Articles | Volume 13, issue 9
Data description paper 07 Sep 2021
Data description paper | 07 Sep 2021
Development of observation-based global multilayer soil moisture products for 1970 to 2016
Yaoping Wang et al.
No articles found.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Rachael E. McCaully, Carli A. Arendt, Brent D. Newman, Verity G. Salmon, Jeffrey M. Heikoop, Cathy J. Wilson, Sanna Sevanto, Nathan A. Wales, George B. Perkins, Oana C. Marina, and Stan D. Wullschleger
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Degrading permafrost and shrub expansion are critically important to tundra biogeochemistry. We characterized sources and spatiotemporal trends of soil pore water NO3− in an alder dominated permafrost hillslope in Alaska (USA) and observed significant variability. Proximity to alder shrubs and downslope denitrification strongly influence NO3− availability. The highly dynamic nature of labile N on small spatiotemporal scales has key implications for nutrient mobility in a warming Arctic.
Claudia Tebaldi, Kevin Debeire, Veronika Eyring, Erich Fischer, John Fyfe, Pierre Friedlingstein, Reto Knutti, Jason Lowe, Brian O'Neill, Benjamin Sanderson, Detlef van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi, Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee Nicholls, Katarzyna B. Tokarska, George Hurtt, Elmar Kriegler, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gerald Meehl, Richard Moss, Susanne E. Bauer, Olivier Boucher, Victor Brovkin, Young-Hwa Byun, Martin Dix, Silvio Gualdi, Huan Guo, Jasmin G. John, Slava Kharin, YoungHo Kim, Tsuyoshi Koshiro, Libin Ma, Dirk Olivié, Swapna Panickal, Fangli Qiao, Xinyao Rong, Nan Rosenbloom, Martin Schupfner, Roland Séférian, Alistair Sellar, Tido Semmler, Xiaoying Shi, Zhenya Song, Christian Steger, Ronald Stouffer, Neil Swart, Kaoru Tachiiri, Qi Tang, Hiroaki Tatebe, Aurore Voldoire, Evgeny Volodin, Klaus Wyser, Xiaoge Xin, Shuting Yang, Yongqiang Yu, and Tilo Ziehn
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 253–293,Short summary
We present an overview of CMIP6 ScenarioMIP outcomes from up to 38 participating ESMs according to the new SSP-based scenarios. Average temperature and precipitation projections according to a wide range of forcings, spanning a wider range than the CMIP5 projections, are documented as global averages and geographic patterns. Times of crossing various warming levels are computed, together with benefits of mitigation for selected pairs of scenarios. Comparisons with CMIP5 are also discussed.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Nathan A. Wales, Jesus D. Gomez-Velez, Brent D. Newman, Cathy J. Wilson, Baptiste Dafflon, Timothy J. Kneafsey, Florian Soom, and Stan D. Wullschleger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1109–1129,Short summary
Rapid warming in the Arctic is causing increased permafrost temperatures and ground ice degradation. To study the effects of ice degradation on water distribution, tracer was applied to two end members of ice-wedge polygons – a ubiquitous landform in the Arctic. End member type was found to significantly affect water distribution as lower flux was observed with ice-wedge degradation. Results suggest ice degradation can influence partitioning of sequestered carbon as carbon dioxide or methane.
Binghao Jia, Xin Luo, Ximing Cai, Atul Jain, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Zhenghui Xie, Ning Zeng, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoying Shi, Akihiko Ito, Yaxing Wei, Hanqin Tian, Benjamin Poulter, Dan Hayes, and Kevin Schaefer
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 235–249,Short summary
We quantitatively examined the relative contributions of climate change, land use and land cover change, and elevated CO2 to interannual variations and seasonal cycle amplitude of gross primary productivity (GPP) in China based on multi-model ensemble simulations. The contributions of major subregions to the temporal change in China's total GPP are also presented. This work may help us better understand GPP spatiotemporal patterns and their responses to regional changes and human activities.
Yongjiu Dai, Wei Shangguan, Nan Wei, Qinchuan Xin, Hua Yuan, Shupeng Zhang, Shaofeng Liu, Xingjie Lu, Dagang Wang, and Fapeng Yan
SOIL, 5, 137–158,Short summary
Soil data are widely used in various Earth science fields. We reviewed soil property maps for Earth system models, which can also offer insights to soil data developers and users. Old soil datasets are often based on limited observations and have various uncertainties. Updated and comprehensive soil data are made available to the public and can benefit related research. Good-quality soil data are identified and suggestions on how to improve and use them are provided.
Jianqiu Zheng, Peter E. Thornton, Scott L. Painter, Baohua Gu, Stan D. Wullschleger, and David E. Graham
Biogeosciences, 16, 663–680,Short summary
Arctic warming exposes soil carbon to increased degradation, increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. Models underrepresent anaerobic decomposition that predominates wet soils. We simulated microbial growth, pH regulation, and anaerobic carbon decomposition in a new model, parameterized and validated with prior soil incubation data. The model accurately simulated CO2 production and strong influences of water content, pH, methanogen biomass, and competing electron acceptors on CH4 production.
Qinchuan Xin, Yongjiu Dai, and Xiaoping Liu
Biogeosciences, 16, 467–484,Short summary
Terrestrial biosphere models that simulate both leaf dynamics and canopy photosynthesis are required to understand vegetation–climate interactions. A time-stepping scheme is proposed to simulate leaf area index, phenology, and gross primary production via climate variables. The method performs well on simulating deciduous broadleaf forests across the eastern United States; it provides a simplified and improved version of the growing production day model for use in land surface modeling.
