Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Data description paper
17 Dec 2020
Data description paper | 17 Dec 2020
Subglacial topography and ice flux along the English Coast of Palmer Land, Antarctic Peninsula
Kate Winter et al.
No articles found.
Bertie W. J. Miles, Chris R. Stokes, Adrian Jenkins, Jim R. Jordan, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 17, 445–456,Short summary
Satellite observations have shown that the Shirase Glacier catchment in East Antarctica has been gaining mass over the past 2 decades, a trend largely attributed to increased snowfall. Our multi-decadal observations of Shirase Glacier show that ocean forcing has also contributed to some of this recent mass gain. This has been caused by strengthening easterly winds reducing the inflow of warm water underneath the Shirase ice tongue, causing the glacier to slow down and thicken.
Jonathan R. Adams, Joanne S. Johnson, Stephen J. Roberts, Philippa J. Mason, Keir A. Nichols, Ryan A. Venturelli, Klaus Wilcken, Greg Balco, Brent Goehring, Brenda Hall, John Woodward, and Dylan H. Rood
The Cryosphere, 16, 4887–4905,Short summary
Glaciers in West Antarctica are experiencing significant ice loss. Geological data provide historical context for ongoing ice loss in West Antarctica, including constraints on likely future ice sheet behaviour in response to climatic warming. We present evidence from rare isotopes measured in rocks collected from an outcrop next to Pope Glacier. These data suggest that Pope Glacier thinned faster and sooner after the last ice age than previously thought.
Jowan M. Barnes and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 16, 4291–4304,Short summary
Models must represent how glaciers slide along the bed, but there are many ways to do so. In this paper, several sliding laws are tested and found to affect different regions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in different ways and at different speeds. However, the variability in ice volume loss due to sliding-law choices is low compared to other factors, so limited empirical knowledge of sliding does not prevent us from making predictions of how an ice sheet will evolve.
Greg Balco, Nathan Brown, Keir Nichols, Ryan A. Venturelli, Jonathan Adams, Scott Braddock, Seth Campbell, Brent Goehring, Joanne S. Johnson, Dylan H. Rood, Klaus Wilcken, Brenda Hall, and John Woodward
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Samples of bedrock recovered from below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet show that part of the ice sheet was thinner than it is now several thousand years ago, and subsequently thickened. This is important because of concern that present ice thinning in this region may lead to rapid, irreversible sea level rise. The past episode of thinning at this site, which took place in a similar although not identical climate, was not irreversible. However, reversal required at least 3000 years to complete.
Sophie Goliber, Taryn Black, Ginny Catania, James M. Lea, Helene Olsen, Daniel Cheng, Suzanne Bevan, Anders Bjørk, Charlie Bunce, Stephen Brough, J. Rachel Carr, Tom Cowton, Alex Gardner, Dominik Fahrner, Emily Hill, Ian Joughin, Niels J. Korsgaard, Adrian Luckman, Twila Moon, Tavi Murray, Andrew Sole, Michael Wood, and Enze Zhang
The Cryosphere, 16, 3215–3233,Short summary
Terminus traces have been used to understand how Greenland's glaciers have changed over time; however, manual digitization is time-intensive, and a lack of coordination leads to duplication of efforts. We have compiled a dataset of over 39 000 terminus traces for 278 glaciers for scientific and machine learning applications. We also provide an overview of an updated version of the Google Earth Engine Digitization Tool (GEEDiT), which has been developed specifically for the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Benoît Urruty, Emily A. Hill, Ronja Reese, Julius Garbe, Olivier Gagliardini, Gael Durand, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Ricarda Winkelmann, Mondher Chekki, David Chandler, and Petra M. Langebroek
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Retreat of the Antarctic grounding lines could destabilise large parts of the ice sheet. We use three ice sheet models to show that the present-day locations of Antarctic grounding lines are stable with respect to a small perturbation away from their current position. This suggests that self-sustained retreat of grounding lines, due to an internal instability, has not begun. Instead, the currently observed retreat is likely due to external forcing alone.
