Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-90
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-90
25 Mar 2024
 | 25 Mar 2024
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

SEA-Rice-Ci10: High-resolution Mapping of Rice Cropping Intensity and Harvested Area Across Southeast Asia using the Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data

Frisa Irawan Ginting, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Fatchurahman, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Norhidayah Che Soh, Sunny Goh Eng Giap, Dian Fiantis, Budi Indra Setiawan, Sam Schiller, Aaron Davitt, and Budiman Minasny

Abstract. The Southeast Asia region has a vast expanse with diverse tropical climates, making it a prominent centre of rice cultivation, contributing to about 20 % of the world’s rice production and contributes 29 % of global rice methane emissions. As a staple food for many countries, accurate and up-to-date information on the rice harvested area is crucial for addressing food security issues, predicting rice yield and methane emissions, and formulating effective government policies. This paper presents the first detailed study of rice cropping intensity and harvested areas throughout Southeast Asia. Current remote sensing products have not been able to produce up-to-date cropping intensity information due to the variability of local cultivation practices. To address this problem, we integrated Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A/B time series data from 2020 to 2021 and developed a local unsupervised classification with phenological labelling (LUCK-PALM) method. We implemented the system on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud-based platform to produce geospatial products of rice cropping intensity and harvested area at a spatial resolution of 10 m called SEA-Rice-Ci10s. The results show that Southeast Asia's total rice growing area in 2020–2021 was 28.5 Mha, with 51 % single cropping, 47 % double cropping, and 2 % triple cropping. These were equivalent to 42.9 Mha of annual harvested area, consisting of Thailand (11.2 Mha), Indonesia (8.4 Mha), Myanmar (8.4 Mha), Vietnam (6.3 Mha), Cambodia (3.9 Mha), the Philippines (3.3 Mha), Laos (0.8 Mha), Malaysia (< 0.5 Mha), and Timor-Leste (0.01 Mha). We compared our rice maps to agricultural statistics data at the district and province levels and existing rice maps for some Southeast Asian countries. The results demonstrate that our map agreed well with countries’ statistics with a linear coefficient of determination (R2) from 0.85 to 0.97. Compared to existing products, our map can resolve small paddy fields of about 0.2 ha in the hilly areas. This information will be useful in addressing food security challenges and improving estimates of methane emissions from rice cultivation. The 10 m paddy rice cropping intensity map for Southeast Asia, SEA-Rice-Ci10, is available on the GEE App (https://rudiyanto.users.earthengine.app/view/seariceci2021), the Climate TRACE platform (https://climatetrace.org/) and the Zenodo repository (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10707621) (Frisa Irawan et al., 2024).

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Frisa Irawan Ginting, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Fatchurahman, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Norhidayah Che Soh, Sunny Goh Eng Giap, Dian Fiantis, Budi Indra Setiawan, Sam Schiller, Aaron Davitt, and Budiman Minasny

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2024-90', Anonymous Referee #1, 25 Apr 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, 28 May 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2024-90', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Apr 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, 28 May 2024
Frisa Irawan Ginting, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Fatchurahman, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Norhidayah Che Soh, Sunny Goh Eng Giap, Dian Fiantis, Budi Indra Setiawan, Sam Schiller, Aaron Davitt, and Budiman Minasny

Data sets

SEA-Rice-Ci10: High-resolution Mapping of Rice Cropping Intensity and Harvested Area Across Southeast Asia using the Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data Frisa Irawan Ginting, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Fatchurahman Fatchurahman, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Norhidayah Che Soh, Sunny Goh Eng Giap, Dian Fiantis, Budi Indra Setiawan, Sam Schiller, Aaron Davitt, and Budiman Minasny https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10707621

Frisa Irawan Ginting, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Fatchurahman, Ramisah Mohd Shah, Norhidayah Che Soh, Sunny Goh Eng Giap, Dian Fiantis, Budi Indra Setiawan, Sam Schiller, Aaron Davitt, and Budiman Minasny

Viewed

Total article views: 927 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
678 209 40 927 40 30 35
  • HTML: 678
  • PDF: 209
  • XML: 40
  • Total: 927
  • Supplement: 40
  • BibTeX: 30
  • EndNote: 35
Views and downloads (calculated since 25 Mar 2024)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 25 Mar 2024)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 867 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 867 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 23 Jul 2024
Download
Short summary
This study is the first to map rice cropping intensity and the harvested area across Southeast Asia at a spatial resolution of 10 m (SEA-Rice-Ci10). We have developed a geospatial inventory of paddy rice parcels and rice cropping intensity by integrating Sentinel-1 and 2 time-series data in a framework called LUCK-PALM, based on local phenological expert interpretation. According to our best knowledge, it is the finest-resolution and most accurate database of paddy rice in Southeast Asia.
Altmetrics