Donghai Wu, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Alan K. Knapp, Kevin Wilcox, Michael Bahn, Melinda D. Smith, Sara Vicca, Simone Fatichi, Jakob Zscheischler, Yue He, Xiangyi Li, Akihiko Ito, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Anna Ukkola, Athanasios Paschalis, Benjamin Poulter, Changhui Peng, Daniel Ricciuto, David Reinthaler, Guangsheng Chen, Hanqin Tian, Hélène Genet, Jiafu Mao, Johannes Ingrisch, Julia E. S. M. Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Lena R. Boysen, Markus Kautz, Michael Schmitt, Patrick Meir, Qiuan Zhu, Roland Hasibeder, Sebastian Sippel, Shree R. S. Dangal, Stephen Sitch, Xiaoying Shi, Yingping Wang, Yiqi Luo, Yongwen Liu, and Shilong Piao
Biogeosciences, 15, 3421–3437,Short summary
Our results indicate that most ecosystem models do not capture the observed asymmetric responses under normal precipitation conditions, suggesting an overestimate of the drought effects and/or underestimate of the watering impacts on primary productivity, which may be the result of inadequate representation of key eco-hydrological processes. Collaboration between modelers and site investigators needs to be strengthened to improve the specific processes in ecosystem models in following studies.
Reindert J. Haarsma, Malcolm J. Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Catherine A. Senior, Alessio Bellucci, Qing Bao, Ping Chang, Susanna Corti, Neven S. Fučkar, Virginie Guemas, Jost von Hardenberg, Wilco Hazeleger, Chihiro Kodama, Torben Koenigk, L. Ruby Leung, Jian Lu, Jing-Jia Luo, Jiafu Mao, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Ryo Mizuta, Paulo Nobre, Masaki Satoh, Enrico Scoccimarro, Tido Semmler, Justin Small, and Jin-Song von Storch
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4185–4208,Short summary
Recent progress in computing power has enabled climate models to simulate more processes in detail and on a smaller scale. Here we present a common protocol for these high-resolution runs that will foster the analysis and understanding of the impact of model resolution on the simulated climate. These runs will also serve as a more reliable source for assessing climate risks that are associated with small-scale weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones.
Bart van den Hurk, Hyungjun Kim, Gerhard Krinner, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Chris Derksen, Taikan Oki, Hervé Douville, Jeanne Colin, Agnès Ducharne, Frederique Cheruy, Nicholas Viovy, Michael J. Puma, Yoshihide Wada, Weiping Li, Binghao Jia, Andrea Alessandri, Dave M. Lawrence, Graham P. Weedon, Richard Ellis, Stefan Hagemann, Jiafu Mao, Mark G. Flanner, Matteo Zampieri, Stefano Materia, Rachel M. Law, and Justin Sheffield
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2809–2832,Short summary
This manuscript describes the setup of the CMIP6 project Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP).
J. Mao, D. M. Ricciuto, P. E. Thornton, J. M. Warren, A. W. King, X. Shi, C. M. Iversen, and R. J. Norby
Biogeosciences, 13, 641–657,Short summary
The aim of this study is to implement, calibrate and evaluate the CLM4 against carbon and hydrology observations from a shading and labeling experiment in a stand of young loblolly pines. We found a combination of parameters measured on-site and calibration targeting biomass, transpiration, and 13C discrimination gave good agreement with pretreatment measurements. We also used observations from the experiment to develop a conceptual model of short-term photosynthate storage and transport.
X. Shi, P. E. Thornton, D. M. Ricciuto, P. J. Hanson, J. Mao, S. D. Sebestyen, N. A. Griffiths, and G. Bisht
Biogeosciences, 12, 6463–6477,
W. D. Collins, A. P. Craig, J. E. Truesdale, A. V. Di Vittorio, A. D. Jones, B. Bond-Lamberty, K. V. Calvin, J. A. Edmonds, S. H. Kim, A. M. Thomson, P. Patel, Y. Zhou, J. Mao, X. Shi, P. E. Thornton, L. P. Chini, and G. C. Hurtt
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2203–2219,Short summary
The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human-climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers in iESM, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics.
Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, C. Lu, H. Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, and X. Shi
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2875–2893,
A. V. Di Vittorio, L. P. Chini, B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Mao, X. Shi, J. Truesdale, A. Craig, K. Calvin, A. Jones, W. D. Collins, J. Edmonds, G. C. Hurtt, P. Thornton, and A. Thomson
Biogeosciences, 11, 6435–6450,Short summary
Economic models provide scenarios of land use and greenhouse gas emissions to earth system models to project global change. We found, and partially addressed, inconsistencies in land cover between an economic and an earth system model that effectively alter a prescribed scenario, causing significant differences in projected terrestrial carbon and atmospheric CO2 between prescribed and altered scenarios. We outline a solution to this current problem in scenario-based global change projections.
B. Bond-Lamberty, K. Calvin, A. D. Jones, J. Mao, P. Patel, X. Y. Shi, A. Thomson, P. Thornton, and Y. Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2545–2555,
D. N. Huntzinger, C. Schwalm, A. M. Michalak, K. Schaefer, A. W. King, Y. Wei, A. Jacobson, S. Liu, R. B. Cook, W. M. Post, G. Berthier, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, H. Lei, C. Lu, J. Mao, C. H. Peng, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Riccuito, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao, and Q. Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 2121–2133,
Related subject area
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Christoph Klingler, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4529–4565,Short summary
LamaH-CE is a large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Central Europe. The dataset contains hydrometeorological time series (daily and hourly resolution) and various attributes for 859 gauged basins. Sticking closely to the CAMELS datasets, LamaH includes additional basin delineations and attributes for describing a large interconnected river network. LamaH further contains outputs of a conceptual hydrological baseline model for plausibility checking of the inputs and for benchmarking.
