Articles | Volume 13, issue 8
Data description paper
27 Aug 2021
Data description paper | 27 Aug 2021
A year of attenuation data from a commercial dual-polarized duplex microwave link with concurrent disdrometer, rain gauge, and weather observations
Anna Špačková et al.
No articles found.
Christos Gatidis, Marc Schleiss, and Christine Unal
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Knowledge of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is crucial for understanding rainfall microphysics and quantifying uncertainty in quantitative precipitation estimates. In this study a general overview of the DSD retrieval approach from a polarimetric radar is discussed, highlighting sensitivity to potential sources of errors, either directly linked to the radar measurements or indirectly through the critical modeling assumptions behind the method such as the shape (μ) – size (Λ) relationship.
Claudia Mignani, Lukas Zimmermann, Rigel Kivi, Alexis Berne, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In the Arctic clouds play a critical role in surface warming, depending on their phase. We determined over the course of eight winter months the phase of clouds in Northern Finland using radiosondes and observations of snow particle habits at ground level. We found that precipitating clouds were extending from near ground to at least 2.7 km altitude and approximately three quarters of them were ice-phase. Likely moisture sources and possible ice formation processes are discussed.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1965–1988,Short summary
The modelling study focuses on the importance of ice multiplication processes in orographic mixed-phase clouds, which is one of the least understood cloud types in the climate system. We show that the consideration of ice seeding and secondary ice production through ice–ice collisional breakup is essential for correct predictions of precipitation in mountainous terrain, with important implications for radiation processes.
Jeong-Su Ko, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Kwonil Kim, Gyuwon Lee, Gregory Thompson, and Alexis Berne
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This study evaluates the performance of the four microphysics parameterizations, WDM6, WDM7, Thompson, and Morrison, in simulating snowfall events during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaign. Eight snowfall events, classified into three categories (cold-low, warm-low, and air-sea interaction), depending on the synoptic characteristics, are selected. The evaluation is conducted focusing on the simulated hydrometeors, microphysics budgets, wind fields, and precipitation using the measurement data.
Monika Feldmann, Urs Germann, Marco Gabella, and Alexis Berne
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 1225–1244,Short summary
Mesocyclones are the rotating updraught of supercell thunderstorms that present a particularly hazardous subset of thunderstorms. A first-time characterisation of the spatiotemporal occurrence of mesocyclones in the Alpine region is presented, using 5 years of Swiss operational radar data. We investigate parallels to hailstorms, particularly the influence of large-scale flow, daily cycles and terrain. Improving understanding of mesocyclones is valuable for risk assessment and warning purposes.
Jussi Leinonen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6851–6866,Short summary
Measuring the shape, size and mass of a large number of snowflakes is a challenging task; it is hard to achieve in an automatic and instrumented manner. We present a method to retrieve these properties of individual snowflakes using as input a triplet of images/pictures automatically collected by a multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) instrument. Our method, based on machine learning, is trained on artificially generated snowflakes and evaluated on 3D-printed snowflake replicas.
Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Marie Billault-Roux, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The Micro Rain Radar-PRO (MRR-PRO) is a meteorological radar, with a relevant set of features for deployment in remote locations. We developed an algorithm, named ERUO, for the processing of its measurements of snowfall. The algorithm addresses typical issues of the raw spectral data, such as interference lines, but also improves the quality and sensitivity of the radar variables. ERUO has been evaluated over four different datasets collected in Antarctica and in the Swiss Jura.
Marc Schwaerzel, Dominik Brunner, Fabian Jakub, Claudia Emde, Brigitte Buchmann, Alexis Berne, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6469–6482,Short summary
NO2 maps from airborne imaging remote sensing often appear much smoother than one would expect from high-resolution model simulations of NO2 over cities, despite the small ground-pixel size of the sensors. Our case study over Zurich, using the newly implemented building module of the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver, shows that the 3D effect can explain part of the smearing and that building shadows cause a noticeable underestimation and noise in the measured NO2 columns.
Didier de Villiers, Marc Schleiss, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Rolf Hut, and Nick van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5607–5623,Short summary
Ground-based rainfall observations across the African continent are sparse. We present a new and inexpensive rainfall measuring instrument (the intervalometer) and use it to derive reasonably accurate rainfall rates. These are dependent on a fundamental assumption that is widely used in parameterisations of the rain drop size distribution. This assumption is tested and found to not apply for most raindrops but is still useful in deriving rainfall rates. The intervalometer shows good potential.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10993–11012,Short summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol–cloud droplet link in alpine mixed-phase clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations and never exceeds a characteristic “limiting droplet number”, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity limited when it is within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.
Noémie Planat, Josué Gehring, Étienne Vignon, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4543–4564,Short summary
We implement a new method to identify microphysical processes during cold precipitation events based on the sign of the vertical gradient of polarimetric radar variables. We analytically asses the meteorological conditions for this vertical analysis to hold, apply it on two study cases and successfully compare it with other methods informing about the microphysics. Finally, we are able to obtain the main vertical structure and characteristics of the different processes during these study cases.
Daniel Wolfensberger, Marco Gabella, Marco Boscacci, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3169–3193,Short summary
In this work, we present a novel quantitative precipitation estimation method for Switzerland that uses random forests, an ensemble-based machine learning technique. The estimator has been trained with a database of 4 years of ground and radar observations. The results of an in-depth evaluation indicate that, compared with the more classical method in use at MeteoSwiss, this novel estimator is able to reduce both the average error and bias of the predictions.
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2749–2769,Short summary
In the context of climate studies, understanding the role of clouds on a global and local scale is of paramount importance. One aspect is the quantification of cloud liquid water, which impacts the Earth’s radiative balance. This is routinely achieved with radiometers operating at different frequencies. In this study, we propose an approach that uses a single-frequency radiometer and that can be applied at any location to retrieve vertically integrated quantities of liquid water and water vapor.
Josué Gehring, Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Nikola Besic, Kwang Deuk Ahn, GyuWon Lee, and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 417–433,Short summary
This article describes a dataset of precipitation and cloud measurements collected from November 2017 to March 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The dataset includes weather radar data and images of snowflakes. It allows for studying the snowfall intensity; wind conditions; and shape, size and fall speed of snowflakes. Classifications of the types of snowflakes show that aggregates of ice crystals were dominant. This dataset represents a unique opportunity to study snowfall in this region.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Gillian Young, Hugh Morrison, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 755–771,Short summary
Summer clouds have a significant impact on the radiation budget of the Antarctic surface and thus on ice-shelf melting. However, these are poorly represented in climate models due to errors in their microphysical structure, including the number of ice crystals that they contain. We show that breakup from ice particle collisions can substantially magnify the ice crystal number concentration with significant implications for surface radiation. This process is currently missing in climate models.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Pavel Valtr, Martin Grabner, and Vojtěch Bareš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6559–6578,Short summary
Commercial microwave links operating at E-band frequencies are increasingly being updated and are frequently replacing older infrastructure. We show that E-band microwave links are able to observe even light rainfalls, a feat practically impossible to achieve by older 15–40 GHz devices. Furthermore, water vapor retrieval may be possible from long E-band microwave links, although the efficient separation of gaseous attenuation from other signal losses will be challenging in practice.
