Articles | Volume 12, issue 3
Data description paper 14 Aug 2020
Data description paper | 14 Aug 2020
Reanalysis of vertical mixing in mesocosm experiments: PeECE III and KOSMOS 2013
Sabine Mathesius et al.
No articles found.
Britta Munkes, Ulrike Löptien, and Heiner Dietze
Biogeosciences, 18, 2347–2378,Short summary
Cyanobacteria blooms can strongly aggravate eutrophication problems of water bodies. Their controls are, however, not comprehensively understood, which impedes effective management and protection plans. Here we review the current understanding of cyanobacteria blooms. Juxtaposition of respective field and laboratory studies with state-of-the-art mathematical models reveals substantial uncertainty associated with nutrient demands, grazing, and death of cyanobacteria.
Mariana Hill Cruz, Iris Kriest, Yonss Saranga José, Rainer Kiko, Helena Hauss, and Andreas Oschlies
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In this study we use a regional biogeochemical model of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean to implicitly simulate the effect that fluctuations in populations of small pelagic fish, such as anchovy and sardine, may have on the biogeochemistry of the Northern Humboldt Current System. To do so, we vary the zooplankton mortality in the model, under the assumption that these fishes eat zooplankton. We also evaluate the model for the first time against mesozooplankton observations.
Chia-Te Chien, Markus Pahlow, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4691–4712,Short summary
We demonstrate sensitivities of tracers to parameters of a new optimality-based plankton–ecosystem model (OPEM) in the UVic-ESCM. We find that changes in phytoplankton subsistence nitrogen quota strongly impact the nitrogen inventory, nitrogen fixation, and elemental stoichiometry of ordinary phytoplankton and diazotrophs. We introduce a new likelihood-based metric for model calibration, and it shows the capability of constraining globally averaged oxygen, nitrate, and DIC concentrations.
Markus Pahlow, Chia-Te Chien, Lionel A. Arteaga, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4663–4690,Short summary
The stoichiometry of marine biotic processes is important for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and hence the global climate. We replace a simplistic, fixed-stoichiometry plankton module in an Earth system model with an optimal-regulation model with variable stoichiometry. Our model compares better to the observed carbon transfer from the surface to depth and surface nutrient distributions. This work could aid our ability to describe and project the role of marine ecosystems in the Earth system.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, Andrew H. MacDougall, Michael Eby, Nesha Wright, Katrin J. Meissner, Andreas Oschlies, Andreas Schmittner, Alexander J. MacIsaac, H. Damon Matthews, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4183–4204,Short summary
In this paper, we evaluate the newest version of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM 2.10). Combining recent model developments as a joint effort, this version is to be used in the next phase of model intercomparison and climate change studies. The UVic ESCM 2.10 is capable of reproducing changes in historical temperature and carbon fluxes well. Additionally, the model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional distribution of many ocean tracers.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Chris Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Iris Kriest, Paul Kähler, Wolfgang Koeve, Karin Kvale, Volkmar Sauerland, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 17, 3057–3082,Short summary
Constants of global biogeochemical ocean models are often tuned
by handto match observations of nutrients or oxygen. We investigate the effect of this tuning by optimising six constants of a global biogeochemical model, simulated in five different offline circulations. Optimal values for three constants adjust to distinct features of the circulation applied and can afterwards be swapped among the circulations, without losing too much of the model's fit to observed quantities.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Ulrike Löptien and Heiner Dietze
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Nitrogen fixation, conducted by specific microorganisms, makes molecular nitrogen available for marine biota. By this means this process exerts major control on the growth of algae in the ocean. This study compares two contemporary paradigms, anticipating the ecological niche of N-fixing organisms in an Earth System Model. We illustrate respective uncertainties in climate projections and suggest specific observations to advance the reliable representation of nitrogen fixation in numerical models.
Olaf Duteil, Ivy Frenger, and Julia Getzlaff
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
Tropical oxygen minimum zones expanded during the last decades. One of the process responsible of the supply of oxygen in the eastern tropical regions is the transport of oxygen-rich water masses originating from the high latitudes. We highlight that most of current climate numerical models present strong biases : high latitude and tropical oxygen levels are too low and the deep currents systems are too weak. These biases need to be reduced to perform reliable projections in a changing climate.
Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, and Julia Getzlaff
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 71–97,Short summary
We present a new near-global coupled biogeochemical ocean-circulation model configuration of the Southern Ocean. The configuration features both a relatively equilibrated oceanic carbon inventory and an explicit representation of mesoscale eddies. In this paper, we document the model configuration and showcase its potential to tackle research questions such as the Southern Ocean carbon uptake dynamics on decadal timescales.
Fabian Reith, Wolfgang Koeve, David P. Keller, Julia Getzlaff, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 711–727,Short summary
This modeling study is the first one to look at the suitability and collateral effects of direct CO2 injection into the deep ocean as a means to bridge the gap between CO2 emissions and climate impacts of an intermediate CO2 emission scenario and a temperature target on a millennium timescale, such as the 1.5 °C climate target of the Paris Agreement.