Anna Špačková, Vojtěch Bareš, Martin Fencl, Marc Schleiss, Joël Jaffrain, Alexis Berne, and Jörg Rieckermann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4219–4240,Short summary
An original dataset of microwave signal attenuation and rainfall variables was collected during 1-year-long field campaign. The monitored 38 GHz dual-polarized commercial microwave link with a short sampling resolution (4 s) was accompanied by five disdrometers and three rain gauges along its path. Antenna radomes were temporarily shielded for approximately half of the campaign period to investigate antenna wetting impacts.
Josef Fürst, Hans Peter Nachtnebel, Josef Gasch, Reinhard Nolz, Michael Paul Stockinger, Christine Stumpp, and Karsten Schulz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4019–4034,Short summary
Rosalia is a 222 ha forested research watershed in eastern Austria to study water, energy and solute transport processes. The paper describes the site, monitoring network, instrumentation and the datasets: high-resolution (10 min interval) time series starting in 2015 of four discharge gauging stations, seven rain gauges, and observations of air and water temperature, relative humidity, and conductivity, as well as soil water content and temperature, at different depths at four profiles.
Minghan Cheng, Xiyun Jiao, Binbin Li, Xun Yu, Mingchao Shao, and Xiuliang Jin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3995–4017,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key node linking surface water and energy balance. Satellite observations of ET have been widely used for water resources management in China. In this study, an ET product with high spatiotemporal resolution was generated using a surface energy balance algorithm and multisource remote sensing data. The generated ET product can be used for geoscience studies, especially global change, water resources management, and agricultural drought monitoring, for example.
Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Suwash Chandra Acharya, Nans Addor, Chihchung Chou, and Murray C. Peel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3847–3867,Short summary
This paper presents the Australian edition of the Catchment Attributes and Meteorology for Large-sample Studies (CAMELS) series of datasets. CAMELS-AUS comprises data for 222 unregulated catchments with long-term monitoring, combining hydrometeorological time series (streamflow and 18 climatic variables) with 134 attributes related to geology, soil, topography, land cover, anthropogenic influence and hydroclimatology. It is freely downloadable from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.921850.
Zhi Li, Mengye Chen, Shang Gao, Jonathan J. Gourley, Tiantian Yang, Xinyi Shen, Randall Kolar, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3755–3766,Short summary
This dataset is a compilation of multi-sourced flood records, retrieved from official reports, instruments, and crowdsourcing data since 1900. This study utilizes the flood database to analyze flood seasonality within major basins and socioeconomic impacts over time. It is anticipated that this dataset can support a variety of flood-related research, such as validation resources for hydrologic models, hydroclimatic studies, and flood vulnerability analysis across the United States.
Nadia Ouaadi, Jamal Ezzahar, Saïd Khabba, Salah Er-Raki, Adnane Chakir, Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Valérie Le Dantec, Zoubair Rafi, Antoine Beaumont, Mohamed Kasbani, and Lionel Jarlan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3707–3731,Short summary
In this paper, a radar remote sensing database composed of processed Sentinel-1 products and field measurements of soil and vegetation characteristics, weather data, and irrigation water inputs is described. The data set was collected over 3 years (2016–2019) in three drip-irrigated wheat fields in the center of Morocco. It is dedicated to radar data analysis over vegetated surface including the retrieval of soil and vegetation characteristics.
Jan L. Gunnink, Hung Van Pham, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3297–3319,Short summary
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) groundwater is important for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Increased pumping of groundwater has caused land subsidence and increased the risk of salinization, thereby endangering the livelihood of the population in the delta. We made a model of the salinity of the groundwater by integrating different sources of information and determined fresh groundwater volumes. The resulting model can be used by researchers and policymakers.
Jun Zhang, Laura E. Condon, Hoang Tran, and Reed M. Maxwell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3263–3279,Short summary
Existing national topographic datasets for the US may not be compatible with gridded hydrologic models. A national topographic dataset developed to support physically based hydrologic models at 1 km and 250 m over the contiguous US is provided. We used a Priority Flood algorithm to ensure hydrologically consistent drainage networks and evaluated the performance with an integrated hydrologic model. Datasets and scripts are available for direct data usage or modification of processing as desired.
Pei Zhang, Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Yijian Zeng, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Jiali Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3075–3102,Short summary
This paper reports on the status of the Tibet-Obs and presents a 10-year (2009–2019) surface soil moisture (SM) dataset produced based on in situ measurements taken at a depth of 5 cm collected from the Tibet-Obs. This surface SM dataset includes the original 15 min in situ measurements collected by multiple SM monitoring sites of three networks (i.e. the Maqu, Naqu, and Ngari networks) and the spatially upscaled SM records produced for the Maqu and Shiquanhe networks.
Wenting Wang, Shuiqing Yin, Bofu Yu, and Shaodong Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2945–2962,Short summary
A gridded input dataset at a 10 km resolution of a weather generator, CLIGEN, was established for mainland China. Based on this, CLIGEN can generate a series of daily temperature, solar radiation, precipitation data, and rainfall intensity information. In each grid, the input file contains 13 groups of parameters. All parameters were first calculated based on long-term observations and then interpolated by universal kriging. The accuracy of the gridded input dataset has been fully assessed.