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,Short summary
Horizontal homogeneity is often assumed for trace gases remote sensing, although it is not valid where trace gas concentrations have high spatial variability, e.g., in cities. We show the importance of 3D effects for MAX-DOAS and airborne imaging spectrometers using 3D-box air mass factors implemented in the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver. In both cases, 3D information is invaluable for interpreting the measurements, as not considering 3D effects can lead to misinterpretation of measurements.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3699–3723,Short summary
A new way to downscale rainfall fields based on the notion of equal-volume areas (EVAs) is proposed. Experiments conducted on 100 rainfall events in the Netherlands show that the EVA method outperforms classical methods based on fixed grid cell sizes, producing fields with more realistic spatial structures. The main novelty of the method lies in its adaptive sampling strategy, which avoids many of the mathematical challenges associated with the presence of zero rainfall values.
Josué Gehring, Annika Oertel, Étienne Vignon, Nicolas Jullien, Nikola Besic, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7373–7392,Short summary
In this study, we analyse how large-scale meteorological conditions influenced the local enhancement of snowfall during an intense precipitation event in Korea. We used atmospheric models, weather radars and snowflake images. We found out that a rising airstream in the warm sector of the low pressure system associated to this event influenced the evolution of snowfall. This study highlights the importance of interactions between large and local scales in this intense precipitation event.
Marc Schleiss, Jonas Olsson, Peter Berg, Tero Niemi, Teemu Kokkonen, Søren Thorndahl, Rasmus Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk Nielsen, Denica Bozhinova, and Seppo Pulkkinen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3157–3188,Short summary
A multinational assessment of radar's ability to capture heavy rain events is conducted. In total, six different radar products in Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland and Sweden were considered. Results show a fair agreement, with radar underestimating by 17 %-44 % on average compared with gauges. Despite being adjusted for bias, five of six radar products still exhibited strong conditional biases with intensities of 1–2% per mm/h. Median peak intensity bias was significantly higher, reaching 44 %–67%.
Jussi Leinonen and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2949–2964,Short summary
The appearance of snowflakes provides a signature of the atmospheric processes that created them. To get this information from large numbers of snowflake images, automated analysis using computer image recognition is needed. In this work, we use a neural network that learns the structure of the snowflake images to divide a snowflake dataset into classes corresponding to different sizes and structures. Unlike with most comparable methods, only minimal input from a human expert is needed.
Nicolas Jullien, Étienne Vignon, Michael Sprenger, Franziska Aemisegger, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 14, 1685–1702,Short summary
Although snowfall is the main input of water to the Antarctic ice sheet, snowflakes are often evaporated by dry and fierce winds near the surface of the continent. The amount of snow that actually reaches the ground is therefore considerably reduced. By analyzing the position of cyclones and fronts as well as by back-tracing the atmospheric moisture pathway towards Antarctica, this study explains in which meteorological conditions snowfall is either completely evaporated or reaches the ground.
Floor van den Heuvel, Loris Foresti, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2481–2500,Short summary
In areas with reduced visibility at the ground level, radar precipitation measurements higher up in the atmosphere need to be extrapolated to the ground and be corrected for the vertical change (i.e. growth and transformation) of precipitation. This study proposes a method based on hydrometeor proportions and machine learning (ML) to apply these corrections at smaller spatiotemporal scales. In comparison with existing techniques, the ML methods can make predictions from higher altitudes.
Mathieu Schaer, Christophe Praz, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 14, 367–384,Short summary
Wind and precipitation often occur together, making the distinction between particles coming from the atmosphere and those blown by the wind difficult. This is however a crucial task to accurately close the surface mass balance. We propose an algorithm based on Gaussian mixture models to separate blowing snow and precipitation in images collected by a Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC). The algorithm is trained and (positively) evaluated using data collected in the Swiss Alps and in Antarctica.
Étienne Vignon, Olivier Traullé, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4659–4683,Short summary
The future sea-level rise will depend on how much the Antarctic ice sheet gain – via precipitation – or loose mass. The simulation of precipitation by numerical models used for projections depends on the representation of the atmospheric circulation over and around Antarctica. Using daily measurements from balloon soundings at nine Antarctic stations, this study characterizes the structure of the atmosphere over the Antarctic coast and its representation in atmospheric simulations.
Florentin Lemonnier, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Chantal Claud, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Durán-Alarcón, Cyril Palerme, Alexis Berne, Niels Souverijns, Nicole van Lipzig, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Tristan L'Ecuyer, and Norman Wood
The Cryosphere, 13, 943–954,Short summary
Evaluation of the vertical precipitation rate profiles of CloudSat radar by comparison with two surface-based micro-rain radars (MRR) located at two antarctic stations gives a near-perfect correlation between both datasets, even though climatic and geographic conditions are different for the stations. A better understanding and reassessment of CloudSat uncertainties ranging from −13 % up to +22 % confirms the robustness of the CloudSat retrievals of snowfall over Antarctica.
Claudio Durán-Alarcón, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Jacopo Grazioli, Niels Souverijns, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 13, 247–264,Short summary
Precipitation is the main input in the surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet, but it is still poorly understood due to a lack of observations in this region. We analyzed the vertical structure of the precipitation using multiyear observation of vertically pointing micro rain radars (MRRs) at two stations located in East Antarctica. The use of MRRs showed the potential to study the effect of climatology and hydrometeor microphysics on the vertical structure of Antarctic precipitation.
Niels Souverijns, Alexandra Gossart, Stef Lhermitte, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Jacopo Grazioli, Alexis Berne, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Scarchilli, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 12, 3775–3789,Short summary
Snowfall observations over Antarctica are scarce and currently limited to information from the CloudSat satellite. Here, a first evaluation of the CloudSat snowfall record is performed using observations of ground-based precipitation radars. Results indicate an accurate representation of the snowfall climatology over Antarctica, despite the low overpass frequency of the satellite, outperforming state-of-the-art model estimates. Individual snowfall events are however not well represented.
Franziska Gerber, Nikola Besic, Varun Sharma, Rebecca Mott, Megan Daniels, Marco Gabella, Alexis Berne, Urs Germann, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 12, 3137–3160,Short summary
A comparison of winter precipitation variability in operational radar measurements and high-resolution simulations reveals that large-scale variability is well captured by the model, depending on the event. Precipitation variability is driven by topography and wind. A good portion of small-scale variability is captured at the highest resolution. This is essential to address small-scale precipitation processes forming the alpine snow seasonal snow cover – an important source of water.
Floor van den Heuvel, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5181–5198,Short summary
The paper aims at characterising and quantifying the spatio-temporal variability of the melting layer (ML; transition zone from solid to liquid precipitation). A method based on the Fourier transform is found to accurately describe different ML signatures. Hence, it is applied to characterise the ML variability in a relatively flat area and in an inner Alpine valley in Switzerland, where the variability at smaller spatial scales is found to be relatively more important.
