7–1.6 %) over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, including for the GEO, IGSO, and MEO subsets. Zero differencing was found to perform slightly better, as may be expected from its lower vulnerability to noise.
Michael E. Gorbunov and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 111–125,Short summary
We study the systematic discreapancies between atmospheric refractivity derived from radio occulation (RO) sounding of the Earth's atmosphere and the reanalyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We construct a regression-based bias model. The model can be used for the RO data propagation in the new reference occultation processing system (rOPS) including the uncertainty propagation through the retrieval chain.
Sungmin O, Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Juergen Fuchsberger, Jackson Tan, and Walter A. Petersen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6559–6572,Short summary
We evaluate gridded satellite rainfall estimates, from GPM IMERG, through a direct grid-to-grid comparison with gauge data from the WegenerNet Feldbach (WEGN) network in southeastern Austria. As the WEGN data are independent of the IMERG gauge adjustment process, we could analyze the IMERG estimates across its three different runs. Our results show the effects of additional retrieval processes on the final rainfall estimates, and consequently provide IMERG accuracy information for data users.
Nelson Bègue, Damien Vignelles, Gwenaël Berthet, Thierry Portafaix, Guillaume Payen, Fabrice Jégou, Hassan Benchérif, Julien Jumelet, Jean-Paul Vernier, Thibaut Lurton, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Vincent Duverger, Françoise Posny, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Sophie Godin-Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15019–15036,Short summary
The space–time evolutions of the Calbuco plume are investigated by combining satellite, in situ aerosol counting and lidar observations, and a numerical model. All the data at Reunion Island reveal a twofold increase in the amount of aerosol with respect to the values observed before the eruption. The dynamic context has favored the spread of the plume exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. This study highlights the role played by dynamical barriers in the transport of atmospheric species.
Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Daniel Hurtmans, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4905–4914,Short summary
This paper presents an improved version (v2.1) of the neural-network-based algorithm for retrieving atmospheric ammonia (NH3) columns from IASI satellite observations. Two datasets using different input data for the retrieval are described: one is based on the operationally provided EUMETSAT Level 2 (ANNI-NH3-v2.1), and the other uses the ECMWF ERA-Interim data (ANNI-NH3-v2.1R-I). Analyses illustrate well that the (meteorological) input data can have a large impact on the retrieved NH3 columns.
Barbara Angerer, Florian Ladstädter, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Marc Schwärz, Andrea K. Steiner, Ulrich Foelsche, and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4845–4863,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of the latest Wegener Center GPS radio occultation reprocessing (OPSv5.6) output. Knowledge of differences in data quality, as well as of data consistency, is essential when combining data from different missions to a long-term climate record. We compare quality aspects of the various processed satellite missions and present satellite-dependent variations. Temperature data from various satellites are found to be highly consistent within 8 to 25 km.
Lukas Brunner and Andrea K. Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4727–4745,Short summary
Atmospheric blocking is a weather pattern where a stable high pressure system blocks the westerly flow at mid-latitudes. We provide, for the first time, a global perspective on blocking and related impacts, based on satellite observations from GPS radio occultation for 2006–2016. We find strong direct and remote effects on the vertical atmospheric structure revealing significant temperature and humidity anomalies up to 15 km. The observations will help for a better insight into blocking impacts.
Simon Whitburn, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Daniel Hurtmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12239–12252,Short summary
Vegetation fires are a major source of NH3 in the atmosphere. A key parameter for the calculation of their emissions, which are still uncertain, is the NH3 enhancement ratio relative to carbon monoxide (CO), ERNH3 / CO. Here we derive new ERNH3 / CO ratios for large tropical regions from the measurements of IASI. We find important variability between and within the studied biomes, as well as interannual variability. This highlights the need for the development of dynamic ERNH3 / CO ratios.
Michal Kačmařík, Jan Douša, Galina Dick, Florian Zus, Hugues Brenot, Gregor Möller, Eric Pottiaux, Jan Kapłon, Paweł Hordyniec, Pavel Václavovic, and Laurent Morel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2183–2208,
Yi Li, Tammy M. Thompson, Martin Van Damme, Xi Chen, Katherine B. Benedict, Yixing Shao, Derek Day, Alexandra Boris, Amy P. Sullivan, Jay Ham, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6197–6213,
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-François Coheur, John B. Nowak, J. Andrew Neuman, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott J. Eilerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12305–12328,Short summary
This study combines new observations and a simulation to assess the interannual variability of atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. The model generally underrepresents the observed variability. Nearly two-thirds of the simulated variability is caused by meteorology, twice that caused by regulations on fossil fuel combustion emissions. Adding ammonia emissions variability does not substantially improve the simulation and has little impact on summer particle concentrations.
Marie Boichu, Isabelle Chiapello, Colette Brogniez, Jean-Christophe Péré, Francois Thieuleux, Benjamin Torres, Luc Blarel, Augustin Mortier, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Nathalie Söhne, Lieven Clarisse, Sophie Bauduin, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, and Didier Tanré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10831–10845,Short summary
Bárðarbunga eruption emitted huge amounts of sulfur into the lower troposphere causing an unprecedented air pollution in the modern era. A wealth of remote sensing and in situ data allows us to jointly analyse the dynamics of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosols. Based on this panel of observations, success and challenges in simulating such volcanogenic long-range pollution events are exposed, focusing on the boundary layer dynamics.