Ronja Reese, Julius Garbe, Emily A. Hill, Benoît Urruty, Kaitlin A. Naughten, Olivier Gagliardini, Gael Durand, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, David Chandler, Petra M. Langebroek, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
We use an ice sheet model to test where current climate conditions in Antarctica might lead. We find that, depending on model parameters, present-day ocean and atmosphere conditions might commit a collapse of parts of West Antarctica which evolves over centuries to millennia. Importantly, this collapse is not yet irreversible as shown in our accompanying study.
Joanne S. Johnson, Ryan A. Venturelli, Greg Balco, Claire S. Allen, Scott Braddock, Seth Campbell, Brent M. Goehring, Brenda L. Hall, Peter D. Neff, Keir A. Nichols, Dylan H. Rood, Elizabeth R. Thomas, and John Woodward
The Cryosphere, 16, 1543–1562,Short summary
Recent studies have suggested that some portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet were less extensive than present in the last few thousand years. We discuss how past ice loss and regrowth during this time would leave its mark on geological and glaciological records and suggest ways in which future studies could detect such changes. Determining timing of ice loss and gain around Antarctica and conditions under which they occurred is critical for preparing for future climate-warming-induced changes.
Tom Mitcham, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 16, 883–901,Short summary
We modelled the response of the Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS) and its tributary glaciers to the calving of the A68 iceberg and validated our results with observations. We found that the impact was limited, confirming that mostly passive ice was calved. Through further calving experiments we quantified the total buttressing provided by the LCIS and found that over 80 % of the buttressing capacity is generated in the first 5 km of the ice shelf downstream of the grounding line.
Sebastian Harry Reid Rosier, Christopher Y. S. Bull, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Future ice loss from Antarctica could raise sea levels by several metres, and key to this is the rate at which the ocean melts the ice sheet from below. Existing methods for modelling this process are either too time-consuming or very simplified. We present a new approach, using machine learning to mimic the melt rates calculated by a full ocean model but in a fraction of the time. This could replace to existing methods, providing accurate and efficient melt rate for use in an ice sheet model.
Emily A. Hill, Sebastian H. R. Rosier, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Matthew Collins
The Cryosphere, 15, 4675–4702,Short summary
Using an ice flow model and uncertainty quantification methods, we provide probabilistic projections of future sea level rise from the Filchner–Ronne region of Antarctica. We find that it is most likely that this region will contribute negatively to sea level rise over the next 300 years, largely as a result of increased surface mass balance. We identify parameters controlling ice shelf melt and snowfall contribute most to uncertainties in projections.
Jowan M. Barnes, Thiago Dias dos Santos, Daniel Goldberg, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Mathieu Morlighem, and Jan De Rydt
The Cryosphere, 15, 1975–2000,Short summary
Some properties of ice flow models must be initialised using observed data before they can be used to produce reliable predictions of the future. Different models have different ways of doing this, and the process is generally seen as being specific to an individual model. We compare the methods used by three different models and show that they produce similar outputs. We also demonstrate that the outputs from one model can be used in other models without introducing large uncertainties.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier, Ronja Reese, Jonathan F. Donges, Jan De Rydt, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 15, 1501–1516,Short summary
Pine Island Glacier has contributed more to sea-level rise over the past decades than any other glacier in Antarctica. Ice-flow modelling studies have shown that it can undergo periods of rapid mass loss, but no study has shown that these future changes could cross a tipping point and therefore be effectively irreversible. Here, we assess the stability of Pine Island Glacier, quantifying the changes in ocean temperatures required to cross future tipping points using statistical methods.
Bertie W. J. Miles, Jim R. Jordan, Chris R. Stokes, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Adrian Jenkins
The Cryosphere, 15, 663–676,Short summary
We provide a historical overview of changes in Denman Glacier's flow speed, structure and calving events since the 1960s. Based on these observations, we perform a series of numerical modelling experiments to determine the likely cause of Denman's acceleration since the 1970s. We show that grounding line retreat, ice shelf thinning and the detachment of Denman's ice tongue from a pinning point are the most likely causes of the observed acceleration.