Christophe Genthon, Alexis Berne, Jacopo Grazioli, Claudio Durán Alarcón, Christophe Praz, and Brice Boudevillain
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1605–1612,Short summary
Antarctica suffers from a severe shortage of in situ observations of precipitation. The APRES3 program contributes to improving observation from both the surface and from space. A field campaign with various instruments was deployed at the coast of Adélie Land, with an intensive observing period in austral summer 2015–16, then continuous radar monitoring through 2016 and beyond. This paper provides a compact presentation of the APRES3 dataset, which is now made open to the scientific community.
Nikola Besic, Josué Gehring, Christophe Praz, Jordi Figueras i Ventura, Jacopo Grazioli, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4847–4866,Short summary
In this paper we propose an innovative approach for hydrometeor de-mixing, i.e., to identify and quantify the presence of mixtures of different hydrometeor types in a radar sampling volume. It is a bin-based approach, inspired by conventional decomposition methods and evaluated using C- and X-band radar measurements compared with synchronous ground observations. The paper also investigates the potential influence of incoherency in the backscattering from hydrometeor mixtures in a radar volume.
Fanny Jeanneret, Giovanni Martucci, Simon Pinnock, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4153–4170,Short summary
Above mountainous regions, satellites may have difficulty in discriminating snow from clouds: this study proposes a new method that combines different ground-based measurements to assess the sky cloudiness with high temporal resolution. The method's output is used as input to a model capable of identifying false satellite cloud detections. Results show that 62 ± 13 % of these false detections can be identified by the model when applied to the AVHRR-PM and MODIS Aqua data sets of the Cloud_cci.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 955–968,Short summary
The present study aims at explaining how intermittency (i.e., the alternation of dry and rainy periods) affects the rate at which precipitation extremes increase with temperature. Using high-resolution rainfall data from 99 stations in the United States, we show that at scales beyond a few hours, intermittency causes rainfall extremes to deviate substantially from Clausius–Clapeyron. A new model is proposed to better represent and predict these changes across scales.
Daniel Wolfensberger and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3883–3916,Short summary
This work presents a polarimetric forward operator for the COSMO weather prediction model. This tool is able to simulate radar observables from the state of the atmosphere simulated by the model, taking into account most physical aspects of radar beam propagation and backscattering. This operator was validated with a large dataset of radar observations from several instruments and it was shown that is able to simulate a realistic radar signature in liquid precipitation.
Christian Bouwens, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Marc Schleiss, Xin Tian, and Jerôme Schepers
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Urban drainage systems are challenged by both urbanization and climate change, intensifying flooding impacts by rainfall. We performed this study to better understand and predict this process. The paper provides an approach to analyze the functioning of an urban drainage system without the need to run hydrodynamic models. Rainfall thresholds for urban flood prediction were derived, which surprisingly are only approximately half of the theoretical drainage system design capacity.
Daniel Wolfensberger, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14253–14273,Short summary
Precipitation intensities simulated by the COSMO weather prediction model are compared to radar observations over a range of spatial and temporal scales using the universal multifractal framework. Our results highlight the strong influence of meteorological and topographical features on the multifractal characteristics of precipitation. Moreover, the influence of the subgrid parameterizations of COSMO is clearly visible by a break in the scaling properties that is absent from the radar data.
Jacopo Grazioli, Christophe Genthon, Brice Boudevillain, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Massimo Del Guasta, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 11, 1797–1811,Short summary
We present medium and long-term measurements of precipitation in a coastal region of Antarctica. These measurements are among the first of their kind on the Antarctic continent and combine remote sensing with in situ observations. The benefits of this synergy are demonstrated and the lessons learned from this measurements, which are still ongoing, are very important for the creation of similar observatories elsewhere on the continent.
Timothy H. Raupach and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2573–2594,Short summary
The raindrop size distribution (DSD) describes the microstructure of rain. It is required knowledge for weather radar applications and has broad applicability to studies of rainfall processes, including weather models and rain retrieval algorithms. We present a new technique for estimating the DSD from polarimetric radar data. The new method was tested in three different domains, and its performance was found to be similar to and often better than an an existing DSD retrieval method.
Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis and Marc Schleiss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1991–2013,Short summary
In this paper we analysed flow measurements from 17 watersheds in a (semi-)urban region, to characterise flow patterns according to basin features. Instead of sampling flows at fixed time intervals, we looked at how fast given amounts of flow were accumulated. By doing so, we could identify patterns of flow regulation in urban streams and quantify flashiness of hydrological response. We were able to show that in this region, higher urbanisation was clearly associated with lower basin flashiness.
Christophe Praz, Yves-Alain Roulet, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1335–1357,Short summary
The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) provides high-resolution pictures of individual falling snowflakes and ice crystals. A method is proposed to automatically classify these pictures into six classes of snowflakes as well to estimate the degree of riming and to detect whether or not the particles are melting. Multinomial logistic regression is used with a manually classified reference set. The evaluation demonstrates the good and reliable performance of the proposed technique.
Guillaume Nord, Brice Boudevillain, Alexis Berne, Flora Branger, Isabelle Braud, Guillaume Dramais, Simon Gérard, Jérôme Le Coz, Cédric Legoût, Gilles Molinié, Joel Van Baelen, Jean-Pierre Vandervaere, Julien Andrieu, Coralie Aubert, Martin Calianno, Guy Delrieu, Jacopo Grazioli, Sahar Hachani, Ivan Horner, Jessica Huza, Raphaël Le Boursicaud, Timothy H. Raupach, Adriaan J. Teuling, Magdalena Uber, Béatrice Vincendon, and Annette Wijbrans
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 221–249,Short summary
A high space–time resolution dataset linking hydrometeorological forcing and hydro-sedimentary response in a mesoscale catchment (Auzon, 116 km2) of the Ardèche region (France) is presented. This region is subject to precipitating systems of Mediterranean origin, which can result in significant rainfall amount. The data presented cover a period of 4 years (2011–2014) and aim at improving the understanding of processes triggering flash floods.
Mark Honti, Nele Schuwirth, Jörg Rieckermann, and Christian Stamm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1593–1609,Short summary
We present a new catchment model that covers most major pollutants and is suitable for uncertainty analysis. The effects of climate change, population dynamics, socio-economic development, and management strategies on water quality are demonstrated in a small catchment in the Swiss Plateau. Models and data are still the largest sources of uncertainty for some water quality parameters. Uncertainty assessment helps to select robust management and focus research and monitoring efforts.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Jörg Rieckermann, and Vojtěch Bareš
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 617–634,Short summary
Commercial microwave links (CMLs) can provide rainfall observations with high space–time resolution. Unfortunately, CML rainfall estimates are often biased because we lack detailed information on the processes that attenuate the transmitted microwaves. We suggest removing the bias by continuously adjusting CMLs to cumulative data from rain gauges (RGs), which can be remote from the CMLs. Our approach practically eliminates the bias, which we demonstrate on unique data from several CMLs and RGs.