Tronje P. Kemena, Angela Landolfi, Andreas Oschlies, Klaus Wallmann, and Andrew W. Dale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 539–553,Short summary
Oceanic deoxygenation is driven by climate change in several areas of the global ocean. Measurements indicate that ocean volumes with very low oxygen levels expand, with consequences for marine organisms and fishery. We found climate-change-driven phosphorus (P) input in the ocean is hereby an important driver for deoxygenation on longer timescales with effects in the next millennia.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Yonss Saranga José, Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, and Andreas Oschlies
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In situ observations along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts have exhibited variability in the water column oxygen concentration. This variability, which is attributed to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), might have implication on the vertical extension of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) oxygen minimum zone. Here using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, we provide new insights into how ENSO variability affects the vertical extension of the oxygen-poor waters of the ETSP.
Robinson Hordoir, Lars Axell, Anders Höglund, Christian Dieterich, Filippa Fransner, Matthias Gröger, Ye Liu, Per Pemberton, Semjon Schimanke, Helen Andersson, Patrik Ljungemyr, Petter Nygren, Saeed Falahat, Adam Nord, Anette Jönsson, Iréne Lake, Kristofer Döös, Magnus Hieronymus, Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, Ivan Kuznetsov, Antti Westerlund, Laura Tuomi, and Jari Haapala
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 363–386,Short summary
Nemo-Nordic is a regional ocean model based on a community code (NEMO). It covers the Baltic and the North Sea area and is used as a forecast model by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. It is also used as a research tool by scientists of several countries to study, for example, the effects of climate change on the Baltic and North seas. Using such a model permits us to understand key processes in this coastal ecosystem and how such processes will change in a future climate.
Olaf Duteil, Andreas Oschlies, and Claus W. Böning
Biogeosciences, 15, 7111–7126,Short summary
Oxygen-depleted regions of the Pacific Ocean are currently expanding, which is threatening marine habitats. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the decrease in the intensity of the trade winds and the subsequent slowdown of the oceanic currents lead to a reduction in oxygen supply. Our study suggests that the prevailing positive conditions of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation since 1975, a major source of natural variability, may explain a significant part of the current deoxygenation.
Marine Bretagnon, Aurélien Paulmier, Véronique Garçon, Boris Dewitte, Séréna Illig, Nathalie Leblond, Laurent Coppola, Fernando Campos, Federico Velazco, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Andreas Oschlies, J. Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Helmut Maske, Oscar Vergara, Ivonne Montes, Philippe Martinez, Edgardo Carrasco, Jacques Grelet, Olivier Desprez-De-Gesincourt, Christophe Maes, and Lionel Scouarnec
Biogeosciences, 15, 5093–5111,Short summary
In oxygen minimum zone, the fate of the organic matter is a key question as the low oxygen condition would preserve the OM and thus enhance the biological carbon pump while the high microbial activity would foster the remineralisation and the greenhouse gases emission. To investigate this paradigm, sediment traps were deployed off Peru. We pointed out the influence of the oxygenation as well as the organic matter quantity and quality on the carbon transfer efficiency in the oxygen minimum zone.
Volkmar Sauerland, Ulrike Löptien, Claudine Leonhard, Andreas Oschlies, and Anand Srivastav
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1181–1198,Short summary
We present a concept to prove that a parametric model is well calibrated, i.e., that changes of its free parameters cannot lead to a much better model–data misfit anymore. The intention is motivated by the fact that calibrating global biogeochemical ocean models is important for assessment and inter-model comparison but computationally expensive.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 15–31,Short summary
The Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method applies statistical information to systematically select, transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the Earth system state. We show that due to changing climate forcing, such as anthropogenic climate change, the ad hoc assessment indicators might need to be reevaluated. Within an iterative process, this method would allow us to select scientifically consistent and societally relevant assessment indicators.
Karin F. Kvale, Samar Khatiwala, Heiner Dietze, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2425–2445,Short summary
Computer models of ocean biology and chemistry are becoming increasingly complex, and thus more expensive, to run. One solution is to approximate the behaviour of the ocean physics and store that information outside of the model. That
offlineinformation can then be used to calculate a steady-state solution from the model's biology and chemistry, without waiting for a traditional
onlineintegration to complete. We show this offline method reproduces online results and is 100 times faster.
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Daniela Niemeyer, Tronje P. Kemena, Katrin J. Meissner, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 357–367,
Maria Moreno de Castro, Markus Schartau, and Kai Wirtz
Biogeosciences, 14, 1883–1901,Short summary
Observations from different mesocosms exposed to the same treatment level typically show variability that hinders the detection of potential treatments effects. To unearth relevant sources of variability, we developed and performed a data-based model analysis that simulates uncertainty propagation. With this method we investigate the divergence in the outcomes due to the amplification of differences in experimentally unresolved ecological factors within replicates of the same treatment level.
Shubham Krishna and Markus Schartau
Biogeosciences, 14, 1857–1882,Short summary
This study combines experimental data with results from numerical modelling. Data of an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment are used to constrain parameter values of a plankton model. Three different intensities of calcification are resolved with ensembles of optimised model results. Observed variability in data can be well explained by these ensemble model solutions. The simulated ocean acidification effect on calcification is small compared to the spread of the ensemble model solutions.
Markus Schartau, Philip Wallhead, John Hemmings, Ulrike Löptien, Iris Kriest, Shubham Krishna, Ben A. Ward, Thomas Slawig, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1647–1701,Short summary
Plankton models have become an integral part in marine ecosystem and biogeochemical research. These models differ in complexity and in their number of parameters. How values are assigned to parameters is essential. An overview of major methodologies of parameter estimation is provided. Aspects of parameter identification in the literature are diverse. Individual findings could be better synthesized if notation and expertise of the different scientific communities would be reasonably merged.