Jan De Rydt, Ronja Reese, Fernando S. Paolo, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 113–132,Short summary
We used satellite observations and numerical simulations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, between 1996 and 2016 to show that the recent increase in its flow speed can only be reproduced by computer models if stringent assumptions are made about the material properties of the ice and its underlying bed. These assumptions are not commonly adopted in ice flow modelling, and our results therefore have implications for future simulations of Antarctic ice flow and sea level projections.
Stephen L. Cornford, Helene Seroussi, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Rob Arthern, Chris Borstad, Julia Christmann, Thiago Dias dos Santos, Johannes Feldmann, Daniel Goldberg, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Thomas Kleiner, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, Nacho Merino, Gaël Durand, Mathieu Morlighem, David Pollard, Martin Rückamp, C. Rosie Williams, and Hongju Yu
The Cryosphere, 14, 2283–2301,Short summary
We present the results of the third Marine Ice Sheet Intercomparison Project (MISMIP+). MISMIP+ is one in a series of exercises that test numerical models of ice sheet flow in simple situations. This particular exercise concentrates on the response of ice sheet models to the thinning of their floating ice shelves, which is of interest because numerical models are currently used to model the response to contemporary and near-future thinning in Antarctic ice shelves.
Anders Levermann, Ricarda Winkelmann, Torsten Albrecht, Heiko Goelzer, Nicholas R. Golledge, Ralf Greve, Philippe Huybrechts, Jim Jordan, Gunter Leguy, Daniel Martin, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, David Pollard, Aurelien Quiquet, Christian Rodehacke, Helene Seroussi, Johannes Sutter, Tong Zhang, Jonas Van Breedam, Reinhard Calov, Robert DeConto, Christophe Dumas, Julius Garbe, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Thomas Kleiner, William H. Lipscomb, Malte Meinshausen, Esmond Ng, Sophie M. J. Nowicki, Mauro Perego, Stephen F. Price, Fuyuki Saito, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Sainan Sun, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 35–76,Short summary
We provide an estimate of the future sea level contribution of Antarctica from basal ice shelf melting up to the year 2100. The full uncertainty range in the warming-related forcing of basal melt is estimated and applied to 16 state-of-the-art ice sheet models using a linear response theory approach. The sea level contribution we obtain is very likely below 61 cm under unmitigated climate change until 2100 (RCP8.5) and very likely below 40 cm if the Paris Climate Agreement is kept.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 14, 17–37,Short summary
The flow of ice shelves is now known to be strongly affected by ocean tides, but the mechanism by which this happens is unclear. We use a viscoelastic model to try to reproduce observations of this behaviour on the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf in Antarctica. We find that tilting of the ice shelf explains the short-period behaviour, while tidally induced movement of the grounding line (the boundary between grounded and floating ice) explains the more complex long-period response.
Jan De Rydt, Gudmundur Hilmar Gudmundsson, Thomas Nagler, and Jan Wuite
The Cryosphere, 13, 2771–2787,Short summary
Two large icebergs are about to break off from the Brunt Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Rifting started several years ago and is now approaching its final phase. Satellite data and computer simulations show that over the past 2 decades, growth of the ice shelf has caused a build-up of forces within the ice, which culminated in its fracture. These natural changes in geometry coincided with large variations in flow speed, a process that is thought to be relevant for all Antarctic ice shelf margins.
Emily A. Hill, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, J. Rachel Carr, and Chris R. Stokes
The Cryosphere, 12, 3907–3921,Short summary
Floating ice tongues in Greenland buttress inland ice, and their removal could accelerate ice flow. Petermann Glacier recently lost large sections of its ice tongue, but there was little glacier acceleration. Here, we assess the impact of future calving events on ice speeds. We find that removing the lower portions of the ice tongue does not accelerate flow. However, future iceberg calving closer to the grounding line could accelerate ice flow and increase ice discharge and sea level rise.