Enrico Dammers, Mathias Palm, Martin Van Damme, Corinne Vigouroux, Dan Smale, Stephanie Conway, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas Jones, Eric Nussbaumer, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Christian Hermans, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Hideaki Nakajima, Isamu Morino, Beatriz Herrera, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Martijn Schaap, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Justus Notholt, Pierre-F. Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10351–10368,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured by the IASI satellite instrument is compared to observations from ground-based FTIR instruments. The seasonal cycles of NH3 in both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. The study's results further indicate that the IASI-NH3 product performs better than earlier estimates.
Jan Douša, Galina Dick, Michal Kačmařík, Radmila Brožková, Florian Zus, Hugues Brenot, Anastasia Stoycheva, Gregor Möller, and Jan Kaplon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2989–3008,Short summary
GNSS products provide observations of atmospheric water vapour. Advanced tropospheric products focus on ultra-fast and high-resolution zenith total delays (ZTDs), horizontal gradients and slant delays, all suitable for rapid-cycle numerical weather prediction (NWP) and severe weather event monitoring. The GNSS4SWEC Benchmark provides a complex data set for developing and assessing these products, with initial focus on reference ZTDs and gradients derived from several NWP and dense GNSS networks.
Dimitris Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Franco Marenco, Lieven Clarisse, Lucy J. Ventress, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, Ping Wang, Gijsbert Tilstra, Ronald van der A, Nicolas Theys, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5705–5720,Short summary
The ESA-funded SACS-2 and SMASH projects developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. These estimates were validated using ground-based and aircraft lidar measurements. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets. The IASI data show a better consistency concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height.
Lukas Brunner, Andrea K. Steiner, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, and Martin W. Jury
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4593–4604,Short summary
Atmospheric blocking refers to persistent high-pressure systems which block the climatological flow at midlatitudes. We explore blocking with observations from GPS radio occultation (RO), a satellite-based remote-sensing system. Using two example cases, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking, highlighting the potential of RO observations to complement models and reanalysis as a basis for blocking research.
Sophie Bauduin, Lieven Clarisse, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Nicolas Theys, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 721–740,Short summary
The paper presents the development of a new retrieval scheme to infer near-surface sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at a global scale from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). It demonstrates the capability of such an instrument to globally monitor anthropogenic SO2 pollution in the case of favourable geophysical conditions, especially high thermal contrast and low humidity.
Riccardo Biondi, Andrea Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, Hugues Brenot, and Therese Rieckh
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Cloud structure and cloud top height are key parameters for the monitoring of volcanic cloud movement and for characterizing eruptive processes and understanding the impact on short-term climate variability. We have studied the eruption of Nabro volcano, which has been recognized as the largest stratospheric sulfur injection since Pinatubo (1991) and we have found a clear warming signature after the eruption of Nabro persisting for a few months.
S. Doniki, D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, H. M. Worden, K. W. Bowman, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12971–12987,
V. Duflot, C. Wespes, L. Clarisse, D. Hurtmans, Y. Ngadi, N. Jones, C. Paton-Walsh, J. Hadji-Lazaro, C. Vigouroux, M. De Mazière, J.-M. Metzger, E. Mahieu, C. Servais, F. Hase, M. Schneider, C. Clerbaux, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10509–10527,Short summary
We present global distributions of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). C2H2 and HCN are ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases with medium tropospheric lifetime, which are frequently used as indicators of combustion sources and as tracers for atmospheric transport and chemistry. We show that there is an overall agreement between ground-based and space measurements, as well as model simulations.
Y. Li, G. Kirchengast, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, R. Norman, Y. B. Yuan, J. Fritzer, M. Schwaerz, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3447–3465,Short summary
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System-based radio occultation measurements. The new algorithm is evaluated against the OPSv5.6 algorithm developed by the Wegener Center using both simulated and real observed data. It is found that the algorithm can significantly reduce the random errors of optimized bending angles. The retrieved refractivity and temperature profiles are also benefited.
V. Proschek, G. Kirchengast, S. Schweitzer, J. S. A. Brooke, P. F. Bernath, C. B. Thomas, J.-G. Wang, K. A. Tereszchuk, G. González Abad, R. J. Hargreaves, C. A. Beale, J. J. Harrison, P. A. Martin, V. L. Kasyutich, C. Gerbig, O. Kolle, and A. Loescher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3315–3336,
C. L. Liu, G. Kirchengast, K. Zhang, R. Norman, Y. Li, S. C. Zhang, J. Fritzer, M. Schwaerz, S. Q. Wu, and Z. X. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2999–3019,
M. Boichu, L. Clarisse, J.-C. Péré, H. Herbin, P. Goloub, F. Thieuleux, F. Ducos, C. Clerbaux, and D. Tanré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8381–8400,Short summary
IASI spaceborne imagery is used to reconstruct temporal variations of flux and altitude of volcanic emissions via an inversion procedure. Ground-based UV measurements underestimate the SO2 flux by 1 order of magnitude due to ash-induced plume opacity. Assimilation of SO2 altitude, retrieved directly from IASI, should render the inversion scheme independent of the wind shear prerequisite. CALIOP LiDAR observations support the coexistence of SO2 and sulfate aerosols in the volcanic cloud.