Heiner Dietze, Julia Getzlaff, and Ulrike Löptien
Biogeosciences, 14, 1561–1576,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is a sink for anthropogenic carbon. Projections of how this sink will evolve in an ever-warming climate are based on coupled ocean-circulation–biogeochemical models. This study compares uncertainties of simulated oceanic carbon uptake associated to physical (eddy) parameterizations with those associated wtih (unconstrained) supply of bioavailable iron supply to the surface ocean.
Yonss Saranga José, Heiner Dietze, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1349–1364,Short summary
This study aims to investigate the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns observed within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru. Two simulated anticyclonic eddies with opposing subsurface nitrate concentrations were analysed. The results show that diverse nutrient patterns within anticyclonic eddies are related to the presence of water mass from different origins at different depths, responding to variations in depth of the circulation strength at the edge of the eddy.
Iris Kriest, Volkmar Sauerland, Samar Khatiwala, Anand Srivastav, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 127–154,Short summary
Global biogeochemical ocean models are subject to a high level of parametric uncertainty. This may be of consequence for their skill with respect to accurately describing features of the present ocean and their sensitivity to possible environmental changes. We present the first results from a framework that combines an offline biogeochemical tracer transport model with an estimation of distribution algorithm, calibrating six biogeochemical model parameters against observed oxygen and nutrients.
Fabian Reith, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 797–812,
Bei Su, Markus Pahlow, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 13, 4985–5001,Short summary
Previously identified positive feedbacks within the nitrogen cycle in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) have challenged our understanding of the observed dynamics and stability of the nitrogen inventory. We present a box model analysis of the biological and biogeochemical relations in the ETSP among nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration. Our results suggest dominant stabilizing feedbacks tending to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory in the ETSP.
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2929–2957,Short summary
We use a global model of oceanic P, N, and O2 cycles to investigate consequences of uncertainties in description of organic matter sinking, remineralization, denitrification, and N2-Fixation. After all biogeochemical and physical processes have been spun-up into a dynamically consistent steady-state, particle sinking and oxidant affinities of aerobic and anaerobic remineralization determine the extent of oxygen minimum zones, global nitrogen fluxes, and the oceanic nitrogen inventory.
W. Koeve, H. Wagner, P. Kähler, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2079–2094,Short summary
The natural abundance of 14C in CO2 dissolved in seawater is often used to evaluate circulation and age in the ocean and in ocean models. We study limitations of using natural 14C to determine the time elapsed since water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C age is dominated by two equally important components, (1) the time component of circulation and (2) the “preformed 14C-age”. Considering preformed 14C-age is critical for an assessment of circulation in models.
L. Nickelsen, D. P. Keller, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1357–1381,Short summary
In this paper we find that including the marine cycle of the phytoplankton nutrient iron in a global climate model improves the agreement between observed and simulated nutrient concentrations in the ocean and that a better description of the source of iron from the sediment to the ocean is more important than that of iron-containing dust deposition. Finally, we find that the response of the iron cycle to climate warming affects the phytoplankton growth and nutrient cycles.
B. Su, M. Pahlow, H. Wagner, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 12, 1113–1130,Short summary
A box model of the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone suggests that anaerobic water-column remineralization rates have to be slower than aerobic remineralization in order to explain the relatively high values of observed nitrate concentrations. Lateral oxygen supply sufficient to oxidize about one-fifth of the export production is required to prevent an anoxic deep ocean. Under these circumstances, the region can be a net source of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding ocean.
W. Koeve, O. Duteil, A. Oschlies, P. Kähler, and J. Segschneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2393–2408,
A. E. F. Prowe, M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 11, 3397–3407,
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 8401–8422,
O. Duteil, W. Koeve, A. Oschlies, D. Bianchi, E. Galbraith, I. Kriest, and R. Matear
Biogeosciences, 10, 7723–7738,
C. J. Somes, A. Oschlies, and A. Schmittner
Biogeosciences, 10, 5889–5910,
V. Cocco, F. Joos, M. Steinacher, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, C. Heinze, J. Orr, A. Oschlies, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra
Biogeosciences, 10, 1849–1868,
A. Landolfi, H. Dietze, W. Koeve, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1351–1363,
M. El Jarbi, J. Rückelt, T. Slawig, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1169–1182,
L. M. Zamora, A. Oschlies, H. W. Bange, K. B. Huebert, J. D. Craig, A. Kock, and C. R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 9, 5007–5022,
Related subject area
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Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Filippo Nelli, Luke G. Bennetts, Katrin G. Hessner, Keith MacHutchon, Konny Reichert, Lotfi Aouf, Salman Khan, and Alessandro Toffoli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1189–1209,Short summary
The Southern Ocean has a profound impact on the Earth's climate system. Its strong winds, intense currents, and fierce waves are critical components of the air–sea interface. The scarcity of observations in this remote region hampers the comprehension of fundamental physics, the accuracy of satellite sensors, and the capabilities of prediction models. To fill this gap, a unique data set of simultaneous observations of winds, surface currents, and ocean waves in the Southern Ocean is presented.
Estrella Olmedo, Cristina González-Haro, Nina Hoareau, Marta Umbert, Verónica González-Gambau, Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, and Antonio Turiel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 857–888,Short summary
After more than 10 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) European mission is still a unique, high-quality instrument for providing soil moisture over land and sea surface salinity (SSS) over the oceans. At the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC), a new reprocessing of 9 years (2011–2019) of global SMOS SSS maps has been generated. This work presents the algorithms used in the generation of the BEC global SMOS SSS product v2.0, as well as an extensive quality assessment.