Edward C. King, Jan De Rydt, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 3361–3372,Short summary
Ice shelves are thick sheets of ice floating on the ocean off the coasts of Antarctica and Greenland. They help regulate the flow of ice off the continent. Ice shelves undergo a natural cycle of seaward flow, fracture, iceberg production and regrowth. The Brunt Ice Shelf recently developed two large cracks. We used ground-penetrating radar to find out how the internal structure of the ice might influence the present crack development and the future stability of the ice shelf.
Ronja Reese, Ricarda Winkelmann, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 3229–3242,Short summary
Accurately representing grounding-line flux is essential for modelling the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Currently, in some large-scale ice-flow modelling studies a condition on ice flux across grounding lines is imposed using an analytically motivated parameterisation. Here we test this expression for Antarctic grounding lines and find that it provides inaccurate and partly unphysical estimates of ice flux for the highly buttressed ice streams.
Emily A. Hill, J. Rachel Carr, Chris R. Stokes, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 3243–3263,Short summary
The dynamic behaviour (i.e. acceleration and retreat) of outlet glaciers in northern Greenland remains understudied. Here, we provide a new long-term (68-year) record of terminus change. Overall, recent retreat rates (1995–2015) are higher than the last 47 years. Despite region-wide retreat, we found disparities in dynamic behaviour depending on terminus type; grounded glaciers accelerated and thinned following retreat, while glaciers with floating ice tongues were insensitive to recent retreat.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 1699–1713,Short summary
Ocean tides cause strong modulation of horizontal ice shelf flow, most notably at a fortnightly frequency that is absent in the vertical tidal forcing. We propose that tidal bending in the margins of the ice shelf produces sufficiently large stresses that the effective viscosity of ice in these regions is reduced during high and low tide. This effect can explain many features of the observed behaviour and implies that ice shelves in areas with strong tides move faster than they otherwise would.
Jan De Rydt, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Thomas Nagler, Jan Wuite, and Edward C. King
The Cryosphere, 12, 505–520,Short summary
We provide an unprecedented view into the dynamics of two active rifts in the Brunt Ice Shelf through a unique set of field observations, novel satellite data products, and a state-of-the-art ice flow model. We describe the evolution of fracture width and length in great detail, pushing the boundaries of both spatial and temporal coverage, and provide a deeper insight into the process of iceberg formation, which exerts an important control over the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Werner M. J. Lazeroms, Adrian Jenkins, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal
The Cryosphere, 12, 49–70,Short summary
Basal melting of ice shelves is a major factor in the decline of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which can contribute significantly to sea-level rise. Here, we investigate a new basal melt model based on the dynamics of meltwater plumes. For the first time, this model is applied to all Antarctic ice shelves. The model results in a realistic melt-rate pattern given suitable data for the topography and ocean temperature, making it a promising tool for future simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Matt A. King, Keith W. Nicholls, Keith Makinson, and Hugh F. J. Corr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 849–860,Short summary
Tides can affect the flow of ice at hourly to yearly timescales. In some cases the ice responds at a different frequency than is found in the tidal forcing; for example, on Rutford Ice Stream the strongest response is at a fortnightly period. A new compilation of GPS data across the Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams shows that this fortnightly modulation in ice flow is found across the entire region. Measurements of this kind can provide insights into ice rheology and basal processes.
Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Francesca Sangiorgi, Peter K. Bijl, Jörg Pross, Carlota Escutia, Ariadna Salabarnada, Matthew J. Pound, Jochen Voss, and John Woodward
Biogeosciences, 14, 2089–2100,Short summary
One of the main challenges in Antarctic vegetation reconstructions is the uncertainty in unambiguously identifying reworked pollen and spore assemblages in marine sedimentary records influenced by waxing and waning ice sheets. This study uses red fluorescence and digital imaging as a new tool to identify reworking in a marine sediment core from circum-Antarctic waters to reconstruct Cenozoic climate change and vegetation with high confidence.