Nikola Besic, Jordi Figueras i Ventura, Jacopo Grazioli, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4425–4445,Short summary
In this paper we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hydrometeor classification, which takes into account both the specificities of acquired polarimetric radar measurements and the presumed electromagnetic behavior of different hydrometeor types. The method has been applied on three datasets, each acquired by different C-band radar from the Swiss network, and on two X-band research radar datasets. The obtained classification is found to be of high quality.
Luca Panziera, Marco Gabella, Stefano Zanini, Alessandro Hering, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2317–2332,Short summary
This paper presents a novel system to issue heavy rainfall alerts for predefined geographical regions by evaluating the sum of precipitation fallen in the immediate past and expected in the near future. In order to objectively define the thresholds for the alerts, an extreme rainfall analysis for the 159 regions used for official warnings in Switzerland was developed. It is shown that the system has additional lead time with respect to thunderstorm tracking tools targeted for convective storms.
João P. Leitão, Matthew Moy de Vitry, Andreas Scheidegger, and Jörg Rieckermann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1637–1653,Short summary
Precise and detailed DEMs are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. In this this study we evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, 14 UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs. In addition, we compared the best quality UAV DEM to a conventional lidar-based DEM; the two DEMs are of comparable quality.
J. Grazioli, G. Lloyd, L. Panziera, C. R. Hoyle, P. J. Connolly, J. Henneberger, and A. Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13787–13802,Short summary
This study investigates the microphysics of winter alpine snowfall occurring in mixed-phase clouds in an inner-Alpine valley during CLACE2014. From polarimetric radar and in situ observations, riming is shown to be an important process leading to more intense snowfall. Riming is usually associated with more intense turbulence providing supercooled liquid water. Distinct features are identified in the vertical structure of polarimetric radar variables.
P. Tokarczyk, J. P. Leitao, J. Rieckermann, K. Schindler, and F. Blumensaat
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4215–4228,Short summary
We investigate for the first time the possibility of deriving high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and using this information as input for urban drainage models. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications.
M. Stähli, M. Sättele, C. Huggel, B. W. McArdell, P. Lehmann, A. Van Herwijnen, A. Berne, M. Schleiss, A. Ferrari, A. Kos, D. Or, and S. M. Springman
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 905–917,Short summary
This review paper describes the state of the art in monitoring and predicting rapid mass movements for early warning. It further presents recent innovations in observation technologies and modelling to be used in future early warning systems (EWS). Finally, the paper proposes avenues towards successful implementation of next-generation EWS.
T. H. Raupach and A. Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 343–365,Short summary
Using the 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD) as a reference, a technique to correct the spectra of drop size distribution (DSD) measured by Parsivel disdrometers (1st and 2nd generation) is proposed. The measured velocities and equivolume diameters are corrected to better match those from the 2DVD. The correction is evaluated using data from southern France and the Swiss Plateau. It appears to be similar for both climatologies, and to improve the consistency with colocated 2DVDs and rain gauges.
J. Grazioli, D. Tuia, and A. Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 149–170,Short summary
A new approach for hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements is proposed. It takes adavantage of clustering techniques to objectively determine the number of hydrometeor classes that can be reliably identified. The proposed method is tested using observations from an X-band polarimetric radar in different regions and evaluated by comparison with existing algorithms and with measurements from a ground-based 2D video disdrometer (providing 2-D views of falling hydrometeors).
J. Grazioli, D. Tuia, S. Monhart, M. Schneebeli, T. Raupach, and A. Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2869–2882,
A. E. Sikorska, A. Scheidegger, K. Banasik, and J. Rieckermann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4415–4427,
D. Del Giudice, M. Honti, A. Scheidegger, C. Albert, P. Reichert, and J. Rieckermann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4209–4225,
Related subject area
Hydrology and Soil Science – HydrologyConcentrations and fluxes of suspended particulate matter and associated contaminants in the Rhône River from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean SeaA global drought dataset of standardized moisture anomaly index incorporating snow dynamics (SZIsnow) and its application in identifying large-scale drought eventsRiver network and hydro-geomorphological parameters at 1∕12° resolution for global hydrological and climate studiesIntegrated hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical dataset of an alpine catchment in the northern Qinghai–Tibet PlateauGeoDAR: georeferenced global dams and reservoirs dataset for bridging attributes and geolocationsSpatial and seasonal patterns of water isotopes in northeastern German lakesA new dataset of river flood hazard maps for Europe and the Mediterranean BasinCOSMOS-Europe: a European network of cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture sensorsDistribution and characteristics of wastewater treatment plants within the global river networkCorrecting Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration using a global grid of local coefficients to support temperature-based estimations of reference evapotranspiration and aridity indicesA 1-km daily surface soil moisture dataset of enhanced coverage under all-weather conditions over China in 2003–2019Soil moisture observation in a forested headwater catchment: combining a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensor network with roving and hydrogravimetry at the TERENO site WüstebachCCAM: China Catchment Attributes and Meteorology datasetA high-accuracy rainfall dataset by merging multiple satellites and dense gauges over the southern Tibetan Plateau for 2014–2019 warm seasonsBaseline data for monitoring geomorphological effects of glacier lake outburst flood: a very-high-resolution image and GIS datasets of the distal part of the Zackenberg River, northeast GreenlandMineral, thermal and deep groundwater of Hesse, GermanyLamaH-CE: LArge-SaMple DAta for Hydrology and Environmental Sciences for Central EuropeDevelopment of observation-based global multilayer soil moisture products for 1970 to 2016Rosalia: an experimental research site to study hydrological processes in a forest catchmentLong time series of daily evapotranspiration in China based on the SEBAL model and multisource images and validationCAMELS-AUS: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 222 catchments in AustraliaA multi-source 120-year US flood database with a unified common format and public accessC-band radar data and in situ measurements for the monitoring of wheat crops in a semi-arid area (center of Morocco)The three-dimensional groundwater salinity distribution and fresh groundwater volumes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, inferred from geostatistical analysesA national topographic dataset for hydrological modeling over the contiguous United StatesStatus of the Tibetan Plateau observatory (Tibet-Obs) and a 10-year (2009–2019) surface soil moisture datasetCLIGEN parameter regionalization for mainland ChinaYear-long, broad-band, microwave backscatter observations of an alpine meadow over the Tibetan Plateau with a ground-based scatterometerSTH-net: a soil monitoring network for process-based hydrological modelling from the pedon to the hillslope scaleComprehensive bathymetry and intertidal topography of the Amazon estuaryVirtual water trade and water footprint of agricultural goods: the 1961–2016 CWASI databaseHistorical cartographic and topo-bathymetric database on the French Rhône River (17th–20th century)COSMOS-UK: national soil moisture and hydrometeorology data for environmental science researchSoilKsatDB: global database of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements for geoscience applicationsADHI: the African Database of Hydrometric Indices (1950–2018)Dynamics of shallow wakes on gravel-bed floodplains: dataset from field experimentsTwo decades of distributed global radiation time series across a mountainous semiarid area (Sierra Nevada, Spain)Inventory of dams in GermanyCountry-level and gridded estimates of wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuseDataset of Georeferenced Dams in South America (DDSA)The impact of landscape evolution on soil physics: evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties along two chronosequences of proglacial morainesThe CH-IRP data set: a decade of fortnightly data on δ2H and δ18O in streamflow and precipitation in SwitzerlandCAMELS-GB: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 671 catchments in Great BritainA dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture observation in a highly instrumented pre-Alpine headwater catchment in GermanyCAMELS-BR: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 897 catchments in BrazilGloFAS-ERA5 operational global river discharge reanalysis 1979–presentA Canadian River Ice Database from the National Hydrometric Program ArchivesAn integration of gauge, satellite, and reanalysis precipitation datasets for the largest river basin of the Tibetan PlateauTowards harmonisation of image velocimetry techniques for river surface velocity observationsAIMERG: a new Asian precipitation dataset (0.1°/half-hourly, 2000–2015) by calibrating the GPM-era IMERG at a daily scale using APHRODITE
Hugo Lepage, Alexandra Gruat, Fabien Thollet, Jérôme Le Coz, Marina Coquery, Matthieu Masson, Aymeric Dabrin, Olivier Radakovitch, Jérôme Labille, Jean-Paul Ambrosi, Doriane Delanghe, and Patrick Raimbault
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2369–2384,Short summary
The dataset contains concentrations and fluxes of suspended particle matter (SPM) and several particle-bound contaminants along the Rhône River downstream of Lake Geneva. These data allow us to understand the dynamics and origins. They show the impact of flood events which mainly contribute to a decrease in the contaminant concentrations while fluxes are significant. On the contrary, concentrations are higher during low flow periods probably due to the increase of organic matter.