Tiago S. Dotto, Mauricio M. Mata, Rodrigo Kerr, and Carlos A. E. Garcia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 671–696,Short summary
A novel seasonal three-dimensional high-resolution hydrographic gridded data set for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (NAP) based on measurements obtained from 1990–2019 by the ship-based Argo profilers and tagged marine mammals is presented. The main oceanographic features of the NAP are well represented, with the final product having many advantages compared to low-resolution climatologies. In addition, new information on the regional water mass pathways and their characteristics is unveiled.
Jonathan M. Lilly and Paula Pérez-Brunius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 645–669,Short summary
A large set of historical surface drifter data from the Gulf of Mexico are processed and assimilated into a spatially and temporally gridded dataset called GulfFlow, forming a significant resource for studying the circulation and variability in this important region. The uniformly processed historical drifter data interpolated to hourly resolution from all publicly available sources are also distributed in a separate product. A greatly improved map of the mean circulation is presented.
Michele Mossa, Elvira Armenio, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Maria Francesca Bruno, Diana De Padova, and Francesca De Serio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 599–607,Short summary
Two fixed stations have been installed in the Mar Grande and Mar Piccolo of Taranto, one of the most complex marine ecosystem models. Although typical trends in the water circulation and exchanges have been studied by models developed for the seas of Taranto, more monitoring actions and numerical modelling are still necessary to better understand the most significant hydrodynamic–biological variability in this coastal basin. The results of this study can be applied to similar zones.
Jaime Pitarch, Marco Bellacicco, Salvatore Marullo, and Hendrik J. van der Woerd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 481–490,Short summary
Ocean monitoring is crucial to understand the regular seasonality and the drift induced by climate change. Satellites offer a possibility to monitor the complete surface of the Earth within a few days with a harmonized methodology, reaching resolutions of few kilometres. We revisit traditional ship survey optical parameters such as the
Secchi disk depthand the
Forel–Ule indexand derive them from satellite observations. Our time series is 21 years long and has global coverage.
Carine G. van der Boog, J. Otto Koetsier, Henk A. Dijkstra, Julie D. Pietrzak, and Caroline A. Katsman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 43–61,Short summary
Thermohaline staircases are stepped structures in the ocean that contain enhanced diapycnal salt and heat transport. In this study, we present a global dataset of thermohaline staircases derived from 487 493 observations of Argo profiling floats and Ice-Tethered Profilers using a novel detection algorithm.
Frédéric Cyr and Peter S. Galbraith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Climate indices are often regarded as simple ways to relate the mean environmental conditions to the state of an ecosystem. Such indices are often used to inform fisheries scientists and managers or used fisheries resources assessment and ecosystem studies. The Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) climate index aims to describe the environmental conditions on the NL shelf and in the Northwest Atlantic as a whole. It consists of annual normalized anomalies of 10 subindices relevant for the NL shelf.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwest tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Dagmar Hainbucher, Marta Álvarez, Blanca Astray Uceda, Giancarlo Bachi, Vanessa Cardin, Paolo Celentano, Spyros Chaikalis, Maria del Mar Chaves Montero, Giuseppe Civitarese, Noelia M. Fajar, Francois Fripiat, Lennart Gerke, Alexandra Gogou, Elisa F. Guallart, Birte Gülk, Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Nico Lange, Andrea Rochner, Chiara Santinelli, Tobias Steinhoff, Toste Tanhua, Lidia Urbini, Dimitrios Velaoras, Fabian Wolf, and Andreas Welsch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2747–2763,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea (MSM72, March 2018). The main objective of the cruise was to contribute to the understanding of long-term changes and trends in physical and biogeochemical parameters, such as the anthropogenic carbon uptake, and further assess the hydrographical situation after the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Transients. Multidisciplinary measurements were conducted on a predominantly zonal section throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
Ricardo A. Scrosati, Julius A. Ellrich, and Matthew J. Freeman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2695–2703,Short summary
We measured temperature every half hour during a period of 5.5 years (2014–2019) at nine wave-exposed rocky intertidal locations along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We summarize the main properties of this data set by focusing on location-wise values of daily maximum and minimum temperature and daily SST.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jingan Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Dieter Piepenburg, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Dave Stroud G., Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Jorien E. Vonk, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes, such as primary production, are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Sylvain Watelet, Øystein Skagseth, Vidar S. Lien, Helge Sagen, Øivind Østensen, Viktor Ivshin, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2447–2457,Short summary
We present here a seasonal atlas of the Barents Sea including both temperature and salinity for the period 1965–2016. This atlas is curated using several in situ data sources interpolated thanks to the tool DIVA minimizing the expected errors. The results show a recent "Atlantification" of the Barents Sea, i.e., a general increase in both temperature and salinity, while its density remains stable. The atlas is made freely accessible (https://doi.org/10.21335/NMDC-2058021735).