Daniel Farinotti, Douglas J. Brinkerhoff, Garry K. C. Clarke, Johannes J. Fürst, Holger Frey, Prateek Gantayat, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, Claire Girard, Matthias Huss, Paul W. Leclercq, Andreas Linsbauer, Horst Machguth, Carlos Martin, Fabien Maussion, Mathieu Morlighem, Cyrille Mosbeux, Ankur Pandit, Andrea Portmann, Antoine Rabatel, RAAJ Ramsankaran, Thomas J. Reerink, Olivier Sanchez, Peter A. Stentoft, Sangita Singh Kumari, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Brian Anderson, Toby Benham, Daniel Binder, Julian A. Dowdeswell, Andrea Fischer, Kay Helfricht, Stanislav Kutuzov, Ivan Lavrentiev, Robert McNabb, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Huilin Li, and Liss M. Andreassen
The Cryosphere, 11, 949–970,Short summary
ITMIX – the Ice Thickness Models Intercomparison eXperiment – was the first coordinated performance assessment for models inferring glacier ice thickness from surface characteristics. Considering 17 different models and 21 different test cases, we show that although solutions of individual models can differ considerably, an ensemble average can yield uncertainties in the order of 10 ± 24 % the mean ice thickness. Ways forward for improving such estimates are sketched.
Tom Watts, Nick Rutter, Peter Toose, Chris Derksen, Melody Sandells, and John Woodward
The Cryosphere, 10, 2069–2074,Short summary
Ice layers in snowpacks introduce uncertainty in satellite-derived estimates of snow water equivalent, have ecological impacts on plants and animals, and change the thermal and vapour transport properties of the snowpack. Here we present a new field method for measuring the density of ice layers. The method was used in the Arctic and mid-latitudes; the mean measured ice layer density was significantly higher than values typically used in the literature.
Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Stephen L. Cornford, Gaël Durand, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Rupert M. Gladstone, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Tore Hattermann, David M. Holland, Denise Holland, Paul R. Holland, Daniel F. Martin, Pierre Mathiot, Frank Pattyn, and Hélène Seroussi
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2471–2497,Short summary
Coupled ice sheet–ocean models capable of simulating moving grounding lines are just becoming available. Such models have a broad range of potential applications in studying the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, including assessing their contributions to sea level change. Here we describe the idealized experiments that make up three interrelated Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) for marine ice sheet models and regional ocean circulation models incorporating ice shelf cavities.
David H. Jones, Carl Robinson, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 65–73,Short summary
Long-term records from high-precision GPS receivers are essential for studying geophysical movement. Existing, commercially available, precision GPS receivers are not intended for long-term, autonomous deployment. We have designed a GPS receiver that is better suited for this application. In this paper, we discuss the receiver design and compare its performance with that of some of the commercially available receivers.
S. H. R. Rosier, G. H. Gudmundsson, and J. A. M. Green
The Cryosphere, 9, 1649–1661,Short summary
We use a full-Stokes model to investigate the long period modulation of Rutford Ice Stream flow by the ocean tide. We find that using a nonlinear sliding law cannot fully explain the measurements and an additional mechanism, whereby tidally induced subglacial pressure variations are transmitted upstream from the grounding line, is also required to match the large amplitude and decay length scale of the observations.
D. H. Jones and G. H. Gudmundsson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1243–1250,Short summary
Icebergs are a natural hazard to maritime operations in polar regions. Iceberg populations are increasing, as is the demand for access to both Arctic and Antarctic seas. Soon the ability to reliably track icebergs may become a necessity for continued operational safety. In this paper we describe the design of a tracking sensor that can be deployed from an aircraft during surveys of Antarctic icebergs, and detail the results of its first deployment operation on iceberg B-31.
J. Wuite, H. Rott, M. Hetzenecker, D. Floricioiu, J. De Rydt, G. H. Gudmundsson, T. Nagler, and M. Kern
The Cryosphere, 9, 957–969,Short summary
We present new analysis of satellite data showing the variability of glacier velocities in the Larsen B area, Antarctic Peninsula, back to 1995. Velocity data and estimates of ice thickness are used to derive ice discharge at different epochs. Velocities of the glaciers remain to date well above the velocities of the pre-collapse period. The response of individual glaciers differs, and velocities show significant temporal fluctuations, implying major variations in ice discharge and mass balance.
