Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Data description paper 22 Jan 2020
Data description paper | 22 Jan 2020
Global River Radar Altimetry Time Series (GRRATS): new river elevation earth science data records for the hydrologic community
Stephen Coss et al.
No articles found.
Jida Wang, Blake A. Walter, Fangfang Yao, Chunqiao Song, Meng Ding, Abu S. Maroof, Jingying Zhu, Chenyu Fan, Aote Xin, Jordan M. McAlister, Safat Sikder, Yongwei Sheng, George H. Allen, Jean-François Crétaux, and Yoshihide Wada
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSD
Rhae Sung Kim, Sujay Kumar, Carrie Vuyovich, Paul Houser, Jessica Lundquist, Lawrence Mudryk, Michael Durand, Ana Barros, Edward J. Kim, Barton A. Forman, Ethan D. Gutmann, Melissa L. Wrzesien, Camille Garnaud, Melody Sandells, Hans-Peter Marshall, Nicoleta Cristea, Justin M. Pflug, Jeremy Johnston, Yueqian Cao, David Mocko, and Shugong Wang
The Cryosphere, 15, 771–791,Short summary
High SWE uncertainty is observed in mountainous and forested regions, highlighting the need for high-resolution snow observations in these regions. Substantial uncertainty in snow water storage in Tundra regions and the dominance of water storage in these regions points to the need for high-accuracy snow estimation. Finally, snow measurements during the melt season are most needed at high latitudes, whereas observations at near peak snow accumulations are most beneficial over the midlatitudes.
Anne Sophie Daloz, Marian Mateling, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Mark Kulie, Norm B. Wood, Mikael Durand, Melissa Wrzesien, Camilla W. Stjern, and Ashok P. Dimri
The Cryosphere, 14, 3195–3207,Short summary
The total of snow that falls globally is a critical factor governing freshwater availability. To better understand how this resource is impacted by climate change, we need to know how reliable the current observational datasets for snow are. Here, we compare five datasets looking at the snow falling over the mountains versus the other continents. We show that there is a large consensus when looking at fractional contributions but strong dissimilarities when comparing magnitudes.
Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, Thibault Lambert, Cédric Morana, George H. Allen, Ernest Tambwe, Alfred Toengaho Sembaito, Taylor Mambo, José Nlandu Wabakhangazi, Jean-Pierre Descy, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 16, 3801–3834,Short summary
Tropical rivers might be strong sources of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, although there is an enormous data gap. The origin of CO2 in lowland tropical rivers is not well characterized and can be from terra firme or from wetlands (flooded forests and aquatic macrophytes). We obtained a large field dataset of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Congo, the second-largest river in the world, which allows us to quantity the emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and investigate their origin.
Qiang Shen, Hansheng Wang, C. K. Shum, Liming Jiang, Hou Tse Hsu, Jinglong Dong, Song Mao, and Fan Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Thorough and continued monitoring of ice-sheet dynamics is of utmost importance for accurate predictions of ice-sheet behavior in the future. We present a new Antarctic ice velocity map at a 100-m grid spacing inferred from Landsat 8 imagery data. The datasets will allow for a comprehensive continent-wide investigation of ice dynamics and mass balance with the existing and future ice velocity measurements, provide control and calibration for ice-sheet modelling.
Vinícius A. Siqueira, Rodrigo C. D. Paiva, Ayan S. Fleischmann, Fernando M. Fan, Anderson L. Ruhoff, Paulo R. M. Pontes, Adrien Paris, Stéphane Calmant, and Walter Collischonn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4815–4842,Short summary
Providing reliable estimates of water fluxes at the continental scale is challenging. We extended a regional hydrological model to the entirety of South America and assessed its performance using multiple observations. After a comparison with global models, we show the extent to which estimates of daily river discharge can be improved, even by using global forcing data. Issues of global-/continental-scale modeling and future directions for simulating discharge in this continent are discussed.
Qiang Shen, Hansheng Wang, Che-Kwan Shum, Liming Jiang, Hou Tse Hsu, and Jinglong Dong
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We constructed two present-day continent-wide ice flow maps on Antarctica, and estimated its mass balances over the last decade. An increased mass discharge from Wilkes Land, East Antarctica was found, contrary to the long-standing belief that accelerated mass loss primarily originates from West Antarctica and Antarctic Peninsula. Our maps allow the first continent-wide assessment of mass discharge changes in the last decade, which will contribute to our understanding of Antarctic ice dynamics.