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Guillaume Dodet, Jean-François Piolle, Yves Quilfen, Saleh Abdalla, Mickaël Accensi, Fabrice Ardhuin, Ellis Ash, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Christine Gommenginger, Gwendal Marechal, Marcello Passaro, Graham Quartly, Justin Stopa, Ben Timmermans, Ian Young, Paolo Cipollini, and Craig Donlon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1929–1951,Short summary
Sea state data are of major importance for climate studies, marine engineering, safety at sea and coastal management. However, long-term sea state datasets are sparse and not always consistent. The CCI is a program of the European Space Agency, whose objective is to realize the full potential of global Earth Observation archives in order to contribute to the ECV database. This paper presents the implementation of the first release of the Sea State CCI dataset.
Sebastien Donnet, Pascal Lazure, Andry Ratsimandresy, and Guoqi Han
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1877–1896,Short summary
Fortune Bay (Canada) is a large fjord-like embayment that hosts aquaculture (salmon) industries, lobster fisheries and wild salmon runs. To better understand the ecological pressure of human-related activities, an important oceanographic program was undertaken to provide basic knowledge of the physical environment. The program ran for 2 consecutive years and successfully obtained data on water temperature, salinity, oxygen, ocean currents, tides and meteorological forcing (e.g. wind).
Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1711–1723,Short summary
To better understand ocean dynamics and assess their responses and feedbacks to natural and anthropogenic pressures, 3D ocean circulation estimates are needed. Here we present the OMEGA3D product, an observation-based time series (1993–2018) of global 3D ocean currents developed within the European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service. OMEGA3D provides vertical velocities – an observational barrier due to their small intensity – and full horizontal velocities down to 1500 m depth.
Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Bernard Gentili, David Antoine, and David Doxaran
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1697–1709,Short summary
Light is a key ocean variable shaping the composition of benthic and pelagic communities by controlling the three-dimensional distribution of primary producers. It also plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. We provide a continuous monthly data set of the global distribution of light reaching the seabed. It is 4 times longer (21 vs 5 years) than the previous data set, the spatial resolution is better (4.6 vs 9.3 km), and the bathymetric resolution is also better (0.46 vs 3.7 km).
Alberto Ribotti, Roberto Sorgente, and Mireno Borghini
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1287–1294,Short summary
From May 2000 to January 2004 seven cruises in the Sea of Sardinia collected physical, chemical and biological data. They contributed to knowledge of the local circulation and its interaction with the general Mediterranean one. Accurate and sustained quality assurance for physical sensors was ensured through pre- and postcruise calibration (described here) and verified during cruises by redundant sensors and instruments. Hydrological data are in two open-access datasets in the SEANOE repository.
Alex Brisbourne, Bernd Kulessa, Thomas Hudson, Lianne Harrison, Paul Holland, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, David Ashmore, Bryn Hubbard, Emma Pearce, James White, Adam Booth, Keith Nicholls, and Andrew Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 887–896,Short summary
Melting of the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica may lead to its collapse. To help estimate its lifespan we need to understand how the ocean can circulate beneath. This requires knowledge of the geometry of the sub-shelf cavity. New and existing measurements of seabed depth are integrated to produce a map of the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf. The observed deep seabed may provide a pathway for circulation of warm ocean water but at the same time reduce rapid tidal melt at a critical location.
Pierre Garreau, Franck Dumas, Stéphanie Louazel, Stéphanie Correard, Solenn Fercocq, Marc Le Menn, Alain Serpette, Valérie Garnier, Alexandre Stegner, Briac Le Vu, Andrea Doglioli, and Gerald Gregori
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 441–456,Short summary
The oceanic circulation is composed of the main currents, of large eddies and meanders, and of fine motions at a scale of about a few hundreds of metres, rarely observed in situ. PROTEVS-MED experiments were devoted to very high resolution observations of water properties (temperature and salinity) and currents, thanks to an undulating trawled vehicle revealing a patchy, stirred and energetic ocean in the first 400 m depth. These fine-scale dynamics drive the plankton and air–sea exchanges.
Philippe Massicotte, Rémi Amiraux, Marie-Pier Amyot, Philippe Archambault, Mathieu Ardyna, Laurent Arnaud, Lise Artigue, Cyril Aubry, Pierre Ayotte, Guislain Bécu, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Henry C. Bittig, Annick Bricaud, Éric Brossier, Flavienne Bruyant, Laurent Chauvaud, Debra Christiansen-Stowe, Hervé Claustre, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Pierre Coupel, Christine Cox, Aurelie Delaforge, Thibaud Dezutter, Céline Dimier, Florent Domine, Francis Dufour, Christiane Dufresne, Dany Dumont, Jens Ehn, Brent Else, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Louis Fortier, Martí Galí, Virginie Galindo, Morgane Gallinari, Nicole Garcia, Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Margaux Gourdal, Priscilla Gourvil, Clemence Goyens, Pierre-Luc Grondin, Pascal Guillot, Caroline Guilmette, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Fabien Joux, Léo Lacour, Thomas Lacour, Augustin Lafond, José Lagunas, Catherine Lalande, Julien Laliberté, Simon Lambert-Girard, Jade Larivière, Johann Lavaud, Anita LeBaron, Karine Leblanc, Florence Le Gall, Justine Legras, Mélanie Lemire, Maurice Levasseur, Edouard Leymarie, Aude Leynaert, Adriana Lopes dos Santos, Antonio Lourenço, David Mah, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Nicolas Martin, Constance Marty, Sabine Marty, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Lisa Matthes, Brivaela Moriceau, Pierre-Emmanuel Muller, Christopher-John Mundy, Griet Neukermans, Laurent Oziel, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Jean-Jacques Pangrazi, Ghislain Picard, Marc Picheral, France Pinczon du Sel, Nicole Pogorzelec, Ian Probert, Bernard Quéguiner, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Eric Rehm, Erin Reimer, Jean-François Rontani, Søren Rysgaard, Blanche Saint-Béat, Makoto Sampei, Julie Sansoulet, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Caroline Sévigny, Yuan Shen, Margot Tragin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Daniel Vaulot, Gauthier Verin, Frédéric Vivier, Anda Vladoiu, Jeremy Whitehead, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 151–176,Short summary
The Green Edge initiative was developed to understand the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic spring bloom (PSB). In this article, we present an overview of an extensive and comprehensive dataset acquired during two expeditions conducted in 2015 and 2016 on landfast ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay.