Jan G. Hofste, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Donghai Zheng, Christiaan van der Tol, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2819–2856,Short summary
The dataset reported in this paper concerns the measurement of microwave reflections from an alpine meadow over the Tibetan Plateau. These microwave reflections were measured continuously over 1 year. With it, variations in soil water content due to evaporation, precipitation, drainage, and soil freezing/thawing can be seen. A better understanding of the effects aforementioned processes have on microwave reflections may improve methods for estimating soil water content used by satellites.
Rafael Schäffer, Kristian Bär, Sebastian Fischer, Johann-Gerhard Fritsche, and Ingo Sass
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Knowledge of groundwater properties are relevant e.g. for drinking water supply, spas or geothermal energy. We compiled groundwater data almost exclusively from publications resulting in 1035 datasets from 560 springs or wells sampled since 1810. The database is useful to describe spatial or temporal variation of groundwater composition and to reduce uncertainties. It also serves to re-evaluate the movement of deep groundwaters or the estimate its characteristics such as temperature and age.
Edoardo Martini, Matteo Bauckholt, Simon Kögler, Manuel Kreck, Kurt Roth, Ulrike Werban, Ute Wollschläger, and Steffen Zacharias
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2529–2539,Short summary
We present the in situ data available from the soil monitoring network
STH-net, recently implemented at the Schäfertal Hillslope site (Germany). The STH-net provides data (soil water content, soil temperature, water level, and meteorological variables – measured at a 10 min interval since 1 January 2019) for developing and testing modelling approaches in the context of vadose zone hydrology at spatial scales ranging from the pedon to the hillslope.
Alice César Fassoni-Andrade, Fabien Durand, Daniel Moreira, Alberto Azevedo, Valdenira Ferreira dos Santos, Claudia Funi, and Alain Laraque
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2275–2291,Short summary
We present a seamless dataset of river, land, and ocean topography of the Amazon River estuary with a 30 m spatial resolution. An innovative remote sensing approach was used to estimate the topography of the intertidal flats, riverbanks, and adjacent floodplains. Amazon River bathymetry was generated from digitized nautical charts. The novel dataset opens up a broad range of opportunities, providing the poorly known underwater digital topography required for environmental sciences.
Stefania Tamea, Marta Tuninetti, Irene Soligno, and Francesco Laio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2025–2051,Short summary
The database includes water footprint and virtual water trade data for 370 agricultural goods in all countries, starting from 1961 and 1986, respectively. Data improve upon earlier datasets because of the annual variability of data and the tracing of goods’ origin within the international trade. The CWASI database aims at supporting national and global assessments of water use in agriculture and food production/consumption and welcomes contributions from the research community.
Fanny Arnaud, Lalandy Sehen Chanu, Jules Grillot, Jérémie Riquier, Hervé Piégay, Dad Roux-Michollet, Georges Carrel, and Jean-Michel Olivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1939–1955,Short summary
This article provides a database of 350 cartographic and topographic resources on the 530-km-long French Rhône River, compiled from the 17th to mid-20th century in 14 national, regional, and departmental archive services. The database has several potential applications in geomorphology, retrospective hydraulic modelling, historical ecology, and sustainable river management and restoration, as well as permitting comparisons of channel changes with other human-impacted rivers worldwide.
Hollie M. Cooper, Emma Bennett, James Blake, Eleanor Blyth, David Boorman, Elizabeth Cooper, Jonathan Evans, Matthew Fry, Alan Jenkins, Ross Morrison, Daniel Rylett, Simon Stanley, Magdalena Szczykulska, Emily Trill, Vasileios Antoniou, Anne Askquith-Ellis, Lucy Ball, Milo Brooks, Michael A. Clarke, Nicholas Cowan, Alexander Cumming, Philip Farrand, Olivia Hitt, William Lord, Peter Scarlett, Oliver Swain, Jenna Thornton, Alan Warwick, and Ben Winterbourn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1737–1757,Short summary
COSMOS-UK is a UK network of environmental monitoring sites, with a focus on measuring field-scale soil moisture. Each site includes soil and hydrometeorological sensors providing data including air temperature, humidity, net radiation, neutron counts, snow water equivalent, and potential evaporation. These data can provide information for science, industry, and agriculture by improving existing understanding and data products in fields such as water resources, space sciences, and biodiversity.
Surya Gupta, Tomislav Hengl, Peter Lehmann, Sara Bonetti, and Dani Or
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1593–1612,
Yves Tramblay, Nathalie Rouché, Jean-Emmanuel Paturel, Gil Mahé, Jean-François Boyer, Ernest Amoussou, Ansoumana Bodian, Honoré Dacosta, Hamouda Dakhlaoui, Alain Dezetter, Denis Hughes, Lahoucine Hanich, Christophe Peugeot, Raphael Tshimanga, and Patrick Lachassagne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1547–1560,Short summary
This dataset provides a set of hydrometric indices for about 1500 stations across Africa with daily discharge data. These indices represent mean flow characteristics and extremes (low flows and floods), allowing us to study the long-term evolution of hydrology in Africa and support the modeling efforts that aim at reducing the vulnerability of African countries to hydro-climatic variability.