M. D. Wilson, M. Durand, H. C. Jung, and D. Alsdorf
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1943–1959,Short summary
We use a virtual mission analysis on a ca. 260km reach of the central Amazon River to assess the hydraulic implications of potential measurement errors in swath-altimetry imagery from the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. We estimated water surface slope from imagery of water heights and then derived channel discharge. Errors in estimated discharge were lowest when using longer reach lengths and channel cross-sectional averaging to estimate water slopes.
R. C. D. Paiva, W. Collischonn, M.-P. Bonnet, L. G. G. de Gonçalves, S. Calmant, A. Getirana, and J. Santos da Silva
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2929–2946,
Related subject area
Hydrology and Soil Science – HydrologyYear-long, broad-band, microwave backscatter observations of an alpine meadow over the Tibetan Plateau with a ground-based scatterometerSTH-net: a soil monitoring network for process-based hydrological modelling from the pedon to the hillslope scaleComprehensive bathymetry and intertidal topography of the Amazon estuaryVirtual water trade and water footprint of agricultural goods: the 1961–2016 CWASI databaseHistorical cartographic and topo-bathymetric database on the French Rhône River (17th–20th century)COSMOS-UK: national soil moisture and hydrometeorology data for environmental science researchSoilKsatDB: global database of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements for geoscience applicationsADHI: the African Database of Hydrometric Indices (1950–2018)Dynamics of shallow wakes on gravel-bed floodplains: dataset from field experimentsTwo decades of distributed global radiation time series across a mountainous semiarid area (Sierra Nevada, Spain)Inventory of dams in GermanyThe 3D groundwater salinity distribution and fresh groundwater volumes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, inferred from geostatistical analysesA multi-source 120-year U.S. flood database with a unified common format and public accessCountry-level and gridded estimates of wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuseDataset of Georeferenced Dams in South America (DDSA)CLIGEN Parameter Regionalization for Mainland ChinaCAMELS-AUS: Hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 222 catchments in AustraliaThe impact of landscape evolution on soil physics: evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties along two chronosequences of proglacial morainesThe CH-IRP data set: a decade of fortnightly data on δ2H and δ18O in streamflow and precipitation in SwitzerlandA national topographic dataset for hydrological modeling over contiguous United StatesStatus of the Tibetan Plateau observatory (Tibet-Obs) and a 10-year (2009–2019) surface soil moisture datasetCAMELS-GB: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 671 catchments in Great BritainA dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture observation in a highly instrumented pre-Alpine headwater catchment in GermanyCAMELS-BR: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 897 catchments in BrazilGloFAS-ERA5 operational global river discharge reanalysis 1979–presentA Canadian River Ice Database from the National Hydrometric Program ArchivesAn integration of gauge, satellite, and reanalysis precipitation datasets for the largest river basin of the Tibetan PlateauTowards harmonisation of image velocimetry techniques for river surface velocity observationsAIMERG: a new Asian precipitation dataset (0.1°/half-hourly, 2000–2015) by calibrating the GPM-era IMERG at a daily scale using APHRODITEVegetation, ground cover, soil, rainfall simulation, and overland-flow experiments before and after tree removal in woodland-encroached sagebrush steppe: the hydrology component of the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP)Satellite-based remote sensing data set of global surface water storage change from 1992 to 2018Data for wetlandscapes and their changes around the worldMeasurements of the water balance components of a large green roof in the greater Paris areaA distributed soil moisture, temperature and infiltrometer dataset for permeable pavements and green spacesA 439-year simulated daily discharge dataset (1861–2299) for the upper Yangtze River, ChinaRunoff reaction from extreme rainfall events on natural hillslopes: a data set from 132 large-scale sprinkling experiments in south-western GermanyPaleo-hydrologic reconstruction of 400 years of past flows at a weekly time step for major rivers of Western CanadaAn Arctic watershed observatory at Lake Peters, Alaska: weather–glacier–river–lake system data for 2015–2018GRUN: an observation-based global gridded runoff dataset from 1902 to 2014SM2RAIN–ASCAT (2007–2018): global daily satellite rainfall data from ASCAT soil moisture observationsCo-located contemporaneous mapping of morphological, hydrological, chemical, and biological conditions in a 5th-order mountain stream network, Oregon, USAHydrometeorological and gravity signals at the Argentine-German Geodetic Observatory (AGGO) in La PlataFifty years of recorded hillslope runoff on seasonally frozen ground: the Swift Current, Saskatchewan, Canada, datasetMonitoring ephemeral, intermittent and perennial streamflow: a dataset from 182 sites in the Attert catchment, LuxembourgGRACE-REC: a reconstruction of climate-driven water storage changes over the last centuryHydromorphological attributes for all Australian river reaches derived from Landsat dynamic inundation remote sensingAn 11-year (2007–2017) soil moisture and precipitation dataset from the Kenaston Network in the Brightwater Creek basin, Saskatchewan, CanadaMeteorological, soil moisture, surface water, and groundwater data from the St. Denis National Wildlife Area, Saskatchewan, CanadaTheia Snow collection: high-resolution operational snow cover maps from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 dataThe Guadalfeo Monitoring Network (Sierra Nevada, Spain): 14 years of measurements to understand the complexity of snow dynamics in semiarid regions
Jan G. Hofste, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Donghai Zheng, Christiaan van der Tol, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2819–2856,Short summary
The dataset reported in this paper concerns the measurement of microwave reflections from an alpine meadow over the Tibetan Plateau. These microwave reflections were measured continuously over 1 year. With it, variations in soil water content due to evaporation, precipitation, drainage, and soil freezing/thawing can be seen. A better understanding of the effects aforementioned processes have on microwave reflections may improve methods for estimating soil water content used by satellites.