A. Plach, V. Proschek, and G. Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2813–2825,Short summary
This paper discusses simulation results of a newly developed line-of-sight wind retrieval algorithm expanding an existing simulation framework that includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and greenhouse gases in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. The underlying mission concept further develops the radio occultation technique (i.e. satellite remote sensing technique scanning the atmosphere with high vertical resolution) employing microwave and infrared-laser signals.
R. Biondi, A. K. Steiner, G. Kirchengast, and T. Rieckh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5181–5193,
F. Ladstädter, A. K. Steiner, M. Schwärz, and G. Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1819–1834,
A. Kann, I. Meirold-Mautner, F. Schmid, G. Kirchengast, J. Fuchsberger, V. Meyer, L. Tüchler, and B. Bica
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1547–1559,Short summary
The paper introduces a high resolution precipitation analysis system which operates on 1 km x 1 km resolution with high frequency updates of 5 minutes. The ability of such a system to adequately assess the convective precipitation distribution is evaluated by means of an independant, high resolution station network. This dense station network allows for a thorough evaluation of the analyses under different convective situations and of the representativeness error of raingaue measurements.
M. Van Damme, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, X. Liu, J. B. Nowak, C. Clerbaux, C. R. Flechard, C. Galy-Lacaux, W. Xu, J. A. Neuman, Y. S. Tang, M. A. Sutton, J. W. Erisman, and P. F. Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1575–1591,Short summary
In this study, comprehensive ground-based data sets (Europe, China, Africa and United States) are used to evaluate NH3 measurements from IASI. Global yearly and regional monthly comparisons show fair agreement, while hourly measurements are used to investigate the limitations of direct comparisons. In addition, dense airborne measurements are explored and show the highest correlation coefficients in this study. Finally, the urgent need for independent NH3 column measurements is discussed.
J.-L. Lacour, L. Clarisse, J. Worden, M. Schneider, S. Barthlott, F. Hase, C. Risi, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1447–1466,Short summary
This paper describes a cross-validation study of tropospheric δD (HDO/H2O ratio) profiles retrieved from IASI spectra (retrieval performed at ULB). We document how these profiles compare to profiles derived from TES/AURA sounder and from three ground-based FTIRs of the NDACC network (produced within the MUSICA project). We show that empirical differences are in agreement with the theoretical expected differences which are dominated by IASI observational and the smoothing error components.
H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1099–1123,
L. Clarisse, P.-F. Coheur, N. Theys, D. Hurtmans, and C. Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3095–3111,
M. Van Damme, L. Clarisse, C. L. Heald, D. Hurtmans, Y. Ngadi, C. Clerbaux, A. J. Dolman, J. W. Erisman, and P. F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2905–2922,
M. Boichu, L. Menut, D. Khvorostyanov, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, S. Turquety, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8569–8584,
F. Jégou, G. Berthet, C. Brogniez, J.-B. Renard, P. François, J. M. Haywood, A. Jones, Q. Bourgeois, T. Lurton, F. Auriol, S. Godin-Beekmann, C. Guimbaud, G. Krysztofiak, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, J. Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, and D. Daugeron
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6533–6552,
N. Theys, R. Campion, L. Clarisse, H. Brenot, J. van Gent, B. Dils, S. Corradini, L. Merucci, P.-F. Coheur, M. Van Roozendael, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, S. Tait, and F. Ferrucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5945–5968,
Y. R'Honi, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans, V. Duflot, S. Turquety, Y. Ngadi, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4171–4181,
V. Duflot, D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, Y. R'honi, C. Vigouroux, M. De Mazière, E. Mahieu, C. Servais, C. Clerbaux, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 917–925,
L. Clarisse, P.-F. Coheur, F. Prata, J. Hadji-Lazaro, D. Hurtmans, and C. Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2195–2221,
A. K. Steiner, D. Hunt, S.-P. Ho, G. Kirchengast, A. J. Mannucci, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, H. Gleisner, A. von Engeln, T. Schmidt, C. Ao, S. S. Leroy, E. R. Kursinski, U. Foelsche, M. Gorbunov, S. Heise, Y.-H. Kuo, K. B. Lauritsen, C. Marquardt, C. Rocken, W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, S. Syndergaard, and J. Wickert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1469–1484,
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Janusz W. Krzyścin, Bonawentura Rajewska-Więch, and Janusz Jarosławski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4425–4436,Short summary
The article presents a dataset comprising all manual observations of total column ozone taken at Belsk (Poland) from 23 March 1963 up to 31 December 2019 by the Dobson spectrophotometer. The dataset contains results of ~115 000 intraday measurements. The original data can be used for trend analyses as the instrument's aging has not been detected. For comparative research with other ozone data sources, correction procedures (for adjustments to the Brewer spectrophotometer output) are proposed.