Lei Tian, Baoqing Zhang, and Pute Wu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2259–2278,Short summary
We propose a global monthly drought dataset with a resolution of 0.25° from 1948 to 2010 based on a multitype and multiscalar drought index, the standardized moisture anomaly index adding snow processes (SZIsnow). The consideration of snow processes improved its capability, and the improvement is prominent over snow-covered high-latitude and high-altitude areas. This new dataset is well suited to monitoring, assessing, and characterizing drought and is a valuable resource for drought studies.
Simon Munier and Bertrand Decharme
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2239–2258,Short summary
This paper presents a new global-scale river network at 1/12°, generated automatically and assessed over the 69 largest basins of the world. A set of hydro-geomorphological parameters are derived at the same spatial resolution, including a description of river stretches (length, slope, width, roughness, bankfull depth), floodplains (roughness, sub-grid topography) and aquifers (transmissivity, porosity, sub-grid topography). The dataset may be useful for hydrology modelling or climate studies.
Zhao Pan, Rui Ma, Ziyong Sun, Yalu Hu, Qixin Chang, Mengyan Ge, Shuo Wang, Jianwei Bu, Xiang Long, Yanxi Pan, and Lusong Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2147–2165,Short summary
We drilled four sets of cluster wells and monitored groundwater level and temperature at different depths in an alpine catchment, northern Tibet plateau. The chemical and isotopic compositions of different waters, including stream water, glacier/snow meltwater, soil water, spring, and groundwater from boreholes, were measured for 6 years. The data can be used to study the impact of soil freeze-thaw process and permafrost degradation on the groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water.
Jida Wang, Blake A. Walter, Fangfang Yao, Chunqiao Song, Meng Ding, Abu Sayeed Maroof, Jingying Zhu, Chenyu Fan, Jordan M. McAlister, Safat Sikder, Yongwei Sheng, George H. Allen, Jean-François Crétaux, and Yoshihide Wada
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1869–1899,Short summary
Improved water infrastructure data on dams and reservoirs remain to be critical to hydrologic modeling, energy planning, and environmental conservation. We present a new global dataset, GeoDAR, that includes nearly 25 000 georeferenced dam points and their associated reservoir boundaries. A majority of these features can be linked to the register of the International Commission on Large Dams, extending the potential of registered attribute information for spatially explicit applications.
Bernhard Aichner, David Dubbert, Christine Kiel, Katrin Kohnert, Igor Ogashawara, Andreas Jechow, Sarah-Faye Harpenslager, Franz Hölker, Jens Christian Nejstgaard, Hans-Peter Grossart, Gabriel Singer, Sabine Wollrab, and Stella Angela Berger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1857–1867,Short summary
Water isotopes were measured along transects and in the form of time series in northeastern German lakes. The spatial patterns within the data and their seasonal variability are related to morphological and hydrological properties of the studied lake systems. They are further useful for the understanding of biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of these lakes.
Francesco Dottori, Lorenzo Alfieri, Alessandra Bianchi, Jon Skoien, and Peter Salamon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1549–1569,Short summary
We present a set of hazard maps for river flooding for Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The maps depict inundation extent and depth for flood probabilities for up to 1-in-500-year flood hazards and are based on hydrological and hydrodynamic models driven by observed climatology. The maps can identify two-thirds of the flood extent reported by official flood maps, with increasing skill for higher-magnitude floods. The maps are used for evaluating present and future impacts of river floods.
Heye Reemt Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Mustafa Berk Duygu, Miguel Angel Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Davide Canone, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Stefano Ferraris, Félix Frances, Davide Gisolo, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten H. Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) operated by 24 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Heloisa Ehalt Macedo, Bernhard Lehner, Jim Nicell, Günther Grill, Jing Li, Antonio Limtong, and Ranish Shakya
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 559–577,Short summary
We introduce HydroWASTE, a spatially explicit global database of 58 502 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their characteristics to understand the impact of discharges from such facilities. HydroWASTE was developed by compiling regional datasets and using auxiliary information to complete missing characteristics. The location of the outfall of the WWTPs into the river system is also included, allowing for the identification of the waterbodies most likely affected.
Vassilis Aschonitis, Dimos Touloumidis, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Miriam Coenders-Gerrits
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 163–177,Short summary
This work provides a global database of correction coefficients for improving the performance of the temperature-based Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration formula and aridity indices (e.g., UNEP, Thornthwaite) that make use of this formula. The coefficients were produced using as a benchmark the ASCE-standardized reference evapotranspiration formula (formerly FAO-56) that requires temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity data.
Peilin Song, Yongqiang Zhang, Jianping Guo, Jiancheng Shi, Tianjie Zhao, and Bing Tong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Soil moisture information is cruicial for understanding the earth surface, but currently available satellite-based soil moisture datasets are imperfect either in their spatio-temporal resolutions or in esnuring image completeness from cloudy weather. In this study, therefore, we developed one soil moisture data product over China that has tackled most of the above problems. This data product has great potential to promote investigation on earth hydrology and to be extended to the global scale.