Edoardo Martini, Matteo Bauckholt, Simon Kögler, Manuel Kreck, Kurt Roth, Ulrike Werban, Ute Wollschläger, and Steffen Zacharias
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2529–2539,Short summary
We present the in situ data available from the soil monitoring network
STH-net, recently implemented at the Schäfertal Hillslope site (Germany). The STH-net provides data (soil water content, soil temperature, water level, and meteorological variables – measured at a 10 min interval since 1 January 2019) for developing and testing modelling approaches in the context of vadose zone hydrology at spatial scales ranging from the pedon to the hillslope.
Alice César Fassoni-Andrade, Fabien Durand, Daniel Moreira, Alberto Azevedo, Valdenira Ferreira dos Santos, Claudia Funi, and Alain Laraque
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2275–2291,Short summary
We present a seamless dataset of river, land, and ocean topography of the Amazon River estuary with a 30 m spatial resolution. An innovative remote sensing approach was used to estimate the topography of the intertidal flats, riverbanks, and adjacent floodplains. Amazon River bathymetry was generated from digitized nautical charts. The novel dataset opens up a broad range of opportunities, providing the poorly known underwater digital topography required for environmental sciences.
Stefania Tamea, Marta Tuninetti, Irene Soligno, and Francesco Laio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2025–2051,Short summary
The database includes water footprint and virtual water trade data for 370 agricultural goods in all countries, starting from 1961 and 1986, respectively. Data improve upon earlier datasets because of the annual variability of data and the tracing of goods’ origin within the international trade. The CWASI database aims at supporting national and global assessments of water use in agriculture and food production/consumption and welcomes contributions from the research community.
Fanny Arnaud, Lalandy Sehen Chanu, Jules Grillot, Jérémie Riquier, Hervé Piégay, Dad Roux-Michollet, Georges Carrel, and Jean-Michel Olivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1939–1955,Short summary
This article provides a database of 350 cartographic and topographic resources on the 530-km-long French Rhône River, compiled from the 17th to mid-20th century in 14 national, regional, and departmental archive services. The database has several potential applications in geomorphology, retrospective hydraulic modelling, historical ecology, and sustainable river management and restoration, as well as permitting comparisons of channel changes with other human-impacted rivers worldwide.
Hollie M. Cooper, Emma Bennett, James Blake, Eleanor Blyth, David Boorman, Elizabeth Cooper, Jonathan Evans, Matthew Fry, Alan Jenkins, Ross Morrison, Daniel Rylett, Simon Stanley, Magdalena Szczykulska, Emily Trill, Vasileios Antoniou, Anne Askquith-Ellis, Lucy Ball, Milo Brooks, Michael A. Clarke, Nicholas Cowan, Alexander Cumming, Philip Farrand, Olivia Hitt, William Lord, Peter Scarlett, Oliver Swain, Jenna Thornton, Alan Warwick, and Ben Winterbourn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1737–1757,Short summary
COSMOS-UK is a UK network of environmental monitoring sites, with a focus on measuring field-scale soil moisture. Each site includes soil and hydrometeorological sensors providing data including air temperature, humidity, net radiation, neutron counts, snow water equivalent, and potential evaporation. These data can provide information for science, industry, and agriculture by improving existing understanding and data products in fields such as water resources, space sciences, and biodiversity.