Juan-Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Graham W. Mann, John Barnes, Albeht Rodríguez-Vega, Sarah Shallcross, Sandip S. Dhomse, Giorgio Fiocco, and Gerald W. Grams
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4407–4423,Short summary
The first multi-year stratospheric aerosol lidar dataset was recovered and recalibrated. The vertical profile dataset, January 1964 to August 1965 at Lexington, MA, and July to August 1964 at Fairbanks, AK, provides info on volcanic forcing after the 1963 Agung eruption. Applying two-way transmittance correction to the original dataset reveals data variations, with corrected stratospheric aerosol optical depth (sAOD) highest in 1965 with the highest 532 nm sAOD peak at 0.07 in March 1965.
Luca Palchetti, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Bertrand Cluzet, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Gai, Dina Khordakova, Alessio Montori, Hilke Oetjen, Markus Rettinger, Christian Rolf, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Frank Gunther Wienhold
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4303–4312,Short summary
The FIRMOS far-infrared (IR) prototype, developed for the preparation of the ESA FORUM mission, was deployed for the first time at Mt. Zugspitze at 3000 m altitude to measure the far-IR spectrum of atmospheric emissions. The measurements, including co-located radiometers, lidars, radio soundings, weather, and surface properties, provide a unique dataset to study radiative properties of water vapour, cirrus clouds, and snow emissivity over the IR emissions, including the under-explored far-IR.
Kevin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Colette Brogniez, Kaisa Lakkala, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Antti Arola, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Vincent Amelie, Mohamed Abdoulwahab Toihir, and Solofoarisoa Rakotoniaina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4275–4301,Short summary
This paper is about the presentation of the UV-Indien measurement network. This network measures the ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun received at the Earth's surface and the clouding above each station. It has been deployed at several sites in the Indian Ocean region representing different environmental conditions. A description of the instruments and their calibration, maintenance, and data processing is presented in this paper along with a valuation of the data quality.
Thierno Doumbia, Claire Granier, Nellie Elguindi, Idir Bouarar, Sabine Darras, Guy Brasseur, Benjamin Gaubert, Yiming Liu, Xiaoqin Shi, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Simone Tilmes, Forrest Lacey, Adrien Deroubaix, and Tao Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4191–4206,Short summary
Most countries around the world have implemented control measures to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in significant changes in economic and personal activities. We developed the CONFORM (COvid-19 adjustmeNt Factors fOR eMissions) dataset to account for changes in emissions during lockdowns. This dataset was created with the intention of being directly applicable to existing global and regional inventories used in chemical transport models.
Greg E. Bodeker, Jan Nitzbon, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Stefanie Kremser, Alexander Schwertheim, and Jared Lewis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3885–3906,Short summary
Ozone in Earth's atmosphere has undergone significant changes since first measured systematically from space in the late 1970s. The purpose of the paper is to present a new, spatially filled, global total column ozone climate data record spanning from October 1978 to December 2016. The database is compiled from measurements from 17 different satellite-based instruments where offsets and drifts between the instruments have been corrected using ground-based measurements.
Fule Zhang, Jinlong Wang, Mark Baskaran, Qiangqiang Zhong, Yali Wang, Jussi Paatero, and Jinzhou Du
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2963–2994,Short summary
Here we present a global dataset of air concentration and depositional flux measurements of atmospheric 7Be and 210Pb. The dataset could be used to better understand the transport processes of air masses and depositional processes of aerosols. This dataset not only lays a solid foundation to develop better parameterizations contributing to future modeling efforts but also supplies a basic parameter for tracing soil erosion, particle dynamics, and ocean surface process using 7Be and/or 210Pb.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2909–2922,Short summary
This publication summarizes measurements collected and datasets generated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University teams during the LAPSE-RATE campaign that took place in San Luis Valley, Colorado, during summer 2018. We provide an overview of the rotorcraft and offer insights into the payloads that were used. We describe the teams’ scientific goals, flight strategies, and the datasets, including a description of the measurement validation techniques applied.
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Qinren Shi, Mengshi Cui, Yu Lei, and Kebin He
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2895–2907,Short summary
Here we report the monthly anthropogenic pollutant emissions in China during the COVID-19 pandemic by using a bottom-up approach based on near-real-time data. The COVID lockdowns were estimated to have reduced China's emissions substantially between January and March in 2020, with the largest reduction in February. With the spread of coronavirus controlled, China's anthropogenic emissions rebounded in April and since then returned to levels comparable to those of 2019 through December 2020.
Rui Li, Lulu Cui, Yilong Zhao, Wenhui Zhou, and Hongbo Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2147–2163,Short summary
A unique monthly NO3− dataset at 0.25° resolution over China during 2005–2015 was developed by assimilating multi-source variables. The newly developed product featured an excellent cross-validation R2 value (0.78) and relatively lower RMSE (1.19 μg N m−3) and mean absolute error (MAE: 0.81 μg N m−3). The dataset also exhibited relatively robust performance at the spatial and temporal scales. The dataset over China could deepen knowledge of the status of N pollution in China.