Michaël Ablain, Benoît Meyssignac, Lionel Zawadzki, Rémi Jugier, Aurélien Ribes, Giorgio Spada, Jerôme Benveniste, Anny Cazenave, and Nicolas Picot
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1189–1202,Short summary
A description of the uncertainties in the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) record has been performed; 25 years of satellite altimetry data were used to estimate the error variance–covariance matrix for the GMSL record to derive its confidence envelope. Then a least square approach was used to estimate the GMSL trend and acceleration uncertainties over any time periods. A GMSL trend of 3.35 ± 0.4 mm/yr and a GMSL acceleration of 0.12 ± 0.07 mm/yr² have been found within a 90 % confidence level.
André Valente, Shubha Sathyendranath, Vanda Brotas, Steve Groom, Michael Grant, Malcolm Taberner, David Antoine, Robert Arnone, William M. Balch, Kathryn Barker, Ray Barlow, Simon Bélanger, Jean-François Berthon, Şükrü Beşiktepe, Yngve Borsheim, Astrid Bracher, Vittorio Brando, Elisabetta Canuti, Francisco Chavez, Andrés Cianca, Hervé Claustre, Lesley Clementson, Richard Crout, Robert Frouin, Carlos García-Soto, Stuart W. Gibb, Richard Gould, Stanford B. Hooker, Mati Kahru, Milton Kampel, Holger Klein, Susanne Kratzer, Raphael Kudela, Jesus Ledesma, Hubert Loisel, Patricia Matrai, David McKee, Brian G. Mitchell, Tiffany Moisan, Frank Muller-Karger, Leonie O'Dowd, Michael Ondrusek, Trevor Platt, Alex J. Poulton, Michel Repecaud, Thomas Schroeder, Timothy Smyth, Denise Smythe-Wright, Heidi M. Sosik, Michael Twardowski, Vincenzo Vellucci, Kenneth Voss, Jeremy Werdell, Marcel Wernand, Simon Wright, and Giuseppe Zibordi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1037–1068,Short summary
A compiled set of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the compilation of global bio-optical in situ data (spanning from 1997 to 2018) used for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The compilation merges and harmonizes several in situ data sources into a simple format that could be used directly for the evaluation of satellite-derived ocean-colour data.
Katrin Latarius, Ursula Schauer, and Andreas Wisotzki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 895–920,Short summary
During summer 2014 and summer 2015 two autonomous underwater vehicles were operated over several months in the western Nordic Seas close to the ice edge. They took measurements of temperature, salinity and water depth (pressure) on the way. The aim of the Seaglider missions was to observe if near-surface freshwater, which flows out of the Arctic Ocean in the direction to the North Atlantic, increased with shrinking ice coverage. The measurements were executed to finally provide validated data.
Fabio Raicich and Renato R. Colucci
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 761–768,Short summary
Thanks to near-surface sea temperatures measured at Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, from 1899 to 2015, we estimated mean daily temperatures at 2 m depth and built a quasi-homogeneous 117-year-long time series. We describe the instruments used and the sites of measurements, which are all within Trieste harbour. The data set represents a valuable tool to study sea temperature variability on different timescales. A mean temperature rise rate of 1.1 ± 0.3 °C per century was estimated.
Dong-Jiing Doong, Jen-Ping Peng, and Alexander V. Babanin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 323–340,Short summary
Seawater temperature has a major impact on human comfort and safety during swimming, surfing and snorkeling activities and the marine ecosystems. The authors deployed marine buoys to collect meteo-oceanographic data for the government and found the temperature always dropped significantly after typhoon passages. Presentation of the dataset gives a first understanding and can help to validate the numerical model in order to study the mechanism.
Yuri Cotroneo, Giuseppe Aulicino, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Sánchez Román, Marc Torner Tomàs, Ananda Pascual, Giannetta Fusco, Emma Heslop, Joaquín Tintoré, and Giorgio Budillon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 147–161,Short summary
We present data collected from the first three glider surveys in the Algerian Basin conducted during the ABACUS project. After collection, data passed a quality control procedure and were then made available through an unrestricted repository. The main objective of our project is monitoring the basin circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Temperature and salinity data collected in the first 975 m of the water column allowed us to identify the main water masses and describe their characteristics.
Charles Troupin, Ananda Pascual, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Olita, Benjamin Casas, Félix Margirier, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Giulio Notarstefano, Marc Torner, Juan Gabriel Fernández, Miquel Àngel Rújula, Cristian Muñoz, Eva Alou, Inmaculada Ruiz, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, John T. Allen, Amala Mahadevan, and Joaquín Tintoré
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 129–145,Short summary
The AlborEX (the Alboran Sea Experiment) consisted of an experiment in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) that took place between 25 and 31 May 2014, and use a wide range of oceanographic sensors. The dataset provides information on mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes taking place in a frontal area. This paper presents the measurements obtained from these sensors and describes their particularities: scale, spatial and temporal resolutions, measured variables, etc.