Maik Heistermann, Heye Bogena, Till Francke, Andreas Güntner, Jannis Jakobi, Daniel Rasche, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Benjamin Fersch, Jannis Groh, Amol Patil, Thomas Pütz, Marvin Reich, Steffen Zacharias, Carmen Zengerle, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper presents a dense network of Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) to measure spatiotemporal soil moisture patterns during a two month campaign in the Wüstebach headwater catchment in Germany. Stationary, mobile, and airborne CRNS technology monitored the root-zone water dynamics as well as spatial heterogeneity in the 0.4 km2 area. The 15 CRNS stations were supported by a hydrogravimeter, extensive biomass sampling, and a dense TDT network to facilitate holistic hydrological analysis.
Zhen Hao, Jin Jin, Runliang Xia, Shimin Tian, Wushuang Yang, Qixing Liu, Min Zhu, Tao Ma, Chengran Jing, and Yanning Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5591–5616,Short summary
CCAM is proposed to promote large-sample hydrological research in China. The first catchment attribute dataset and catchment-scale meteorological time series dataset in China are built. We also built HydroMLYR, a hydrological dataset with standardized streamflow observations supporting machine learning modeling. The open-source code producing CCAM supports the calculation of custom watersheds.
Kunbiao Li, Fuqiang Tian, Mohd Yawar Ali Khan, Ran Xu, Zhihua He, Long Yang, Hui Lu, and Yingzhao Ma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5455–5467,Short summary
Due to complex climate and topography, there is still a lack of a high-quality rainfall dataset for hydrological modeling over the Tibetan Plateau. This study aims to establish a high-accuracy daily rainfall product over the southern Tibetan Plateau through merging satellite rainfall estimates based on a high-density rainfall gauge network. Statistical and hydrological evaluation indicated that the new dataset outperforms the raw satellite estimates and several other products of similar types.
Aleksandra M. Tomczyk and Marek W. Ewertowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5293–5309,Short summary
We collected detailed (cm-scale) topographical data to illustrate how a single flood event can modify river landscape in the high-Arctic setting of Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland. The studied flood was a result of an outburst from a glacier-dammed lake. We used drones to capture images immediately before, during, and after the flood for the 2 km long section of the river. Data can be used for monitoring and modelling of flood events and assessment of geohazards for Zackenberg Research Station.
Rafael Schäffer, Kristian Bär, Sebastian Fischer, Johann-Gerhard Fritsche, and Ingo Sass
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4847–4860,Short summary
Knowledge of groundwater properties is relevant, e.g. for drinking-water supply, spas or geothermal energy. We compiled 1035 groundwater datasets from 560 springs or wells sampled since 1810, using mainly publications, supplemented by personal communication and our own measurements. The data can help address spatial–temporal variation in groundwater composition, uncertainties in groundwater property prediction, deep groundwater movement, or groundwater characteristics like temperature and age.
Christoph Klingler, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4529–4565,Short summary
LamaH-CE is a large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Central Europe. The dataset contains hydrometeorological time series (daily and hourly resolution) and various attributes for 859 gauged basins. Sticking closely to the CAMELS datasets, LamaH includes additional basin delineations and attributes for describing a large interconnected river network. LamaH further contains outputs of a conceptual hydrological baseline model for plausibility checking of the inputs and for benchmarking.
Yaoping Wang, Jiafu Mao, Mingzhou Jin, Forrest M. Hoffman, Xiaoying Shi, Stan D. Wullschleger, and Yongjiu Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4385–4405,Short summary
We developed seven global soil moisture datasets (1970–2016, monthly, half-degree, and multilayer) by merging a wide range of data sources, including in situ and satellite observations, reanalysis, offline land surface model simulations, and Earth system model simulations. Given the great value of long-term, multilayer, gap-free soil moisture products to climate research and applications, we believe this paper and the presented datasets would be of interest to many different communities.
Josef Fürst, Hans Peter Nachtnebel, Josef Gasch, Reinhard Nolz, Michael Paul Stockinger, Christine Stumpp, and Karsten Schulz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4019–4034,Short summary
Rosalia is a 222 ha forested research watershed in eastern Austria to study water, energy and solute transport processes. The paper describes the site, monitoring network, instrumentation and the datasets: high-resolution (10 min interval) time series starting in 2015 of four discharge gauging stations, seven rain gauges, and observations of air and water temperature, relative humidity, and conductivity, as well as soil water content and temperature, at different depths at four profiles.
Minghan Cheng, Xiyun Jiao, Binbin Li, Xun Yu, Mingchao Shao, and Xiuliang Jin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3995–4017,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key node linking surface water and energy balance. Satellite observations of ET have been widely used for water resources management in China. In this study, an ET product with high spatiotemporal resolution was generated using a surface energy balance algorithm and multisource remote sensing data. The generated ET product can be used for geoscience studies, especially global change, water resources management, and agricultural drought monitoring, for example.
Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Suwash Chandra Acharya, Nans Addor, Chihchung Chou, and Murray C. Peel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3847–3867,Short summary
This paper presents the Australian edition of the Catchment Attributes and Meteorology for Large-sample Studies (CAMELS) series of datasets. CAMELS-AUS comprises data for 222 unregulated catchments with long-term monitoring, combining hydrometeorological time series (streamflow and 18 climatic variables) with 134 attributes related to geology, soil, topography, land cover, anthropogenic influence and hydroclimatology. It is freely downloadable from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.921850.
Zhi Li, Mengye Chen, Shang Gao, Jonathan J. Gourley, Tiantian Yang, Xinyi Shen, Randall Kolar, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3755–3766,Short summary
This dataset is a compilation of multi-sourced flood records, retrieved from official reports, instruments, and crowdsourcing data since 1900. This study utilizes the flood database to analyze flood seasonality within major basins and socioeconomic impacts over time. It is anticipated that this dataset can support a variety of flood-related research, such as validation resources for hydrologic models, hydroclimatic studies, and flood vulnerability analysis across the United States.
Nadia Ouaadi, Jamal Ezzahar, Saïd Khabba, Salah Er-Raki, Adnane Chakir, Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Valérie Le Dantec, Zoubair Rafi, Antoine Beaumont, Mohamed Kasbani, and Lionel Jarlan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3707–3731,Short summary
In this paper, a radar remote sensing database composed of processed Sentinel-1 products and field measurements of soil and vegetation characteristics, weather data, and irrigation water inputs is described. The data set was collected over 3 years (2016–2019) in three drip-irrigated wheat fields in the center of Morocco. It is dedicated to radar data analysis over vegetated surface including the retrieval of soil and vegetation characteristics.
Jan L. Gunnink, Hung Van Pham, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3297–3319,Short summary
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) groundwater is important for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Increased pumping of groundwater has caused land subsidence and increased the risk of salinization, thereby endangering the livelihood of the population in the delta. We made a model of the salinity of the groundwater by integrating different sources of information and determined fresh groundwater volumes. The resulting model can be used by researchers and policymakers.