Oleksandra O. Shumilova, Alexander N. Sukhodolov, George S. Constantinescu, and Bruce J. MacVicar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1519–1529,Short summary
Obstructions (vegetation and/or boulders) located on a riverbed alter flow structure and affect riverbed morphology and biodiversity. We studied flow dynamics around obstructions by carrying out experiments in a gravel-bed river. Flow rates, size, submergence and solid fractions of the obstructions were varied in a set of 30 experimental runs, in which high-resolution patterns of mean and turbulent flow were obtained. For an introduction to the experiments see: https://youtu.be/5wXjvzqxONI.
Cristina Aguilar, Rafael Pimentel, and María J. Polo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1335–1359,Short summary
This work presents the reconstruction of 19 years of daily, monthly, and annual global radiation maps in Sierra Nevada (Spain) derived using daily historical records from weather stations in the area and a modeling scheme that captures the topographic effects that constitute the main sources of the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation. The generated datasets are valuable in different fields, such as hydrology, ecology, or energy production systems downstream.
Gustavo Andrei Speckhann, Heidi Kreibich, and Bruno Merz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 731–740,Short summary
Dams are an important element of water resources management. Data about dams are crucial for practitioners, scientists, and policymakers. We present the most comprehensive open-access dam inventory for Germany to date. The inventory combines multiple sources of information. It comprises 530 dams with information on name, location, river, start year of construction and operation, crest length, dam height, lake area, lake volume, purpose, dam structure, and building characteristics.
Edward R. Jones, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Manzoor Qadir, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 237–254,Short summary
Continually improving and affordable wastewater management provides opportunities for both pollution reduction and clean water supply augmentation. This study provides a global outlook on the state of domestic and industrial wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuse. Our results can serve as a baseline in evaluating progress towards policy goals (e.g. Sustainable Development Goals) and as input data in large-scale water resource assessments (e.g. water quality modelling).
Bolivar Paredes-Beltran, Alvaro Sordo-Ward, and Luis Garrote
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 213–229,Short summary
We present a dataset of 1010 entries of dams in South America describing several attributes such as the dams' names, characteristics, purposes, georeferenced locations and also relevant data on the dams' catchments. Information was obtained from extensive research through numerous sources and then validated individually. With this work we expect to contribute to the development of new research in the region, which to date has been limited to certain basins due to the absence of information.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3189–3204,Short summary
Our analysis of soil physical and hydraulic properties across two soil chronosequences of 10 millennia in the Swiss Alps provides important observation of the evolution of soil hydraulic behavior. A strong co-evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties was revealed by the observed change of fast-draining coarse-textured soils to slow-draining soils with a high water-holding capacity in correlation with a distinct change in structural properties and organic matter content.
Maria Staudinger, Stefan Seeger, Barbara Herbstritt, Michael Stoelzle, Jan Seibert, Kerstin Stahl, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3057–3066,Short summary
The data set CH-IRP provides isotope composition in precipitation and streamflow from 23 Swiss catchments, being unique regarding its long-term multi-catchment coverage along an alpine–pre-alpine gradient. CH-IRP contains fortnightly time series of stable water isotopes from streamflow grab samples complemented by time series in precipitation. Sampling conditions, catchment and climate information, lab standards and errors are provided together with areal precipitation and catchment boundaries.
Gemma Coxon, Nans Addor, John P. Bloomfield, Jim Freer, Matt Fry, Jamie Hannaford, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Rosanna Lane, Melinda Lewis, Emma L. Robinson, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2459–2483,Short summary
We present the first large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Great Britain. The dataset collates river flows, catchment attributes, and catchment boundaries for 671 catchments across Great Britain. We characterise the topography, climate, streamflow, land cover, soils, hydrogeology, human influence, and discharge uncertainty of each catchment. The dataset is publicly available for the community to use in a wide range of environmental and modelling analyses.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Vinícius B. P. Chagas, Pedro L. B. Chaffe, Nans Addor, Fernando M. Fan, Ayan S. Fleischmann, Rodrigo C. D. Paiva, and Vinícius A. Siqueira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2075–2096,Short summary
We present a new dataset for large-sample hydrological studies in Brazil. The dataset encompasses daily observed streamflow from 3679 gauges, as well as meteorological forcing for 897 selected catchments. It also includes 65 attributes covering topographic, climatic, hydrologic, land cover, geologic, soil, and human intervention variables. CAMELS-BR is publicly available and will enable new insights into the hydrological behavior of catchments in Brazil.
Shaun Harrigan, Ervin Zsoter, Lorenzo Alfieri, Christel Prudhomme, Peter Salamon, Fredrik Wetterhall, Christopher Barnard, Hannah Cloke, and Florian Pappenberger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2043–2060,Short summary
A new river discharge reanalysis dataset is produced operationally by coupling ECMWF's latest global atmospheric reanalysis, ERA5, with the hydrological modelling component of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis is a global gridded dataset with a horizontal resolution of 0.1° at a daily time step and is freely available from 1979 until near real time. The evaluation against observations shows that the GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis was skilful in 86 % of catchments.
Laurent de Rham, Yonas Dibike, Spyros Beltaos, Daniel Peters, Barrie Bonsal, and Terry Prowse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1835–1860,Short summary
This paper describes the Canadian River Ice Database. Water level recordings at a network of 196 National Hydrometric Program gauging sites over the period 1894–2015 were reviewed. This database, of nearly 73 000 recorded variables and over 460 000 data entries, includes the timing and magnitude of fall freeze-up, midwinter break-up, winter minimum, ice thickness, spring break-up and maximum open-water levels. These data cover the range of river types and climate regions for Canada.