Ethan R. Dale, Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Greg E. Bodeker, Leroy J. Bird, Gustavo Olivares, Guy Coulson, Elizabeth Somervell, Woodrow Pattinson, Jonathan Barte, Jan-Niklas Schmidt, Nariefa Abrahim, Adrian J. McDonald, and Peter Kuma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2053–2075,Short summary
MAPM is a project whose goal is to develop a method to infer particulate matter (PM) emissions maps from PM concentration measurements. In support of MAPM, we conducted a winter field campaign in New Zealand. In addition to two types of instruments measuring PM, an array of other meteorological sensors were deployed, measuring temperature and wind speed as well as probing the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere. In this article, we present the measurements taken during this campaign.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Michael Gauss, Marc von Hobe, and Christa A. Marandino
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2095–2110,Short summary
This study provides a marine emission inventory for the sulphur gases carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and carbon disulphide (CS2), derived from a numerical model of the surface ocean at monthly resolution for the period 2000–2019. Comparison with a database of seaborne observations reveals very good agreement for OCS. Interannual variability in both gases seems to be mainly driven by the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic matter present in surface water.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Huangjian Wu, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Duohong Chen, Yuepeng Pan, Tao Song, Fei Li, Haitao Zheng, Guanglin Jia, Miaomiao Lu, Lin Wu, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 529–570,Short summary
China's air pollution has changed substantially since 2013. Here we have developed a 6-year-long high-resolution air quality reanalysis dataset over China from 2013 to 2018 to illustrate such changes and to provide a basic dataset for relevant studies. Surface fields of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations are provided, and the evaluation results indicate that the reanalysis dataset has excellent performance in reproducing the magnitude and variation of air pollution in China.
Marvin Knapp, Ralph Kleinschek, Frank Hase, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Antje Inness, Jérôme Barré, Jochen Landgraf, Tobias Borsdorff, Stefan Kinne, and André Butz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 199–211,Short summary
We developed a shipborne variant of a remote sensing spectrometer for direct sunlight measurements of column-averaged atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The instrument was deployed on the research vessel Sonne during a longitudinal transect over the Pacific during June 2019. The campaign yielded more than 32 000 observations which compare excellently to atmospheric composition data from a state-of-the-art model (CAMS) and satellite observations (TROPOMI).
Cheng Chen, Oleg Dubovik, David Fuertes, Pavel Litvinov, Tatyana Lapyonok, Anton Lopatin, Fabrice Ducos, Yevgeny Derimian, Maurice Herman, Didier Tanré, Lorraine A. Remer, Alexei Lyapustin, Andrew M. Sayer, Robert C. Levy, N. Christina Hsu, Jacques Descloitres, Lei Li, Benjamin Torres, Yana Karol, Milagros Herrera, Marcos Herreras, Michael Aspetsberger, Moritz Wanzenboeck, Lukas Bindreiter, Daniel Marth, Andreas Hangler, and Christian Federspiel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3573–3620,Short summary
Aerosol products obtained from POLDER/PARASOL processed by the GRASP algorithm have been released. The entire archive of PARASOL/GRASP aerosol products is evaluated against AERONET and compared with MODIS (DT, DB and MAIAC), as well as PARASOL/Operational products. PARASOL/GRASP aerosol products provide spectral 443–1020 nm AOD correlating well with AERONET with a maximum bias of 0.02. Finally, GRASP shows capability to derive detailed spectral properties, including aerosol absorption.
Minghu Ding, Biao Tian, Michael C. B. Ashley, Davide Putero, Zhenxi Zhu, Lifan Wang, Shihai Yang, Chuanjin Li, and Cunde Xiao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3529–3544,Short summary
Dome A, is one of the harshest environments on Earth.To evaluate the characteristics of near-surface O3, continuous observations were carried out in 2016. The results showed different patterns between coastal and inland Antarctic areas that were characterized by high concentrations in cold seasons and at night. Short-range transport accounted for the O3 enhancement events (OEEs) during summer at DA, rather than efficient local production, which is consistent with previous studies.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Chengbo Wu, Ni-Bin Chang, and Jianping Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3067–3080,Short summary
PM2.5 data from the national air quality monitoring network in China suffered from significant inconsistency and inhomogeneity issues. To create a coherent PM2.5 concentration dataset to advance our understanding of haze pollution and its impact on weather and climate, we homogenized this PM2.5 dataset between 2015 and 2019 after filling in the data gaps. The homogenized PM2.5 data is found to better characterize the variation of aerosol in space and time compared to the original dataset.
Patrick Chazette, Julien Totems, Alexandre Baron, Cyrille Flamant, and Sandrine Bony
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2919–2936,Short summary
To characterize the trade-wind cumuli for climate change purposes, 20 ATR-42 flights were conducted over the tropical Atlantic, off the coast of Barbados from 23 January to 13 February 2020. These flights were conducted as part of the international EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of cloud–circulation coupling in climate) field campaign. A new sampling approach was applied, consisting in using a sidewards-staring lidar. The data are now made available to the international scientific community.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Henri Diémoz, Anna Maria Siani, Gregor Hülsen, and Julian Gröbner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2787–2810,Short summary
In this study we discuss the procedures and the technical aspects which ensure the high quality of the measurements of the global solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance performed by a Bentham spectroradiometer located at Aosta–Saint-Christophe (north-western Alps), Italy. This particular instrument is the reference for the Aosta Valley UV monitoring network, which is the first UV monitoring network in Italy. The final spectra constitute one of the most accurate datasets globally.
