Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 125–143, 2013
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 125–143, 2013

  04 Apr 2013

04 Apr 2013

A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

B. Pfeil1,2,3, A. Olsen1,2,4,5, D. C. E. Bakker6, S. Hankin7, H. Koyuk8, A. Kozyr9, J. Malczyk10, A. Manke7, N. Metzl11, C. L. Sabine7, J. Akl12,13, S. R. Alin7, N. Bates14, R. G. J. Bellerby2,15,16, A. Borges17, J. Boutin11, P. J. Brown6,18, W.-J. Cai19, F. P. Chavez20, A. Chen21, C. Cosca7, A. J. Fassbender22, R. A. Feely7, M. González-Dávila23, C. Goyet24, B. Hales25, N. Hardman-Mountford26,*, C. Heinze1,2,5,16, M. Hood27, M. Hoppema28, C. W. Hunt29, D. Hydes30, M. Ishii31, T. Johannessen1,2, S. D. Jones32, R. M. Key33, A. Körtzinger34, P. Landschützer6, S. K. Lauvset1,2, N. Lefèvre11, A. Lenton12, A. Lourantou11, L. Merlivat11, T. Midorikawa35, L. Mintrop36, C. Miyazaki37, A. Murata38, A. Nakadate39, Y. Nakano38, S. Nakaoka40, Y. Nojiri40, A. M. Omar5,16, X. A. Padin41, G.-H. Park42, K. Paterson12,13, F. F. Perez41, D. Pierrot42, A. Poisson24, A. F. Ríos41, J. M. Santana-Casiano23, J. Salisbury29, V. V. S. S. Sarma43, R. Schlitzer28, B. Schneider44, U. Schuster6, R. Sieger28, I. Skjelvan1,2,16, T. Steinhoff34, T. Suzuki45, T. Takahashi46, K. Tedesco47,**, M. Telszewski48,**, H. Thomas49, B. Tilbrook12,13,50, J. Tjiputra1,2, D. Vandemark29, T. Veness12,13, R. Wanninkhof51, A. J. Watson6, R. Weiss52, C. S. Wong53, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue38 B. Pfeil et al.
  • 1Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • 2Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 3PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 4Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 5Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen, Norway
  • 6School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
  • 7Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 8Joint Inst. for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 9Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • 10Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • 11Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 12CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 13Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 14Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Ferry Reach, Bermuda
  • 15Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 16Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway
  • 17University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liège, Belgium
  • 18British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
  • 19Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
  • 20Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
  • 21Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 22School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 23Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
  • 24Inst. de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Univ. de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
  • 25Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, USA
  • 26CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 27Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Paris, France
  • 28Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 29Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
  • 30National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 31Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 32Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich, UK
  • 33Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  • 34GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
  • 35Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 36MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany
  • 37Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 38Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
  • 39Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
  • 40National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 41Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
  • 42Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 43National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
  • 44Leibnitz Research Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany
  • 45Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
  • 46Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, USA
  • 47International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
  • 48International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
  • 49Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 50Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 51Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 52Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
  • 53Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
  • *formerly at: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
  • **formerly at: International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France

Abstract. A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.