Surya Gupta, Tomislav Hengl, Peter Lehmann, Sara Bonetti, and Dani Or
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1593–1612,
Yves Tramblay, Nathalie Rouché, Jean-Emmanuel Paturel, Gil Mahé, Jean-François Boyer, Ernest Amoussou, Ansoumana Bodian, Honoré Dacosta, Hamouda Dakhlaoui, Alain Dezetter, Denis Hughes, Lahoucine Hanich, Christophe Peugeot, Raphael Tshimanga, and Patrick Lachassagne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1547–1560,Short summary
This dataset provides a set of hydrometric indices for about 1500 stations across Africa with daily discharge data. These indices represent mean flow characteristics and extremes (low flows and floods), allowing us to study the long-term evolution of hydrology in Africa and support the modeling efforts that aim at reducing the vulnerability of African countries to hydro-climatic variability.
Oleksandra O. Shumilova, Alexander N. Sukhodolov, George S. Constantinescu, and Bruce J. MacVicar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1519–1529,Short summary
Obstructions (vegetation and/or boulders) located on a riverbed alter flow structure and affect riverbed morphology and biodiversity. We studied flow dynamics around obstructions by carrying out experiments in a gravel-bed river. Flow rates, size, submergence and solid fractions of the obstructions were varied in a set of 30 experimental runs, in which high-resolution patterns of mean and turbulent flow were obtained. For an introduction to the experiments see: https://youtu.be/5wXjvzqxONI.
Cristina Aguilar, Rafael Pimentel, and María J. Polo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1335–1359,Short summary
This work presents the reconstruction of 19 years of daily, monthly, and annual global radiation maps in Sierra Nevada (Spain) derived using daily historical records from weather stations in the area and a modeling scheme that captures the topographic effects that constitute the main sources of the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation. The generated datasets are valuable in different fields, such as hydrology, ecology, or energy production systems downstream.
Gustavo Andrei Speckhann, Heidi Kreibich, and Bruno Merz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 731–740,Short summary
Dams are an important element of water resources management. Data about dams are crucial for practitioners, scientists, and policymakers. We present the most comprehensive open-access dam inventory for Germany to date. The inventory combines multiple sources of information. It comprises 530 dams with information on name, location, river, start year of construction and operation, crest length, dam height, lake area, lake volume, purpose, dam structure, and building characteristics.
Jan L. Gunnink, Hung Van Pham, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) groundwater is important for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Increased pumping of groundwater has caused land subsidence and increased the risk of salinization, thereby endangering the livelihood of the population in the Delta. We made a model of the salinity of the groundwater by integrating different sources of information and determined fresh groundwater volumes. The resulting model can be used by researchers and policy makers.
Zhi Li, Mengye Chen, Shang Gao, Jonathan J. Gourley, Tiantian Yang, Xinyi Shen, Randall Kolar, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This dataset is a compilation of multi-sourced flood records, retrieved from official reports, instruments, and crowdsourcing data since 1900. This study utilizes the flood database to analyze flood seasonality within major basins, and socioeconomic impacts over time. It is anticipated that this dataset can support a variety of flood-related research, such as validation resources for hydrologic models, hydroclimatic studies, and flood vulnerability analysis across the US.
Edward R. Jones, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Manzoor Qadir, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 237–254,Short summary
Continually improving and affordable wastewater management provides opportunities for both pollution reduction and clean water supply augmentation. This study provides a global outlook on the state of domestic and industrial wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuse. Our results can serve as a baseline in evaluating progress towards policy goals (e.g. Sustainable Development Goals) and as input data in large-scale water resource assessments (e.g. water quality modelling).
Bolivar Paredes-Beltran, Alvaro Sordo-Ward, and Luis Garrote
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 213–229,Short summary
We present a dataset of 1010 entries of dams in South America describing several attributes such as the dams' names, characteristics, purposes, georeferenced locations and also relevant data on the dams' catchments. Information was obtained from extensive research through numerous sources and then validated individually. With this work we expect to contribute to the development of new research in the region, which to date has been limited to certain basins due to the absence of information.
Wenting Wang, Shuiqing Yin, Bofu Yu, and Shaodong Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
A gridded input dataset at 10-km resolution of a weather generator, CLIGEN, was established for mainland China. Based on which, CLIGEN can generate a series of daily temperature, solar radiation and precipitation data and rainfall intensity information. In each grid, the input file contains 13 groups of parameters. All parameters were firstly calculated based on long-term observations and then interpolated by Universal Kriging. The accuracy of the gridded input dataset has been fully assessed.
Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Suwash Chandra Acharya, Nans Addor, Chihchung Chou, and Murray C. Peel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper presents the Australian edition of the Catchment Attributes and Meteorology for Large-sample Studies (CAMELS) series of datasets. CAMELS-AUS comprises data for 222 unregulated catchments with long term monitoring, combining hydrometeorological timeseries (streamflow and 18 climatic variables) with 134 attributes related to geology, soil, topography, land cover, anthropogenic influence, and hydroclimatology. It is freely downloadable from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.921850.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3189–3204,Short summary
Our analysis of soil physical and hydraulic properties across two soil chronosequences of 10 millennia in the Swiss Alps provides important observation of the evolution of soil hydraulic behavior. A strong co-evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties was revealed by the observed change of fast-draining coarse-textured soils to slow-draining soils with a high water-holding capacity in correlation with a distinct change in structural properties and organic matter content.