Mahesh Kovilakam, Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, and Luis Millán
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2607–2634,Short summary
A robust stratospheric aerosol climatology is important as many global climate models (GCMs) make use of observed aerosol properties to prescribe aerosols in the stratosphere. Here, we present version 2.0 of the GloSSAC data set in which a new methodology is used for the post-2005 data that improves the quality of data in the lower stratosphere, which includes an improved 1020 nm extinction. Additionally, size information from multiwavelength measurements of SAGE III/ISS is provided.
Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, Henk Eskes, Folkert Boersma, Helen Worden, Nathaniel Livesey, Vivienne H. Payne, Kengo Sudo, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, and Koji Ogochi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2223–2259,Short summary
This study presents the results from the Tropospheric Chemistry Reanalysis version 2 (TCR-2) for 2005–2018 obtained from the assimilation of multiple satellite measurements of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the OMI, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, TES, MLS, and MOPITT instruments. The evaluation results demonstrate the capability of the reanalysis products to improve understanding of the processes controlling variations in atmospheric composition, including long-term changes in air quality and emissions.
Dalei Hao, Ghassem R. Asrar, Yelu Zeng, Qing Zhu, Jianguang Wen, Qing Xiao, and Min Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2209–2221,Short summary
We adopted machine-learning models to generate the first global land products of SW–PAR based on DSCOVR/EPIC data. Our products are consistent with ground-based observations, capture the spatiotemporal patterns well and accurately track substantial diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations in SW–PAR. Our products provide a valuable alternative for solar photovoltaic applications and can be used to improve our understanding of the diurnal cycles of terrestrial water, carbon and energy fluxes.
Kirk Knobelspiesse, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Christine Bradley, Carol Bruegge, Brian Cairns, Gao Chen, Jacek Chowdhary, Anthony Cook, Antonio Di Noia, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, David J. Diner, Richard Ferrare, Guangliang Fu, Meng Gao, Michael Garay, Johnathan Hair, David Harper, Gerard van Harten, Otto Hasekamp, Mark Helmlinger, Chris Hostetler, Olga Kalashnikova, Andrew Kupchock, Karla Longo De Freitas, Hal Maring, J. Vanderlei Martins, Brent McBride, Matthew McGill, Ken Norlin, Anin Puthukkudy, Brian Rheingans, Jeroen Rietjens, Felix C. Seidel, Arlindo da Silva, Martijn Smit, Snorre Stamnes, Qian Tan, Sebastian Val, Andrzej Wasilewski, Feng Xu, Xiaoguang Xu, and John Yorks
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2183–2208,Short summary
The Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar (ACEPOL) field campaign is a resource for the next generation of spaceborne multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) and lidar missions. Conducted in the fall of 2017 from the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, four MAP instruments and two lidars were flown on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft over a variety of scene types and ground assets. Data are freely available to the public and useful for algorithm development and testing.
Christopher J. Smith, Ryan J. Kramer, and Adriana Sima
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2157–2168,Short summary
Radiative kernels allow efficient diagnosis of climate feedbacks and radiative adjustments to an external forcing using standard climate model output. We present a radiative kernel derived from the UK Met Office's HadGEM3-GA7.1 climate model. We show that a highly resolved stratosphere is important for correctly diagnosing the stratospheric temperature adjustment to greenhouse gas forcings and, by extension, the instantaneous radiative forcing.
Alexandre Caseiro, Berit Gehrke, Gernot Rücker, David Leimbach, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2137–2155,Short summary
Gas flaring is a global phenomenon with local, regional, and global environmental impacts. The present knowledge on gas flaring activity and emissions lacks consistency. Satellite remote sensing offers the possibility of global and consistent coverage of gas flares. In this work, we present the application of a previously published method to the detection and characterisation of gas flares globally. We derive the volumes of gas flared and their respective black carbon emissions.
Caroline A. Poulsen, Gregory R. McGarragh, Gareth E. Thomas, Martin Stengel, Matthew W. Christensen, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, Elisa Carboni, Rainer Hollmann, and Roy G. Grainger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2121–2135,Short summary
We have created a satellite cloud and radiation climatology from the ATSR-2 and AATSR on board ERS-2 and Envisat, respectively, which spans the period 1995–2012. The data set was created using a combination of optimal estimation and neural net techniques. The data set was created as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative program. The data set has been compared with active CALIOP lidar measurements and compared with MAC-LWP AND CERES-EBAF measurements and is shown to have good performance.
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Ting Wang, Denghui Ji, Corinne Vigouroux, Nicolas Kumps, Gengchen Wang, Martine De Mazière, and Pucai Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1679–1696,Short summary
The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2), CH4 (XCH4) and CO (XCO) have been measured with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Xianghe (39.75° N, 116.96° E, north China) since June 2018. The instrumental setup follows the guidelines of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The site and the FTIR system are described in this study. The FTIR measurements are discussed and have been applied for satellite validations.