Jun Zhang, Laura E. Condon, Hoang Tran, and Reed M. Maxwell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3263–3279,Short summary
Existing national topographic datasets for the US may not be compatible with gridded hydrologic models. A national topographic dataset developed to support physically based hydrologic models at 1 km and 250 m over the contiguous US is provided. We used a Priority Flood algorithm to ensure hydrologically consistent drainage networks and evaluated the performance with an integrated hydrologic model. Datasets and scripts are available for direct data usage or modification of processing as desired.
Pei Zhang, Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Yijian Zeng, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Jiali Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3075–3102,Short summary
This paper reports on the status of the Tibet-Obs and presents a 10-year (2009–2019) surface soil moisture (SM) dataset produced based on in situ measurements taken at a depth of 5 cm collected from the Tibet-Obs. This surface SM dataset includes the original 15 min in situ measurements collected by multiple SM monitoring sites of three networks (i.e. the Maqu, Naqu, and Ngari networks) and the spatially upscaled SM records produced for the Maqu and Shiquanhe networks.
Wenting Wang, Shuiqing Yin, Bofu Yu, and Shaodong Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2945–2962,Short summary
A gridded input dataset at a 10 km resolution of a weather generator, CLIGEN, was established for mainland China. Based on this, CLIGEN can generate a series of daily temperature, solar radiation, precipitation data, and rainfall intensity information. In each grid, the input file contains 13 groups of parameters. All parameters were first calculated based on long-term observations and then interpolated by universal kriging. The accuracy of the gridded input dataset has been fully assessed.
Jan G. Hofste, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Donghai Zheng, Christiaan van der Tol, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2819–2856,Short summary
The dataset reported in this paper concerns the measurement of microwave reflections from an alpine meadow over the Tibetan Plateau. These microwave reflections were measured continuously over 1 year. With it, variations in soil water content due to evaporation, precipitation, drainage, and soil freezing/thawing can be seen. A better understanding of the effects aforementioned processes have on microwave reflections may improve methods for estimating soil water content used by satellites.
Edoardo Martini, Matteo Bauckholt, Simon Kögler, Manuel Kreck, Kurt Roth, Ulrike Werban, Ute Wollschläger, and Steffen Zacharias
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2529–2539,Short summary
We present the in situ data available from the soil monitoring network
STH-net, recently implemented at the Schäfertal Hillslope site (Germany). The STH-net provides data (soil water content, soil temperature, water level, and meteorological variables – measured at a 10 min interval since 1 January 2019) for developing and testing modelling approaches in the context of vadose zone hydrology at spatial scales ranging from the pedon to the hillslope.
Alice César Fassoni-Andrade, Fabien Durand, Daniel Moreira, Alberto Azevedo, Valdenira Ferreira dos Santos, Claudia Funi, and Alain Laraque
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2275–2291,Short summary
We present a seamless dataset of river, land, and ocean topography of the Amazon River estuary with a 30 m spatial resolution. An innovative remote sensing approach was used to estimate the topography of the intertidal flats, riverbanks, and adjacent floodplains. Amazon River bathymetry was generated from digitized nautical charts. The novel dataset opens up a broad range of opportunities, providing the poorly known underwater digital topography required for environmental sciences.
Stefania Tamea, Marta Tuninetti, Irene Soligno, and Francesco Laio
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2025–2051,Short summary
The database includes water footprint and virtual water trade data for 370 agricultural goods in all countries, starting from 1961 and 1986, respectively. Data improve upon earlier datasets because of the annual variability of data and the tracing of goods’ origin within the international trade. The CWASI database aims at supporting national and global assessments of water use in agriculture and food production/consumption and welcomes contributions from the research community.
Fanny Arnaud, Lalandy Sehen Chanu, Jules Grillot, Jérémie Riquier, Hervé Piégay, Dad Roux-Michollet, Georges Carrel, and Jean-Michel Olivier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1939–1955,Short summary
This article provides a database of 350 cartographic and topographic resources on the 530-km-long French Rhône River, compiled from the 17th to mid-20th century in 14 national, regional, and departmental archive services. The database has several potential applications in geomorphology, retrospective hydraulic modelling, historical ecology, and sustainable river management and restoration, as well as permitting comparisons of channel changes with other human-impacted rivers worldwide.
Hollie M. Cooper, Emma Bennett, James Blake, Eleanor Blyth, David Boorman, Elizabeth Cooper, Jonathan Evans, Matthew Fry, Alan Jenkins, Ross Morrison, Daniel Rylett, Simon Stanley, Magdalena Szczykulska, Emily Trill, Vasileios Antoniou, Anne Askquith-Ellis, Lucy Ball, Milo Brooks, Michael A. Clarke, Nicholas Cowan, Alexander Cumming, Philip Farrand, Olivia Hitt, William Lord, Peter Scarlett, Oliver Swain, Jenna Thornton, Alan Warwick, and Ben Winterbourn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1737–1757,Short summary
COSMOS-UK is a UK network of environmental monitoring sites, with a focus on measuring field-scale soil moisture. Each site includes soil and hydrometeorological sensors providing data including air temperature, humidity, net radiation, neutron counts, snow water equivalent, and potential evaporation. These data can provide information for science, industry, and agriculture by improving existing understanding and data products in fields such as water resources, space sciences, and biodiversity.
Surya Gupta, Tomislav Hengl, Peter Lehmann, Sara Bonetti, and Dani Or
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1593–1612,
Yves Tramblay, Nathalie Rouché, Jean-Emmanuel Paturel, Gil Mahé, Jean-François Boyer, Ernest Amoussou, Ansoumana Bodian, Honoré Dacosta, Hamouda Dakhlaoui, Alain Dezetter, Denis Hughes, Lahoucine Hanich, Christophe Peugeot, Raphael Tshimanga, and Patrick Lachassagne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1547–1560,Short summary
This dataset provides a set of hydrometric indices for about 1500 stations across Africa with daily discharge data. These indices represent mean flow characteristics and extremes (low flows and floods), allowing us to study the long-term evolution of hydrology in Africa and support the modeling efforts that aim at reducing the vulnerability of African countries to hydro-climatic variability.
Oleksandra O. Shumilova, Alexander N. Sukhodolov, George S. Constantinescu, and Bruce J. MacVicar
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1519–1529,Short summary
Obstructions (vegetation and/or boulders) located on a riverbed alter flow structure and affect riverbed morphology and biodiversity. We studied flow dynamics around obstructions by carrying out experiments in a gravel-bed river. Flow rates, size, submergence and solid fractions of the obstructions were varied in a set of 30 experimental runs, in which high-resolution patterns of mean and turbulent flow were obtained. For an introduction to the experiments see: https://youtu.be/5wXjvzqxONI.
Cristina Aguilar, Rafael Pimentel, and María J. Polo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1335–1359,Short summary
This work presents the reconstruction of 19 years of daily, monthly, and annual global radiation maps in Sierra Nevada (Spain) derived using daily historical records from weather stations in the area and a modeling scheme that captures the topographic effects that constitute the main sources of the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation. The generated datasets are valuable in different fields, such as hydrology, ecology, or energy production systems downstream.