C. Martín, R. Mulvaney, G. H. Gudmundsson, and H. Corr
Clim. Past, 11, 547–557,
S. H. R. Rosier, G. H. Gudmundsson, and J. A. M. Green
The Cryosphere, 8, 1763–1775,
R. Anderson, D. H. Jones, and G. H. Gudmundsson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 917–927,
G. H. Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 7, 647–655,
J. De Rydt, G. H. Gudmundsson, H. F. J. Corr, and P. Christoffersen
The Cryosphere, 7, 407–417,
G. H. Gudmundsson, J. Krug, G. Durand, L. Favier, and O. Gagliardini
The Cryosphere, 6, 1497–1505,
Related subject area
Cryosphere – Radar measurementsA new digital elevation model (DEM) dataset of the entire Antarctic continent derived from ICESat-2A 30-year monthly 5 km gridded surface elevation time series for the Greenland Ice Sheet from multiple satellite radar altimetersAirborne ultra-wideband radar sounding over the shear margins and along flow lines at the onset region of the Northeast Greenland Ice StreamPolar maps of C-band backscatter parameters from the Advanced ScatterometerA detailed radiostratigraphic data set for the central East Antarctic Plateau spanning from the Holocene to the mid-PleistoceneArctic sea ice cover data from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar by deep learningFirst ice thickness measurements in Tierra del Fuego at Schiaparelli Glacier, ChileBed topography of Princess Elizabeth Land in East Antarctica
Xiaoyi Shen, Chang-Qing Ke, Yubin Fan, and Lhakpa Drolma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3075–3089,Short summary
Obtaining the detailed surface topography in Antarctica is essential for fieldwork planning, surface height change and mass balance estimations. A new and reliable DEM for Antarctica with a modal resolution of 500 m is presented based on the surface height measurements from ICESat-2 by using a model fitting method. The high accuracy of elevations and the possibility for annual updates make the ICESat-2 DEM an addition to the existing Antarctic DEM groups.
Baojun Zhang, Zemin Wang, Jiachun An, Tingting Liu, and Hong Geng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 973–989,Short summary
A long-term time series of ice sheet surface elevation change essential for assessing climate change. This study presents a 30-year monthly 5 km gridded surface elevation time series for the Greenland Ice Sheet from multiple satellite radar altimeters. The dataset can provide detailed insight into Greenland Ice Sheet surface elevation change on multiple temporal and spatial scales, thereby providing an opportunity to explore potential associations between ice sheet change and climatic forcing.
Steven Franke, Daniela Jansen, Tobias Binder, John D. Paden, Nils Dörr, Tamara A. Gerber, Heinrich Miller, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Veit Helm, Daniel Steinhage, Ilka Weikusat, Frank Wilhelms, and Olaf Eisen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 763–779,Short summary
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the largest ice stream in Greenland. In order to better understand the past and future dynamics of the NEGIS, we present a high-resolution airborne radar data set (EGRIP-NOR-2018) for the onset region of the NEGIS. The survey area is centered at the location of the drill site of the East Greenland Ice-Core Project (EastGRIP), and radar profiles cover both shear margins and are aligned parallel to several flow lines.
Jessica Cartwright, Alexander D. Fraser, and Richard Porter-Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 479–490,Short summary
Due to the scale and remote nature of the polar regions, it is essential to use satellite remote sensing to monitor and understand them and their dynamics. Here we present data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), processed in a manner proven for use in cryosphere studies. The data have been processed on three timescales (5 d, 2 d and 1 d) in order to optimise temporal resolution as each of the three MetOp satellites is launched.
Marie G. P. Cavitte, Duncan A. Young, Robert Mulvaney, Catherine Ritz, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Gregory Ng, Scott D. Kempf, Enrica Quartini, Gail R. Muldoon, John Paden, Massimo Frezzotti, Jason L. Roberts, Carly R. Tozer, Dustin M. Schroeder, and Donald D. Blankenship
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4759–4777,Short summary
We present a data set consisting of ice-penetrating-radar internal stratigraphy: 26 internal reflecting horizons that cover the greater Dome C area, East Antarctica, the most extensive IRH data set to date in the region. This data set uses radar surveys collected over the span of 10 years, starting with an airborne international collaboration in 2008 to explore the region, up to the detailed ground-based surveys in support of the European Beyond EPICA – Oldest Ice (BE-OI) project.