Maria Staudinger, Stefan Seeger, Barbara Herbstritt, Michael Stoelzle, Jan Seibert, Kerstin Stahl, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3057–3066,Short summary
The data set CH-IRP provides isotope composition in precipitation and streamflow from 23 Swiss catchments, being unique regarding its long-term multi-catchment coverage along an alpine–pre-alpine gradient. CH-IRP contains fortnightly time series of stable water isotopes from streamflow grab samples complemented by time series in precipitation. Sampling conditions, catchment and climate information, lab standards and errors are provided together with areal precipitation and catchment boundaries.
Jun Zhang, Laura E. Condon, Hoang Tran, and Reed M. Maxwell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The existing national topographic datasets for US may not be compatible with gridded hydrologic models. This study provides a national topographic dataset developed to support physically based hydrologic models at 1 km and 250 m over contiguous US. We used a priority flood algorithm to ensure hydrologically drainage networks and evaluated the performance with an integrated hydrologic model. Datasets and scripts are available for either direct data usage or modification of processing as desired.
Pei Zhang, Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Yijian Zeng, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Jiali Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We present a 10-year (2009–2019) surface soil moisture (5 cm) dataset produced based on in situ measurements collected from monitoring networks on the Tibetan Plateau. The dataset provides a reasonable regional-scale soil moisture time series that is valuable for calibration/validation of long term soil moisture products, evaluation/development of upscaling and data fusion methods, and quantification of coupling strength between precipitation and soil moisture at a 10-year scale.
Gemma Coxon, Nans Addor, John P. Bloomfield, Jim Freer, Matt Fry, Jamie Hannaford, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Rosanna Lane, Melinda Lewis, Emma L. Robinson, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2459–2483,Short summary
We present the first large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Great Britain. The dataset collates river flows, catchment attributes, and catchment boundaries for 671 catchments across Great Britain. We characterise the topography, climate, streamflow, land cover, soils, hydrogeology, human influence, and discharge uncertainty of each catchment. The dataset is publicly available for the community to use in a wide range of environmental and modelling analyses.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Vinícius B. P. Chagas, Pedro L. B. Chaffe, Nans Addor, Fernando M. Fan, Ayan S. Fleischmann, Rodrigo C. D. Paiva, and Vinícius A. Siqueira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2075–2096,Short summary
We present a new dataset for large-sample hydrological studies in Brazil. The dataset encompasses daily observed streamflow from 3679 gauges, as well as meteorological forcing for 897 selected catchments. It also includes 65 attributes covering topographic, climatic, hydrologic, land cover, geologic, soil, and human intervention variables. CAMELS-BR is publicly available and will enable new insights into the hydrological behavior of catchments in Brazil.
Shaun Harrigan, Ervin Zsoter, Lorenzo Alfieri, Christel Prudhomme, Peter Salamon, Fredrik Wetterhall, Christopher Barnard, Hannah Cloke, and Florian Pappenberger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2043–2060,Short summary
A new river discharge reanalysis dataset is produced operationally by coupling ECMWF's latest global atmospheric reanalysis, ERA5, with the hydrological modelling component of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis is a global gridded dataset with a horizontal resolution of 0.1° at a daily time step and is freely available from 1979 until near real time. The evaluation against observations shows that the GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis was skilful in 86 % of catchments.
Laurent de Rham, Yonas Dibike, Spyros Beltaos, Daniel Peters, Barrie Bonsal, and Terry Prowse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1835–1860,Short summary
This paper describes the Canadian River Ice Database. Water level recordings at a network of 196 National Hydrometric Program gauging sites over the period 1894–2015 were reviewed. This database, of nearly 73 000 recorded variables and over 460 000 data entries, includes the timing and magnitude of fall freeze-up, midwinter break-up, winter minimum, ice thickness, spring break-up and maximum open-water levels. These data cover the range of river types and climate regions for Canada.
Yuanwei Wang, Lei Wang, Xiuping Li, Jing Zhou, and Zhidan Hu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1789–1803,Short summary
This article is to provide a better precipitation product for the largest river basin of the Tibetan Plateau, the upper Brahmaputra River basin, suitable for use in hydrological simulations and other climate change studies. We integrate gauge, satellite, and reanalysis precipitation datasets to generate a new dataset. The new product has been rigorously validated at various temporal and spatial scales with gauge precipitation observations as well as in cryosphere hydrological simulations.