Gustavo Andrei Speckhann, Heidi Kreibich, and Bruno Merz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 731–740,Short summary
Dams are an important element of water resources management. Data about dams are crucial for practitioners, scientists, and policymakers. We present the most comprehensive open-access dam inventory for Germany to date. The inventory combines multiple sources of information. It comprises 530 dams with information on name, location, river, start year of construction and operation, crest length, dam height, lake area, lake volume, purpose, dam structure, and building characteristics.
Edward R. Jones, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Manzoor Qadir, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 237–254,Short summary
Continually improving and affordable wastewater management provides opportunities for both pollution reduction and clean water supply augmentation. This study provides a global outlook on the state of domestic and industrial wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuse. Our results can serve as a baseline in evaluating progress towards policy goals (e.g. Sustainable Development Goals) and as input data in large-scale water resource assessments (e.g. water quality modelling).
Bolivar Paredes-Beltran, Alvaro Sordo-Ward, and Luis Garrote
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 213–229,Short summary
We present a dataset of 1010 entries of dams in South America describing several attributes such as the dams' names, characteristics, purposes, georeferenced locations and also relevant data on the dams' catchments. Information was obtained from extensive research through numerous sources and then validated individually. With this work we expect to contribute to the development of new research in the region, which to date has been limited to certain basins due to the absence of information.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3189–3204,Short summary
Our analysis of soil physical and hydraulic properties across two soil chronosequences of 10 millennia in the Swiss Alps provides important observation of the evolution of soil hydraulic behavior. A strong co-evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties was revealed by the observed change of fast-draining coarse-textured soils to slow-draining soils with a high water-holding capacity in correlation with a distinct change in structural properties and organic matter content.
Maria Staudinger, Stefan Seeger, Barbara Herbstritt, Michael Stoelzle, Jan Seibert, Kerstin Stahl, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3057–3066,Short summary
The data set CH-IRP provides isotope composition in precipitation and streamflow from 23 Swiss catchments, being unique regarding its long-term multi-catchment coverage along an alpine–pre-alpine gradient. CH-IRP contains fortnightly time series of stable water isotopes from streamflow grab samples complemented by time series in precipitation. Sampling conditions, catchment and climate information, lab standards and errors are provided together with areal precipitation and catchment boundaries.
Gemma Coxon, Nans Addor, John P. Bloomfield, Jim Freer, Matt Fry, Jamie Hannaford, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Rosanna Lane, Melinda Lewis, Emma L. Robinson, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2459–2483,Short summary
We present the first large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Great Britain. The dataset collates river flows, catchment attributes, and catchment boundaries for 671 catchments across Great Britain. We characterise the topography, climate, streamflow, land cover, soils, hydrogeology, human influence, and discharge uncertainty of each catchment. The dataset is publicly available for the community to use in a wide range of environmental and modelling analyses.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Vinícius B. P. Chagas, Pedro L. B. Chaffe, Nans Addor, Fernando M. Fan, Ayan S. Fleischmann, Rodrigo C. D. Paiva, and Vinícius A. Siqueira
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2075–2096,Short summary
We present a new dataset for large-sample hydrological studies in Brazil. The dataset encompasses daily observed streamflow from 3679 gauges, as well as meteorological forcing for 897 selected catchments. It also includes 65 attributes covering topographic, climatic, hydrologic, land cover, geologic, soil, and human intervention variables. CAMELS-BR is publicly available and will enable new insights into the hydrological behavior of catchments in Brazil.
Shaun Harrigan, Ervin Zsoter, Lorenzo Alfieri, Christel Prudhomme, Peter Salamon, Fredrik Wetterhall, Christopher Barnard, Hannah Cloke, and Florian Pappenberger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2043–2060,Short summary
A new river discharge reanalysis dataset is produced operationally by coupling ECMWF's latest global atmospheric reanalysis, ERA5, with the hydrological modelling component of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis is a global gridded dataset with a horizontal resolution of 0.1° at a daily time step and is freely available from 1979 until near real time. The evaluation against observations shows that the GloFAS-ERA5 reanalysis was skilful in 86 % of catchments.
Laurent de Rham, Yonas Dibike, Spyros Beltaos, Daniel Peters, Barrie Bonsal, and Terry Prowse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1835–1860,Short summary
This paper describes the Canadian River Ice Database. Water level recordings at a network of 196 National Hydrometric Program gauging sites over the period 1894–2015 were reviewed. This database, of nearly 73 000 recorded variables and over 460 000 data entries, includes the timing and magnitude of fall freeze-up, midwinter break-up, winter minimum, ice thickness, spring break-up and maximum open-water levels. These data cover the range of river types and climate regions for Canada.
Yuanwei Wang, Lei Wang, Xiuping Li, Jing Zhou, and Zhidan Hu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1789–1803,Short summary
This article is to provide a better precipitation product for the largest river basin of the Tibetan Plateau, the upper Brahmaputra River basin, suitable for use in hydrological simulations and other climate change studies. We integrate gauge, satellite, and reanalysis precipitation datasets to generate a new dataset. The new product has been rigorously validated at various temporal and spatial scales with gauge precipitation observations as well as in cryosphere hydrological simulations.
Matthew T. Perks, Silvano Fortunato Dal Sasso, Alexandre Hauet, Elizabeth Jamieson, Jérôme Le Coz, Sophie Pearce, Salvador Peña-Haro, Alonso Pizarro, Dariia Strelnikova, Flavia Tauro, James Bomhof, Salvatore Grimaldi, Alain Goulet, Borbála Hortobágyi, Magali Jodeau, Sabine Käfer, Robert Ljubičić, Ian Maddock, Peter Mayr, Gernot Paulus, Lionel Pénard, Leigh Sinclair, and Salvatore Manfreda
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1545–1559,Short summary
We present datasets acquired from seven countries across Europe and North America consisting of image sequences. These have been subjected to a range of pre-processing methods in preparation for image velocimetry analysis. These datasets and accompanying reference data are a resource that may be used for conducting benchmarking experiments, assessing algorithm performances, and focusing future software development.
Ziqiang Ma, Jintao Xu, Siyu Zhu, Jun Yang, Guoqiang Tang, Yuanjian Yang, Zhou Shi, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1525–1544,Short summary
Focusing on the potential drawbacks in generating the state-of-the-art IMERG data in both the TRMM and GPM era, a new daily calibration algorithm on IMERG was proposed, as well as a new AIMERG precipitation dataset (0.1°/half-hourly, 2000–2015, Asia) with better quality than IMERG for Asian scientific research and applications. The proposed daily calibration algorithm for GPM is promising and applicable in generating the future IMERG in either an operational scheme or a retrospective manner.
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An original dataset of microwave signal attenuation and rainfall variables was collected during 1-year-long field campaign. The monitored 38 GHz dual-polarized commercial microwave link with a short sampling resolution (4 s) was accompanied by five disdrometers and three rain gauges along its path. Antenna radomes were temporarily shielded for approximately half of the campaign period to investigate antenna wetting impacts.
An original dataset of microwave signal attenuation and rainfall variables was collected during...