Nicolas Bellouin, Will Davies, Keith P. Shine, Johannes Quaas, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Piers M. Forster, Chris Smith, Lindsay Lee, Leighton Regayre, Guy Brasseur, Natalia Sudarchikova, Idir Bouarar, Olivier Boucher, and Gunnar Myhre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1649–1677,Short summary
Quantifying the imbalance in the Earth's energy budget caused by human activities is important to understand and predict climate changes. This study presents new estimates of the imbalance caused by changes in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and particles of pollution. Over the period 2003–2017, the overall imbalance has been positive, indicating that the climate system has gained energy and will warm further.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Stefanie Kremser, Larry W. Thomason, and Leroy J. Bird
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1419–1435,Short summary
Since space-based measurements of stratospheric composition started, a plethora of
generally acceptedscreening methods have been developed and tailored to each measurement system and to each anticipated use of the data. These methods are often inconsistent, ad hoc, and untraceable and are seldom revised even after significant revisions to the data themselves. Here we developed new and simplified SAGE II ozone data usage rules that are based on how the measurements were made.
Max R. McGillen, William P. L. Carter, Abdelwahid Mellouki, John J. Orlando, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, and Timothy J. Wallington
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1203–1216,Short summary
The gas-phase reactions of organic compounds in the atmosphere are a crucial step in the degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and the formation of secondary pollutants. This work is an attempt to produce a dataset that is as comprehensive as possible regarding the multitude of chemicals that react in the atmosphere. We find that we are able to make substantial improvements upon previous compendia and that this progress will help improve our understanding of atmospheric chemistry.
Kaisa Lakkala, Margit Aun, Ricardo Sanchez, Germar Bernhard, Eija Asmi, Outi Meinander, Fernando Nollas, Gregor Hülsen, Tomi Karppinen, Veijo Aaltonen, Antti Arola, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 947–960,Short summary
A GUV multi-filter radiometer was set up at Marambio, 64° S, 56° W, Antarctica, in 2017. The instrument continuously measures ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible (VIS) radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The measurements are designed for providing high-quality long-term time series that can be used to assess the impact of global climate change in the Antarctic region. The data from the last 5 d are plotted and updated daily.
Anna Karion, William Callahan, Michael Stock, Steve Prinzivalli, Kristal R. Verhulst, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Israel Lopez-Coto, and James Whetstone
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 699–717,Short summary
Our paper presents atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the northeastern United States. We also describe the collection, quality control, and uncertainty estimation methods associated with the observations. The network is composed of 23 tower-based stations, including a dense sub-network in the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Maryland, urban areas. Observations can be used to assess greenhouse gas emissions from these cities and regions.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Tia R. Scarpelli, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Kelly Rose, Lucy Romeo, John R. Worden, and Greet Janssens-Maenhout
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 563–575,Short summary
Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is emitted through the exploitation of oil, gas, and coal resources, and many efforts to reduce emissions have targeted these sources. We have created a global inventory of oil, gas, and coal methane emissions based on country reporting to the United Nations. The inventory can be used along with satellite observations of methane to better understand the contribution of these sources to global emissions and to identify potential biases in emissions reporting.
André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Christof Lüpkes, Matthias Buschmann, Heiko Bozem, Dmitri Chechin, Hans-Christian Clemen, Régis Dupuy, Olliver Eppers, Jörg Hartmann, Andreas Herber, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Franziska Köllner, Mario Mech, Stephan Mertes, Roland Neuber, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Johannes Stapf, and Marco Zanatta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1853–1881,Short summary
During the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, two research aircraft (Polar 5 and 6) jointly performed 22 research flights over the transition zone between open ocean and closed sea ice. The data set combines remote sensing and in situ measurement of cloud, aerosol, and trace gas properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes, which will be used to study Arctic boundary layer and mid-level clouds and their role in Arctic amplification.
Bo Zheng, Frederic Chevallier, Yi Yin, Philippe Ciais, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Merritt N. Deeter, Robert J. Parker, Yilong Wang, Helen M. Worden, and Yuanhong Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1411–1436,Short summary
We use a multi-species atmospheric Bayesian inversion approach to attribute satellite-observed atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) variations to its sources and sinks in order to achieve a full closure of the global CO budget during 2000–2017. We identify a declining trend in the global CO budget since 2000, driven by reduced anthropogenic emissions in the US, Europe, and China, as well as by reduced biomass burning emissions globally, especially in equatorial Africa.
Gijs de Boer, Darielle Dexheimer, Fan Mei, John Hubbe, Casey Longbottom, Peter J. Carroll, Monty Apple, Lexie Goldberger, David Oaks, Justin Lapierre, Michael Crume, Nathan Bernard, Matthew D. Shupe, Amy Solomon, Janet Intrieri, Dale Lawrence, Abhiram Doddi, Donna J. Holdridge, Michael Hubbell, Mark D. Ivey, and Beat Schmid
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1349–1362,Short summary
This paper provides a summary of observations collected at Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments (POPEYE) campaign. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) is a multi-year concentrated effort to improve forecasting capabilities at high latitudes across a variety of timescales. POPEYE observations include atmospheric data collected using unmanned aircraft, tethered balloons, and radiosondes, made in parallel with routine measurements at the site.