Yuanwei Wang, Lei Wang, Xiuping Li, Jing Zhou, and Zhidan Hu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1789–1803,Short summary
This article is to provide a better precipitation product for the largest river basin of the Tibetan Plateau, the upper Brahmaputra River basin, suitable for use in hydrological simulations and other climate change studies. We integrate gauge, satellite, and reanalysis precipitation datasets to generate a new dataset. The new product has been rigorously validated at various temporal and spatial scales with gauge precipitation observations as well as in cryosphere hydrological simulations.
Matthew T. Perks, Silvano Fortunato Dal Sasso, Alexandre Hauet, Elizabeth Jamieson, Jérôme Le Coz, Sophie Pearce, Salvador Peña-Haro, Alonso Pizarro, Dariia Strelnikova, Flavia Tauro, James Bomhof, Salvatore Grimaldi, Alain Goulet, Borbála Hortobágyi, Magali Jodeau, Sabine Käfer, Robert Ljubičić, Ian Maddock, Peter Mayr, Gernot Paulus, Lionel Pénard, Leigh Sinclair, and Salvatore Manfreda
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1545–1559,Short summary
We present datasets acquired from seven countries across Europe and North America consisting of image sequences. These have been subjected to a range of pre-processing methods in preparation for image velocimetry analysis. These datasets and accompanying reference data are a resource that may be used for conducting benchmarking experiments, assessing algorithm performances, and focusing future software development.
Ziqiang Ma, Jintao Xu, Siyu Zhu, Jun Yang, Guoqiang Tang, Yuanjian Yang, Zhou Shi, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1525–1544,Short summary
Focusing on the potential drawbacks in generating the state-of-the-art IMERG data in both the TRMM and GPM era, a new daily calibration algorithm on IMERG was proposed, as well as a new AIMERG precipitation dataset (0.1°/half-hourly, 2000–2015, Asia) with better quality than IMERG for Asian scientific research and applications. The proposed daily calibration algorithm for GPM is promising and applicable in generating the future IMERG in either an operational scheme or a retrospective manner.
C. Jason Williams, Frederick B. Pierson, Patrick R. Kormos, Osama Z. Al-Hamdan, and Justin C. Johnson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1347–1365,Short summary
Data were collected at three sites over 10 years to evaluate ecologic impacts of tree encroachment on rangelands and assess impacts of tree-removal practices on vegetation, surface conditions, and hydrologic/erosion processes. The dataset includes 1300 rainfall simulation and 838 overland-flow experiments paired with vegetation, surface cover, and soil data across point to hillslope scales. The data advance hydrology/erosion process understanding and are a source for model development/testing.
Riccardo Tortini, Nina Noujdina, Samantha Yeo, Martina Ricko, Charon M. Birkett, Ankush Khandelwal, Vipin Kumar, Miriam E. Marlier, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1141–1151,Short summary
We present a global collection of satellite-derived time series of surface water volume changes for 347 lakes and reservoirs for 1992–2018. These changes were estimated using a statistical relationship between water surface elevation and area measured from satellite, even during periods when either elevation or area was not available. These records represent the most complete global surface water time series, and they are of fundamental importance to baseline future satellite missions.
Navid Ghajarnia, Georgia Destouni, Josefin Thorslund, Zahra Kalantari, Imenne Åhlén, Jesús A. Anaya-Acevedo, Juan F. Blanco-Libreros, Sonia Borja, Sergey Chalov, Aleksandra Chalova, Kwok P. Chun, Nicola Clerici, Amanda Desormeaux, Bethany B. Garfield, Pierre Girard, Olga Gorelits, Amy Hansen, Fernando Jaramillo, Jerker Jarsjö, Adnane Labbaci, John Livsey, Giorgos Maneas, Kathryn McCurley Pisarello, Sebastián Palomino-Ángel, Jan Pietroń, René M. Price, Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Jorge Salgado, A. Britta K. Sannel, Samaneh Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Ylva Sjöberg, Pavel Terskii, Guillaume Vigouroux, Lucia Licero-Villanueva, and David Zamora
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1083–1100,Short summary
Hydroclimate and land-use conditions determine the dynamics of wetlands and their ecosystem services. However, knowledge and data for conditions and changes over entire wetlandscapes are scarce. This paper presents a novel database for 27 wetlandscapes around the world, combining survey-based local information and hydroclimatic and land-use datasets. The developed database can enhance our capacity to understand and manage critical wetland ecosystems and their services under global change.
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Filip Stanic, Auguste Gires, Daniel Schertzer, and Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1025–1035,Short summary
The Blue Green Wave of Champs-sur-Marne (1 ha, France) has been converted into a full-scale monitoring site devoted to studying the uses of green infrastructure in storm-water management. For this purpose, the components of the water balance have been monitored: rainfall, water content in the substrate, and discharge. These measurements are useful to better understand the processes (infiltration and retention) in hydrological performance and spatial variability.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 501–517,Short summary
This paper contains detailed information about the instrumentation of permeable pavements with soil moisture sensors and the performance of infiltration experiments on these surfaces. The collected data are beneficial for studying urban water and energy cycles. They contain valuable information about the hydrological behavior of permeable pavements and urban subsurface heat anomalies. Due to the lack of similar data, we are convinced that the dataset is of great scientific value.