Oliver Zielinski, Daniela Meier, Kertu Lõhmus, Thorsten Balke, Michael Kleyer, and Helmut Hillebrand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1843–1858,Short summary
An experiment for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning at the intersection of land and sea was set up in the intertidal zone of the back-barrier salt marsh of Spiekeroog Island in the German Bight. Here we report the accompanying instrumentation, maintenance, data acquisition, data handling and data quality control as well as monitoring results observed over a continuous period from September 2014 to April 2017.
WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1551–1590,Short summary
Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Studying the sea level budget, i.e., comparing observed global mean sea level to the sum of components (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers and ice sheet mass loss as well as changes in land water storage) improves our understanding of processes at work and provides constraints on missing contributions (e.g., deep ocean).
Gilles Reverdin, Hedinn Valdimarsson, Gael Alory, Denis Diverres, Francis Bringas, Gustavo Goni, Lars Heilmann, Leon Chafik, Tanguy Szekely, and Andrew R. Friedman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1403–1415,Short summary
We report monthly time series of surface temperature, salinity, and density in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in 1993–2017 from hydrographical data collected in particular from thermosalinographs onboard selected ships of opportunity. Most of the time, this data set reproduces well the large-scale variability, except for a few seasons with limited sampling, in particular in winter along western Greenland or northeast of Newfoundland in the presence of sea ice.
Giuseppe Aulicino, Yuri Cotroneo, Isabelle Ansorge, Marcel van den Berg, Cinzia Cesarano, Maria Belmonte Rivas, and Estrella Olmedo Casal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1227–1236,Short summary
We present sea surface salinity and temperature data collected across the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean by thermosalinographs on board Agulhas-I and Agulhas-II research vessels. After a rigorous quality control, data have been validated through comparison with water samples and independent products. Hence this dataset represents a valuable tool for validating salinity observations provided by SMOS and Aquarius missions and improving the study of climate variability over this region.
Axel Behrendt, Hiroshi Sumata, Benjamin Rabe, and Ursula Schauer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1119–1138,Short summary
Oceanographic data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean over many decades. They were measured by a large variety of platforms. Most of these data are publicly available from the World Ocean Database (WOD). This important online archive, however, does not contain all available modern data and has quality problems in the upper water layers. To enable a quick access to nearly all available temperature and salinity profiles, we compiled UDASH, a complete data archive with a higher quality.
Melissa M. Zweng, Tim P. Boyer, Olga K. Baranova, James R. Reagan, Dan Seidov, and Igor V. Smolyar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 677–687,Short summary
The World Ocean Database (WOD) contains over 1.3 million oceanographic casts collected in the Arctic Ocean basin and its surrounding marginal seas. WOD provides a
one-stopsource of Arctic Ocean profile data in a uniform data and metadata format, with quality control applied, which makes it simple for scientists to apply the information to their research.
Jean-François Legeais, Michaël Ablain, Lionel Zawadzki, Hao Zuo, Johnny A. Johannessen, Martin G. Scharffenberg, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, M. Joana Fernandes, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Sergei Rudenko, Paolo Cipollini, Graham D. Quartly, Marcello Passaro, Anny Cazenave, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 281–301,Short summary
Sea level is one of the best indicators of climate change and has been listed as one of the essential climate variables. Sea level measurements have been provided by satellite altimetry for 25 years, and the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency has given the opportunity to provide a long-term, homogeneous and accurate sea level record. It will help scientists to better understand climate change and its variability.
Yao Luo, Dongxiao Wang, Tilak Priyadarshana Gamage, Fenghua Zhou, Charith Madusanka Widanage, and Taiwei Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 131–138,Short summary
We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and wave, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible.
David J. Morris, John K. Pinnegar, David L. Maxwell, Stephen R. Dye, Liam J. Fernand, Stephen Flatman, Oliver J. Williams, and Stuart I. Rogers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 27–51,Short summary
This paper brings together over 10 million previously unpublished, quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from 130 years of government-funded marine science investigations in the United Kingdom (UK). The records focus around the UK but also extend from Greenland to the Bay of Biscay. Making the data open and accessible provides valuable information to assess changing hydrological conditions. The data are now all publicly available at https://www.cefas.co.uk/cefas-data-hub/.
Graham D. Quartly, Jean-François Legeais, Michaël Ablain, Lionel Zawadzki, M. Joana Fernandes, Sergei Rudenko, Loren Carrère, Pablo Nilo García, Paolo Cipollini, Ole B. Andersen, Jean-Christophe Poisson, Sabrina Mbajon Njiche, Anny Cazenave, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 557–572,Short summary
We have produced an improved monthly record of mean sea level for 1993–2015. It is developed by careful processing of the records from nine satellite altimeter missions, making use of the best available orbits, instrumental corrections and geophysical corrections. This paper details the selection process and the processing method. The data are suitable for investigation of sea level changes at scales from seasonal to long-term sea level rise, including interannual variations due to El Niño.