Matthew T. Perks, Silvano Fortunato Dal Sasso, Alexandre Hauet, Elizabeth Jamieson, Jérôme Le Coz, Sophie Pearce, Salvador Peña-Haro, Alonso Pizarro, Dariia Strelnikova, Flavia Tauro, James Bomhof, Salvatore Grimaldi, Alain Goulet, Borbála Hortobágyi, Magali Jodeau, Sabine Käfer, Robert Ljubičić, Ian Maddock, Peter Mayr, Gernot Paulus, Lionel Pénard, Leigh Sinclair, and Salvatore Manfreda
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1545–1559,Short summary
We present datasets acquired from seven countries across Europe and North America consisting of image sequences. These have been subjected to a range of pre-processing methods in preparation for image velocimetry analysis. These datasets and accompanying reference data are a resource that may be used for conducting benchmarking experiments, assessing algorithm performances, and focusing future software development.
Ziqiang Ma, Jintao Xu, Siyu Zhu, Jun Yang, Guoqiang Tang, Yuanjian Yang, Zhou Shi, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1525–1544,Short summary
Focusing on the potential drawbacks in generating the state-of-the-art IMERG data in both the TRMM and GPM era, a new daily calibration algorithm on IMERG was proposed, as well as a new AIMERG precipitation dataset (0.1°/half-hourly, 2000–2015, Asia) with better quality than IMERG for Asian scientific research and applications. The proposed daily calibration algorithm for GPM is promising and applicable in generating the future IMERG in either an operational scheme or a retrospective manner.
C. Jason Williams, Frederick B. Pierson, Patrick R. Kormos, Osama Z. Al-Hamdan, and Justin C. Johnson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1347–1365,Short summary
Data were collected at three sites over 10 years to evaluate ecologic impacts of tree encroachment on rangelands and assess impacts of tree-removal practices on vegetation, surface conditions, and hydrologic/erosion processes. The dataset includes 1300 rainfall simulation and 838 overland-flow experiments paired with vegetation, surface cover, and soil data across point to hillslope scales. The data advance hydrology/erosion process understanding and are a source for model development/testing.
Riccardo Tortini, Nina Noujdina, Samantha Yeo, Martina Ricko, Charon M. Birkett, Ankush Khandelwal, Vipin Kumar, Miriam E. Marlier, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1141–1151,Short summary
We present a global collection of satellite-derived time series of surface water volume changes for 347 lakes and reservoirs for 1992–2018. These changes were estimated using a statistical relationship between water surface elevation and area measured from satellite, even during periods when either elevation or area was not available. These records represent the most complete global surface water time series, and they are of fundamental importance to baseline future satellite missions.
Navid Ghajarnia, Georgia Destouni, Josefin Thorslund, Zahra Kalantari, Imenne Åhlén, Jesús A. Anaya-Acevedo, Juan F. Blanco-Libreros, Sonia Borja, Sergey Chalov, Aleksandra Chalova, Kwok P. Chun, Nicola Clerici, Amanda Desormeaux, Bethany B. Garfield, Pierre Girard, Olga Gorelits, Amy Hansen, Fernando Jaramillo, Jerker Jarsjö, Adnane Labbaci, John Livsey, Giorgos Maneas, Kathryn McCurley Pisarello, Sebastián Palomino-Ángel, Jan Pietroń, René M. Price, Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Jorge Salgado, A. Britta K. Sannel, Samaneh Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Ylva Sjöberg, Pavel Terskii, Guillaume Vigouroux, Lucia Licero-Villanueva, and David Zamora
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1083–1100,Short summary
Hydroclimate and land-use conditions determine the dynamics of wetlands and their ecosystem services. However, knowledge and data for conditions and changes over entire wetlandscapes are scarce. This paper presents a novel database for 27 wetlandscapes around the world, combining survey-based local information and hydroclimatic and land-use datasets. The developed database can enhance our capacity to understand and manage critical wetland ecosystems and their services under global change.
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Filip Stanic, Auguste Gires, Daniel Schertzer, and Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1025–1035,Short summary
The Blue Green Wave of Champs-sur-Marne (1 ha, France) has been converted into a full-scale monitoring site devoted to studying the uses of green infrastructure in storm-water management. For this purpose, the components of the water balance have been monitored: rainfall, water content in the substrate, and discharge. These measurements are useful to better understand the processes (infiltration and retention) in hydrological performance and spatial variability.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 501–517,Short summary
This paper contains detailed information about the instrumentation of permeable pavements with soil moisture sensors and the performance of infiltration experiments on these surfaces. The collected data are beneficial for studying urban water and energy cycles. They contain valuable information about the hydrological behavior of permeable pavements and urban subsurface heat anomalies. Due to the lack of similar data, we are convinced that the dataset is of great scientific value.