Yi-Ran Wang and Xiao-Ming Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2723–2742,Short summary
Sea ice cover is the most fundamental factor that indicates the underlying great changes in the Arctic. We propose novel sea ice cover data in high resolution of a few hundred meters by spaceborne synthetic aperture radar, which is more than 10 times that of the operational sea ice cover and concentration data. The method is based on a deep learning architecture of U-Net. We have been processing data acquired by Sentinel-1 since 2014 to obtain high-quality sea ice cover data in the Arctic.
Guisella Gacitúa, Christoph Schneider, Jorge Arigony, Inti González, Ricardo Jaña, and Gino Casassa
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 231–236,Short summary
We performed the first successful ice thickness measurements using terrestrial ground-penetrating radar in the ablation area of Schiaparelli Glacier (Cordillera Darwin, Tierra del Fuego, Chile). Data are fundamental to understand glaciers dynamics, constrain ice dynamical modelling, and predict glacier evolution. Results show a valley-shaped bedrock below current sea level; thus further retreat of Schiaparelli Glacier will probably lead to an enlarged and strongly over-deepened proglacial lake.
Xiangbin Cui, Hafeez Jeofry, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Jingxue Guo, Lin Li, Laura E. Lindzey, Feras A. Habbal, Wei Wei, Duncan A. Young, Neil Ross, Mathieu Morlighem, Lenneke M. Jong, Jason L. Roberts, Donald D. Blankenship, Sun Bo, and Martin J. Siegert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2765–2774,Short summary
We present a topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL), East Antarctica. The DEM covers an area of approximately 900 000 km2 and was built from radio-echo sounding data collected in four campaigns since 2015. Previously, to generate the Bedmap2 topographic product, PEL’s bed was characterised from low-resolution satellite gravity data across an otherwise large (>200 km wide) data-free zone.
Bindschadler, R., Choi, H., Wichlacz, A., Bingham, R., Bohlander, J., Brunt, K., Corr, H., Drews, R., Fricker, H., Hall, M., Hindmarsh, R., Kohler, J., Padman, L., Rack, W., Rotschky, G., Urbini, S., Vornberger, P., and Young, N.: Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the International Polar Year, The Cryosphere, 5, 569–588, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-569-2011, 2011.
Christie, F. D. W., Bingham, R., Gourmelen, N., Tett, S. F. B., and Muto, A.: Four-decade record of pervasive grounding line retreat along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 5741–5749, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068972, 2016.
Corr, H. and Robinson, C.: Airborne radio-echo sounding of the English Coast, western Palmer Land, Antarctic Peninsula (2016/17 season) (Version 1.0), UK Polar Data Centre, Natural Environment Research Council, UK Research & Innovation, https://doi.org/10.5285/E07D62BF-D58C-4187-A019-59BE998939CC, 2020.
Corr, H., Ferraccioli, F., Frearson, N., Jordan, T. A., Robinson, C., Armadillo, E., Caneva, G., Bozzo, E., and Tabacco, L.: Airborne radio-echo sounding of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin, the Transantarctic Mountains, and the Dome C Region, Terra Ant. Reports, 13, 55–63, 2007.
Daniels, D. J.: Ground penetrating radar, 2nd edn., The Institute of Engineering and Technology, London, UK, https://doi.org/10.1049/PBRA015E, 2004.
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Satellite measurements of the English Coast in the Antarctic Peninsula reveal that glaciers are thinning and losing mass, but ice thickness data are required to assess these changes, in terms of ice flux and sea level contribution. Our ice-penetrating radar measurements reveal that low-elevation subglacial channels control fast-flowing ice streams, which release over 39 Gt of ice per year to floating ice shelves. This topography could make ice flows susceptible to future instability.
Satellite measurements of the English Coast in the Antarctic Peninsula reveal that glaciers are...