Colleen B. Mouw, Audrey B. Ciochetto, Brice Grunert, and Angela Yu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 497–509,Short summary
Lake Superior is one of the largest freshwater lakes on our planet, but few optical observations have been made to allow for the development and validation of visible spectral satellite remote sensing products. The dataset described here focuses on coincidently observing optical properties along with biogeochemical parameters and substantially increases the optical knowledge of the lake.
Barbara Berx and Mark R. Payne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 259–266,Short summary
We present a freely available Sub-Polar Gyre Index, consistent with previous calculation methods, for the use of the wider community in their analyses. The paper describes the methodology and interpretation and includes some sensitivity analysis.
Amelie Driemel, Eberhard Fahrbach, Gerd Rohardt, Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller, Antje Boetius, Gereon Budéus, Boris Cisewski, Ralph Engbrodt, Steffen Gauger, Walter Geibert, Patrizia Geprägs, Dieter Gerdes, Rainer Gersonde, Arnold L. Gordon, Hannes Grobe, Hartmut H. Hellmer, Enrique Isla, Stanley S. Jacobs, Markus Janout, Wilfried Jokat, Michael Klages, Gerhard Kuhn, Jens Meincke, Sven Ober, Svein Østerhus, Ray G. Peterson, Benjamin Rabe, Bert Rudels, Ursula Schauer, Michael Schröder, Stefanie Schumacher, Rainer Sieger, Jüri Sildam, Thomas Soltwedel, Elena Stangeew, Manfred Stein, Volker H Strass, Jörn Thiede, Sandra Tippenhauer, Cornelis Veth, Wilken-Jon von Appen, Marie-France Weirig, Andreas Wisotzki, Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow, and Torsten Kanzow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 211–220,Short summary
Our oceans are always in motion – huge water masses are circulated by winds and by global seawater density gradients resulting from different water temperatures and salinities. Measuring temperature and salinity of the world's oceans is crucial e.g. to understand our climate. Since 1983, the research icebreaker Polarstern has been the basis of numerous water profile measurements in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique collection of 33 years of polar salinity and temperature data.
Andrea Storto and Simona Masina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 679–696,Short summary
A large number of applications related to the study of ocean climate require reliable datasets of the main physical variables of the ocean. Ocean reanalyses are a methodology based on the synthesis of information from ocean observations and models, and near-surface atmospheric observations into a dataset in a way as consistent in time as possible. In this paper, we describe and validate an upgraded version of the CMCC global ocean physical reanalysis (1980–present) at 1 / 4° resolution.
Natalie M. Freeman and Nicole S. Lovenduski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 191–198,Short summary
The Antarctic Polar Front (PF) is an important physical and biogeochemical divide in the Southern Ocean, delineating distinct zones of temperature, nutrients and biological communities. Our study learns from and advances previous efforts to locate the PF via satellite by avoiding cloud contamination and providing circumpolar realizations at high spatio-temporal resolution. These realizations are consistent with concurrent in situ PF locations and previously published climatological PF positions.
Marcos García Sotillo, Emilio Garcia-Ladona, Alejandro Orfila, Pablo Rodríguez-Rubio, José Cristobal Maraver, Daniel Conti, Elena Padorno, José Antonio Jiménez, Este Capó, Fernando Pérez, Juan Manuel Sayol, Francisco Javier de los Santos, Arancha Amo, Ana Rietz, Charles Troupin, Joaquín Tintore, and Enrique Álvarez-Fanjul
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 141–149,Short summary
An intensive drifter deployment was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar: 35 satellite tracked drifters were released, coordinating to this aim 4 boats, covering an area of about 680 NM2 in 6 hours. This MEDESS-GIB Experiment is the most important exercise in the Mediterranean in terms of number of drifters released. The MEDESS-GIB dataset provides a complete Lagrangian view of the surface inflow of Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and its later evolution along the Alboran Sea.
K. A. Reeve, O. Boebel, T. Kanzow, V. Strass, G. Rohardt, and E. Fahrbach
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 15–40,Short summary
We present spatially gridded, time-composite mapped data of temperature and salinity of the upper 2000m of the Weddell Gyre through the objective mapping of Argo float data. This was realized on fixed-pressure surfaces ranging from 50 to 2000 dbar. Pressure, temperature and salinity are also available at the level of the sub-surface temperature maximum, which represents the core of Warm Deep Water, the primary heat source of the Weddell Gyre. A detailed description of the methods is provided.
E. Garel and Ó. Ferreira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 299–309,Short summary
This contribution presents flagged (valid/non-valid) data from a current-meter and a multi-parametric probe operating between 2008 and 2014 at the lower Guadiana Estuary. To support data analysis, freshwater discharge into the estuary is also provided for the monitoring period. The data set is publicly available at PANGAEA in tab-delimitated format (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845750).
D. Hainbucher, V. Cardin, G. Siena, U. Hübner, M. Moritz, U. Drübbisch, and F. Basan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 231–237,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean in April 2014. Data were taken on a west-east section starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete, as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The measurements include salinity, temperature, oxygen and currents. We study the mesoscale eddy field and support long-term investigations of the hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea.
U. Löptien and H. Dietze
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 367–374,
M. Charo and A. R. Piola
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 265–271,
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Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean, pelagic mesocosms, has become a standard method to explore responses of marine plankton communities to anthropogenic change. Among the challenges of interpreting mesocosm data is the often uncertain role of vertical mixing. This study introduces a mesocosm mixing model that is able to estimate vertical diffusivities and thus provides a tool for future mesocosm data analyses that account for mixing.
Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean,...