Articles | Volume 2, issue 1
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 17–34, 2010

Special issue: CARINA: a consistent carbon-relevant data base for the Arctic,...

Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 17–34, 2010

  01 Feb 2010

01 Feb 2010

Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

T. Tanhua1, R. Steinfeldt2, R. M. Key3, P. Brown4, N. Gruber5, R. Wanninkhof6, F. Perez7, A. Körtzinger1, A. Velo7, U. Schuster4, S. van Heuven8, J. L. Bullister9, I. Stendardo5, M. Hoppema10, A. Olsen11,12, A. Kozyr13, D. Pierrot14, C. Schirnick1, and D. W. R. Wallace1 T. Tanhua et al.
  • 1Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Marine Biogeochemie, Kiel, Germany
  • 2Institut für Umweltphysik, Univerität Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 3Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  • 4School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
  • 5Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 6Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami Fl, 33149, USA
  • 7Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas – CSIC, Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain
  • 8Department of Ocean Ecosystems, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 9Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory/NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-6349, USA
  • 10Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Postfach 120161, 27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 11Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen, Norway
  • 12Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
  • 13Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37922, USA
  • 14Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA

Abstract. Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.