Articles | Volume 6, issue 1
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90, 2014
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90, 2014

Review article 07 Mar 2014

Review article | 07 Mar 2014

An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2)

D. C. E. Bakker1, B. Pfeil3,2, K. Smith5,4, S. Hankin4, A. Olsen6,3,2, S. R. Alin4, C. Cosca4, S. Harasawa7, A. Kozyr8, Y. Nojiri7, K. M. O'Brien5,4, U. Schuster9,*, M. Telszewski10, B. Tilbrook12,11, C. Wada7, J. Akl11, L. Barbero13, N. R. Bates14, J. Boutin15, Y. Bozec17,16, W.-J. Cai18, R. D. Castle19, F. P. Chavez20, L. Chen22,21, M. Chierici23,24, K. Currie25, H. J. W. de Baar26, W. Evans27,4, R. A. Feely4, A. Fransson28, Z. Gao21, B. Hales29, N. J. Hardman-Mountford30, M. Hoppema31, W.-J. Huang18, C. W. Hunt32, B. Huss19, T. Ichikawa33, T. Johannessen6,3,2, E. M. Jones31, S. D. Jones34, S. Jutterström35, V. Kitidis36, A. Körtzinger37, P. Landschützer1, S. K. Lauvset3,2, N. Lefèvre39,38, A. B. Manke4, J. T. Mathis4, L. Merlivat15, N. Metzl15, A. Murata40, T. Newberger41, A. M. Omar6,3,2, T. Ono33, G.-H. Park42, K. Paterson11, D. Pierrot13, A. F. Ríos43, C. L. Sabine4, S. Saito44, J. Salisbury32, V. V. S. S. Sarma45, R. Schlitzer31, R. Sieger31, I. Skjelvan6,3,2, T. Steinhoff37, K. F. Sullivan13, H. Sun21, A. J. Sutton5,4, T. Suzuki46, C. Sweeney41, T. Takahashi47, J. Tjiputra6,3, N. Tsurushima48, S. M. A. C. van Heuven49, D. Vandemark32, P. Vlahos50, D. W. R. Wallace51, R. Wanninkhof19, and A. J. Watson9,* D. C. E. Bakker et al.
  • 1Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
  • 2Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • 3Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 4Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 5Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 6Uni Climate, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 7National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 8Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • 9College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
  • 10International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project, Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
  • 11CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Australia
  • 12Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Australia
  • 13Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 14Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Ferry Reach, Bermuda
  • 15Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06), CNRS, IRD, MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, Paris, France
  • 16CNRS, UMR 7144, Equipe Chimie Marine, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France
  • 17Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7144, Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, SBR, Roscoff, France
  • 18School of Marine Science and Policy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
  • 19Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 20Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
  • 21Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, P. R. China
  • 22Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration, Beijing, P. R. China
  • 23Institute of Marine Research, Tromsø, Norway
  • 24Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 25National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • 26Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, the Netherlands
  • 27Ocean Acidification Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA
  • 28Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway
  • 29College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
  • 30CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Floreat, WA, Australia
  • 31Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 32Ocean Process Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
  • 33National Research Institute for Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama, Japan
  • 34Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
  • 35IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 36Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
  • 37GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
  • 38IRD, Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06), CNRS, MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, Paris, France
  • 39LaboMar, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil
  • 40Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuda, Japan
  • 41Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 42East Sea Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Uljin, Korea
  • 43Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
  • 44Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
  • 45National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
  • 46Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
  • 47Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA
  • 48National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 49Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 50Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, Connecticut, USA
  • 51Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • *formerly at: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK

Abstract. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface water fCO2 values) and extended data coverage (from 1968–2007 to 1968–2011). The quality control criteria, while identical in both versions, have been applied more strictly in version 2 than in version 1. The SOCAT website ( has links to quality control comments, metadata, individual data set files, and synthesis and gridded data products. Interactive online tools allow visitors to explore the richness of the data. Applications of SOCAT include process studies, quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal, year-to-year and longerterm variation, as well as initialisation or validation of ocean carbon models and coupled climate-carbon models.

Data coverage

Repository-References: Individual data set files and synthesis product: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.811776
Gridded products: doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.SOCAT_V2_GRID
Available at:
Coverage: 79° S to 90° N; 180° W to 180° E
Location Name: Global Oceans and Coastal Seas
Date/Time Start: 16 November 1968
Date/Time End: 26 December 2011