Chao Gao, Buda Su, Valentina Krysanova, Qianyu Zha, Cai Chen, Gang Luo, Xiaofan Zeng, Jinlong Huang, Ming Xiong, Liping Zhang, and Tong Jiang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 387–402,Short summary
The study produced the daily discharge time series for the upper Yangtze River basin (Cuntan hydrological station) in the period 1861–2299 under scenarios with and without anthropogenic climate change. The daily discharge was simulated by using four hydrological models (HBV, SWAT, SWIM and VIC) driven by multiple GCM outputs. This dataset could be compared to assess changes in river discharge in the upper Yangtze River basin attributable to anthropogenic climate change.
Fabian Ries, Lara Kirn, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 245–255,Short summary
Pluvial or flash floods generated by heavy precipitation events cause large economic damage and loss of life worldwide. As discharge observations from such extreme occurrences are rare, data from artificial sprinkling experiments offer valuable information on runoff generation processes, overland and subsurface flow rates, and response times. A extensive data set from 132 large-scale sprinkling experiments in Germany is described and presented in this paper.
Andrew R. Slaughter and Saman Razavi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 231–243,Short summary
Water management faces the challenge of non-stationarity in future flows. To extend flow datasets beyond the gauging data, this study presents a method of generating an ensemble of weekly flows from tree-ring reconstructed flows to represent uncertainty that can overcome certain long-standing data challenges with paleo-reconstruction. An ensemble of 500 flow time series were generated for the four sub-basins of the Saskatchewan River basin, Canada, for the period 1600–2001.
Stephen Coss, Michael Durand, Yuchan Yi, Yuanyuan Jia, Qi Guo, Stephen Tuozzolo, C. K. Shum, George H. Allen, Stéphane Calmant, and Tamlin Pavelsky
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 137–150,Short summary
We present a new radar-altimeter-satellite-measured river surface height dataset. Our novel approach is broadly applicable rather than location specific. We were able to measure rivers that account for > 34 % of global drainage area with an accuracy comparable to much of the established literature. 389 of our 932 measurement locations include river gage validation. We have focused our efforts on creating a consistent, well-documented data product to encourage use by the broader science community.
Ellie Broadman, Lorna L. Thurston, Erik Schiefer, Nicholas P. McKay, David Fortin, Jason Geck, Michael G. Loso, Matt Nolan, Stéphanie H. Arcusa, Christopher W. Benson, Rebecca A. Ellerbroek, Michael P. Erb, Cody C. Routson, Charlotte Wiman, A. Jade Wong, and Darrell S. Kaufman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1957–1970,Short summary
Rapid climate warming is impacting physical processes in Arctic environments. Glacier–fed lakes are influenced by many of these processes, and they are impacted by the changing behavior of weather, glaciers, and rivers. We present data from weather stations, river gauging stations, lake moorings, and more, following 4 years of environmental monitoring in the watershed of Lake Peters, a glacier–fed lake in Arctic Alaska. These data can help us study the changing dynamics of this remote setting.
Gionata Ghiggi, Vincent Humphrey, Sonia I. Seneviratne, and Lukas Gudmundsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1655–1674,Short summary
Freshwater resources are of high societal relevance and understanding their past variability is vital to water management in the context of current and future climatic change. This study introduces GRUN: the first global gridded monthly reconstruction of runoff covering the period from 1902 to 2014. The dataset agrees on average much better with the streamflow observations than an ensemble of 13 state-of-the-art global hydrological models and will foster the understanding of freshwater dynamics.
Luca Brocca, Paolo Filippucci, Sebastian Hahn, Luca Ciabatta, Christian Massari, Stefania Camici, Lothar Schüller, Bojan Bojkov, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1583–1601,Short summary
SM2RAIN–ASCAT is a new 12-year (2007–2018) global-scale rainfall dataset obtained by applying the SM2RAIN algorithm to ASCAT soil moisture data. The dataset has a spatiotemporal sampling resolution of 12.5 km and 1 d. Results show that the new dataset performs particularly well in Africa and South America, i.e. in the continents in which ground observations are scarce and the need for satellite rainfall data is high. SM2RAIN–ASCAT is available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.340556.
Adam S. Ward, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Skuyler Herzog, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Noah M. Schmadel, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, Nathan I. Wisnoski, and Steven M. Wondzell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1567–1581,Short summary
Studies of river corridor exchange commonly focus on characterization of the physical, chemical, or biological system. As a result, complimentary systems and context are often lacking, which may limit interpretation. Here, we present a characterization of all three systems at 62 sites in a 5th-order river basin, including samples of surface water, hyporheic water, and sediment. These data will allow assessment of interacting processes in the river corridor.
Michal Mikolaj, Andreas Güntner, Claudio Brunini, Hartmut Wziontek, Mauricio Gende, Stephan Schröder, Augusto M. Cassino, Alfredo Pasquaré, Marvin Reich, Anne Hartmann, Fernando A. Oreiro, Jonathan Pendiuk, Luis Guarracino, and Ezequiel D. Antokoletz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1501–1513,Short summary
We present the first continuous measurements of hydrological, meteorological, and gravity variables at the Argentine-German Geodetic Observatory (AGGO) close to La Plata, Argentina, for the period 2016–2018. The data may be used by both scientists and local authorities to correct other geodetic observations at the observatory, to monitor environmental changes, or to quantify extreme events such as floods and droughts in the La Plata region.
Anna E. Coles, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, and Brian G. McConkey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1375–1383,Short summary
Long hydrological records from cold regions with seasonally frozen ground are rare. This paper presents a 50-year dataset from a site (the Swift Current hillslopes) on the Canadian Prairies. The dataset includes information on runoff, soil and water nutrient concentrations, snowpack, soil moisture, agricultural practices and topography. This is a valuable resource for water management and sustainability research, particularly for understanding land use and climate change impacts in cold regions.