Chao Gao, Buda Su, Valentina Krysanova, Qianyu Zha, Cai Chen, Gang Luo, Xiaofan Zeng, Jinlong Huang, Ming Xiong, Liping Zhang, and Tong Jiang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 387–402,Short summary
The study produced the daily discharge time series for the upper Yangtze River basin (Cuntan hydrological station) in the period 1861–2299 under scenarios with and without anthropogenic climate change. The daily discharge was simulated by using four hydrological models (HBV, SWAT, SWIM and VIC) driven by multiple GCM outputs. This dataset could be compared to assess changes in river discharge in the upper Yangtze River basin attributable to anthropogenic climate change.
Fabian Ries, Lara Kirn, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 245–255,Short summary
Pluvial or flash floods generated by heavy precipitation events cause large economic damage and loss of life worldwide. As discharge observations from such extreme occurrences are rare, data from artificial sprinkling experiments offer valuable information on runoff generation processes, overland and subsurface flow rates, and response times. A extensive data set from 132 large-scale sprinkling experiments in Germany is described and presented in this paper.
Andrew R. Slaughter and Saman Razavi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 231–243,Short summary
Water management faces the challenge of non-stationarity in future flows. To extend flow datasets beyond the gauging data, this study presents a method of generating an ensemble of weekly flows from tree-ring reconstructed flows to represent uncertainty that can overcome certain long-standing data challenges with paleo-reconstruction. An ensemble of 500 flow time series were generated for the four sub-basins of the Saskatchewan River basin, Canada, for the period 1600–2001.
Ellie Broadman, Lorna L. Thurston, Erik Schiefer, Nicholas P. McKay, David Fortin, Jason Geck, Michael G. Loso, Matt Nolan, Stéphanie H. Arcusa, Christopher W. Benson, Rebecca A. Ellerbroek, Michael P. Erb, Cody C. Routson, Charlotte Wiman, A. Jade Wong, and Darrell S. Kaufman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1957–1970,Short summary
Rapid climate warming is impacting physical processes in Arctic environments. Glacier–fed lakes are influenced by many of these processes, and they are impacted by the changing behavior of weather, glaciers, and rivers. We present data from weather stations, river gauging stations, lake moorings, and more, following 4 years of environmental monitoring in the watershed of Lake Peters, a glacier–fed lake in Arctic Alaska. These data can help us study the changing dynamics of this remote setting.
Gionata Ghiggi, Vincent Humphrey, Sonia I. Seneviratne, and Lukas Gudmundsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1655–1674,Short summary
Freshwater resources are of high societal relevance and understanding their past variability is vital to water management in the context of current and future climatic change. This study introduces GRUN: the first global gridded monthly reconstruction of runoff covering the period from 1902 to 2014. The dataset agrees on average much better with the streamflow observations than an ensemble of 13 state-of-the-art global hydrological models and will foster the understanding of freshwater dynamics.
Luca Brocca, Paolo Filippucci, Sebastian Hahn, Luca Ciabatta, Christian Massari, Stefania Camici, Lothar Schüller, Bojan Bojkov, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1583–1601,Short summary
SM2RAIN–ASCAT is a new 12-year (2007–2018) global-scale rainfall dataset obtained by applying the SM2RAIN algorithm to ASCAT soil moisture data. The dataset has a spatiotemporal sampling resolution of 12.5 km and 1 d. Results show that the new dataset performs particularly well in Africa and South America, i.e. in the continents in which ground observations are scarce and the need for satellite rainfall data is high. SM2RAIN–ASCAT is available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.340556.
Adam S. Ward, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Skuyler Herzog, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Noah M. Schmadel, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, Nathan I. Wisnoski, and Steven M. Wondzell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1567–1581,Short summary
Studies of river corridor exchange commonly focus on characterization of the physical, chemical, or biological system. As a result, complimentary systems and context are often lacking, which may limit interpretation. Here, we present a characterization of all three systems at 62 sites in a 5th-order river basin, including samples of surface water, hyporheic water, and sediment. These data will allow assessment of interacting processes in the river corridor.