Kevin R. Gurney, Risa Patarasuk, Jianming Liang, Yang Song, Darragh O'Keeffe, Preeti Rao, James R. Whetstone, Riley M. Duren, Annmarie Eldering, and Charles Miller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1309–1335,Short summary
Hestia Projectis an effort to provide bottom-up fossil fuel (FFCO2) emissions at the urban scale with building, street, and hourly space–time resolution. Here, we report on the latest urban area for which a Hestia estimate has been completed – the Los Angeles megacity. We provide a complete description of the methods used to build the Hestia FFCO2 emissions data product and general analysis of the numerical results.
Ryan Bares, Logan Mitchell, Ben Fasoli, David R. Bowling, Douglas Catharine, Maria Garcia, Byron Eng, Jim Ehleringer, and John C. Lin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1291–1308,Short summary
We overview two near-surface trace gas measurement networks with the aim of describing procedures, locations, and data structure with sufficient detail to serve as an in-depth method reference. Additionally, we developed a novel method for quantifying measurement uncertainty produced by these networks providing insight into appropriate applications of the data and differences in data collection methods. This uncertainty metric is broadly applicable to many trace gas and air quality datasets.
Tomás Sherwen, Rosie J. Chance, Liselotte Tinel, Daniel Ellis, Mat J. Evans, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1239–1262,Short summary
Iodine plays an important role in the Earth system, as a nutrient to the biosphere and by changing the concentrations of climate and air-quality species. However, there are uncertainties on the magnitude of iodine’s role, and a key uncertainty is our understanding of iodide in the global sea-surface. Here we take a data-driven approach using a machine learning algorithm to convert a sparse set of sea-surface iodide observations into a spatially and temporally resolved dataset for use in models.
Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Edwin Schaaf, Frank Dentener, Peter Bergamaschi, Valerio Pagliari, Jos G. J. Olivier, Jeroen A. H. W. Peters, John A. van Aardenne, Suvi Monni, Ulrike Doering, A. M. Roxana Petrescu, Efisio Solazzo, and Gabriel D. Oreggioni
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 959–1002,Short summary
In support of the Paris Agreement, EDGARv4.3.2 provides global annual estimates, broken down into IPCC-compliant source-sector levels, from 1970 to 2012. The anthropogenic CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated bottom up with international statistics and emission factors for 226 countries and spatially distributed. EDGARv4.3.2 is input for the top-down modelling of the Global Carbon Project and EU policy-making, needing GHG emission estimates for each country at the climate negotiations.
Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Beata Bukosa, Masataka Ajiro, Akihide Kamei, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 935–946,Short summary
We present ground-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide columns from a portable spectrometer taken in a semiarid region of Australia. We compared these measurements to space-based retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and calibrated them against a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instrument to ascertain a retrieval bias. We also present the unique opportunities that Central Australia could offer in the context of satellite product validation.
Mauro Rubino, David M. Etheridge, David P. Thornton, Russell Howden, Colin E. Allison, Roger J. Francey, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Darren A. Spencer, Mark A. J. Curran, Tas D. van Ommen, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 473–492,Short summary
The scientific community uses numerical models to predict future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming. This study presents the history of atmospheric concentration of the major greenhouse gases over the last 2000 years measured in ice core bubbles from the site of Law Dome (East Antarctica). The associated dataset is useful to test climate models and help provide accurate predictions of future climate change.
Shawn P. Urbanski, Matt C. Reeves, Rachel E. Corley, Robin P. Silverstein, and Wei Min Hao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2241–2274,Short summary
Wildfires are a major source of air pollutants in the US that trigger pollution episodes and challenge air regulators’ efforts to meet air quality standards. Improved wildfire emission estimates are needed to quantify air pollution from fires to guide decision-making activities related to the control of anthropogenic sources. To address the need of air regulators for improved wildfire emission estimates, we developed an inventory of daily US wildfire pollutant emissions for 2003–2015.
Joshua L. Laughner, Qindan Zhu, and Ronald C. Cohen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2069–2095,Short summary
This paper describes the upgrade of the BErkeley High Resolution (BEHR) NO2 retrieval from versions 2.1C to 3.0B. This retrieval measures NO2 over the continental US using input data at higher spatial and temporal resolution than global retrievals. We analyze how each part of the upgrade affected the measured NO2. Most interestingly, we find that using NO2 profiles at daily (rather than monthly) time resolution does lead to differences in multi-month averages for regions affected by lightning.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
M. Louise Jeffery, Johannes Gütschow, Robert Gieseke, and Ronja Gebel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1427–1438,Short summary
Developed countries are required to report detailed greenhouse gas emissions data to the UN on an annual basis. The reporting tables are complex, do not fit well with existing hierarchical reporting guidelines, and are not machine-readable. We present a processed version of the reported data in a consistent hierarchy, and in a format that is machine-readable and easy-to-use. The emissions data are also aggregated into
basketsof gases using global warming equivalency metrics from IPCC reports.
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The detection and monitoring of volcanic clouds are important for aviation management, climate and weather forecasts. We present in this paper the first comprehensive archive collecting spatial and temporal information about volcanic clouds generated by the 11 largest eruptions of this century. We provide a complete set of state-of-the-art data allowing the development and testing of new algorithms contributing to improve the accuracy of the estimation of fundamental volcanic cloud parameters.
The detection and monitoring of volcanic clouds are important for aviation management, climate...