Al Bitar, A., Kerr, Y. H., Merlin, O., Cabot, F., Wigneron, J.-P., Froissard, F., Suquia, D., Petitpa, A., Piguet, B., and Martin, E.: Global drought index from SMOS soil moisture, in: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS, Melbourne, Australia, 2013.
Al Bitar, A., Mialon, A., Kerr, Y. H., Cabot, F., Richaume, P., Jacquette, E., Quesney, A., Mahmoodi, A., Tarot, S., Parrens, M., Al-Yaari, A., Pellarin, T., Rodriguez-Fernandez, N., and Wigneron, J.-P.: The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 293–315, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-293-2017, 2017.
Andresen, C. G., Lawrence, D. M., Wilson, C. J., McGuire, A. D., Koven, C., Schaefer, K., Jafarov, E., Peng, S., Chen, X., Gouttevin, I., Burke, E., Chadburn, S., Ji, D., Chen, G., Hayes, D., and Zhang, W.: Soil moisture and hydrology projections of the permafrost region – a model intercomparison, The Cryosphere, 14, 445–459, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-445-2020, 2020.
Balsamo, G., Beljaars, A., Scipal, K., Viterbo, P., van den Hurk, B., Hirschi, M., and Betts, A. K.: A revised hydrology for the ECMWF model: Verification from field site to terrestrial water storage and impact in the integrated forecast system, J. Hydrometeorol., 10, 623–643, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JHM1068.1, 2009.
Balsamo, G., Albergel, C., Beljaars, A., Boussetta, S., Brun, E., Cloke, H., Dee, D., Dutra, E., Muñoz-Sabater, J., Pappenberger, F., de Rosnay, P., Stockdale, T., and Vitart, F.: ERA-Interim/Land: a global land surface reanalysis data set, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 389–407, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-389-2015, 2015.
Beaudoing, H., Rodell, M., and NASA/GSFC/HSL: GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 hourly 0.25 x 0.25 degree V2.0, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2019.
Beck, H. E., Pan, M., Miralles, D. G., Reichle, R. H., Dorigo, W. A., Hahn, S., Sheffield, J., Karthikeyan, L., Balsamo, G., Parinussa, R. M., van Dijk, A. I. J. M., Du, J., Kimball, J. S., Vergopolan, N., and Wood, E. F.: Evaluation of 18 satellite- and model-based soil moisture products using in situ measurements from 826 sensors, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 17–40, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-17-2021, 2021.
Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 677–699, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011, 2011.
Bishop, C. H. and Abramowitz, G.: Climate model dependence and the replicate Earth paradigm, Clim. Dynam., 41, 885–900, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1610-y, 2013.
Dai, A. and Zhao, T.: Uncertainties in historical changes and future projections of drought. Part I: estimates of historical drought changes, Clim. Change, 144, 519–533, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1705-2, 2017.
Dai, A., Trenberth, K. E., and Qian, T.: A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming, J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 1117–1130, https://doi.org/10.1175/jhm-386.1, 2004.
Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, I., Biblot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Greer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Holm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kallberg, P., Kohler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Mong-Sanz, B. M., Morcette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thepaut, J. N., and Vitart, F.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 553–597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828, 2011.
de Rosnay, P., Drusch, M., Vasiljevic, D., Balsamo, G., Albergel, C., and Isaksen, L.: A simplified Extended Kalman Filter for the global operational soil moisture analysis at ECMWF, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 1199–1213, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2023, 2013.
Dirmeyer, P. A., Gao, X., Zhao, M., Guo, Z., Oki, T., and Hanasaki, N.: GSWP-2: Multimodel analysis and implications for our perception of the land surface, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 1381–1398, https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-87-10-1381, 2006.
Dorigo, W., de Jeu, R., Chung, D., Parinussa, R., Liu, Y., Wagner, W., and Fernández-Prieto, D.: Evaluating global trends (1988–2010) in harmonized multi-satellite surface soil moisture, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18405, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052988, 2012.
Dorigo, W., Wagner, W., Albergel, C., Albrecht, F., Balsamo, G., Brocca, L., Chung, D., Ertl, M., Forkel, M., Gruber, A., Haas, E., Hamer, P. D., Hirschi, M., Ikonen, J., de Jeu, R., Kidd, R., Lahoz, W., Liu, Y. Y., Miralles, D., Mistelbauer, T., Nicolai-Shaw, N., Parinussa, R., Pratola, C., Reimer, C., van der Schalie, R., Seneviratne, S. I., Smolander, T., and Lecomte, P.: ESA CCI soil moisture for improved Earth system understanding: State-of-the art and future directions, Remote Sens. Environ., 203, 185–215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.001, 2017.
Dorigo, W. A., Wagner, W., Hohensinn, R., Hahn, S., Paulik, C., Xaver, A., Gruber, A., Drusch, M., Mecklenburg, S., van Oevelen, P., Robock, A., and Jackson, T.: The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1675–1698, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-1675-2011, 2011.
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We developed seven global soil moisture datasets (1970–2016, monthly, half-degree, and multilayer) by merging a wide range of data sources, including in situ and satellite observations, reanalysis, offline land surface model simulations, and Earth system model simulations. Given the great value of long-term, multilayer, gap-free soil moisture products to climate research and applications, we believe this paper and the presented datasets would be of interest to many different communities.
We developed seven global soil moisture datasets (1970–2016, monthly, half-degree, and...