Michal Mikolaj, Andreas Güntner, Claudio Brunini, Hartmut Wziontek, Mauricio Gende, Stephan Schröder, Augusto M. Cassino, Alfredo Pasquaré, Marvin Reich, Anne Hartmann, Fernando A. Oreiro, Jonathan Pendiuk, Luis Guarracino, and Ezequiel D. Antokoletz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1501–1513,Short summary
We present the first continuous measurements of hydrological, meteorological, and gravity variables at the Argentine-German Geodetic Observatory (AGGO) close to La Plata, Argentina, for the period 2016–2018. The data may be used by both scientists and local authorities to correct other geodetic observations at the observatory, to monitor environmental changes, or to quantify extreme events such as floods and droughts in the La Plata region.
Anna E. Coles, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, and Brian G. McConkey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1375–1383,Short summary
Long hydrological records from cold regions with seasonally frozen ground are rare. This paper presents a 50-year dataset from a site (the Swift Current hillslopes) on the Canadian Prairies. The dataset includes information on runoff, soil and water nutrient concentrations, snowpack, soil moisture, agricultural practices and topography. This is a valuable resource for water management and sustainability research, particularly for understanding land use and climate change impacts in cold regions.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Ernestine Sohrt, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1363–1374,Short summary
Different sensing techniques including time-lapse imagery, electric conductivity and stage measurements were used to generate a combined dataset of the presence and absence of streamflow within a large number of nested sub-catchments in the Attert catchment, Luxembourg. The first sites of observation were established in 2013 and successively extended to a total number of 182 in 2016. The dataset can be used to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of the stream network.
Vincent Humphrey and Lukas Gudmundsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1153–1170,Short summary
Because changes in freshwater availability can impact many natural ecosystems and human activities, it is crucial to better understand long-term changes in the water cycle. This dataset is a reconstruction of past changes in land water storage over the last century, obtained by combining satellite observations with historical weather data. It can be used to investigate both regional changes in freshwater availability or drought frequency and long-term changes in the global water cycle.
Jiawei Hou, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Luigi J. Renzullo, Robert A. Vertessy, and Norman Mueller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1003–1015,Short summary
Hydromorphological data including temporal and spatial river width dynamics, flow regime, and river gradient for 1.4 x 106 Australian river reaches are presented. We propose a parameter which can be used to classify reaches by the degree to which flow regime tends towards permanent, frequent, intermittent, or ephemeral. This dataset provides fundamental information for understanding hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in floodplain–river systems.
Erica Tetlock, Brenda Toth, Aaron Berg, Tracy Rowlandson, and Jaison Thomas Ambadan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 787–796,Short summary
Soil moisture and precipitation have been monitored in the Brightwater Creek basin, east of Kenaston, Saskatchewan, since 2007. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and precipitation data from the 35+ stations, from 2007 to 2017, are presented, along with processing details. Data from the network are used for remote-sensing validation and calibration and, in conjunction with other instruments within the network, hydrological model validation.
Edward K. P. Bam, Rosa Brannen, Sujata Budhathoki, Andrew M. Ireson, Chris Spence, and Garth van der Kamp
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 553–563,Short summary
The paper highlights the data contained in the database for the Prairie research site, St. Denis National Wildlife Research Area, at Saskatchewan, Canada. The database includes atmosphere, snow surveys, pond, soil, groundwater, and water isotopes collected on an intermittent basis between 1968 and 2018. The metadata table provides location information, information about the full range of measurements carried out on each parameter, and GPS locations relevant for interpretation of the data.
Simon Gascoin, Manuel Grizonnet, Marine Bouchet, Germain Salgues, and Olivier Hagolle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 493–514,Short summary
The Sentinel-2 satellite mission allows the observation of the land surface at unprecedented resolutions (20 m every 5 days). The frequency of observations can be further increased with Landsat-8. Here we describe a new collection of snow maps made from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 and evaluate their accuracy. The data are routinely produced over several mountain areas and freely distributed via http://theia.cnes.fr. These new data could unlock advances in our understanding of mountain ecosystems.
María J. Polo, Javier Herrero, Rafael Pimentel, and María J. Pérez-Palazón
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 393–407,Short summary
This work presents the Guadalfeo Monitoring Network in the Sierra Nevada (Spain), a snow monitoring network in the Guadalfeo Experimental Catchment, a semiarid area in southern Europe representative of snowpacks with highly variable dynamics on both annual and seasonal scales and significant topographic gradients. The network includes weather stations and time-lapse cameras to capture the variability of the ablation phases on different spatial scales.
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We present a new radar-altimeter-satellite-measured river surface height dataset. Our novel approach is broadly applicable rather than location specific. We were able to measure rivers that account for > 34 % of global drainage area with an accuracy comparable to much of the established literature. 389 of our 932 measurement locations include river gage validation. We have focused our efforts on creating a consistent, well-documented data product to encourage use by the broader science community.
We present a new radar-altimeter-satellite-measured river surface height dataset. Our novel...