Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
Data description paper
15 Apr 2021
Data description paper | 15 Apr 2021
SoilKsatDB: global database of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements for geoscience applications
Surya Gupta et al.
No articles found.
Adrian Wicki, Peter Lehmann, Christian Hauck, and Manfred Stähli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
Soil wetness measurements are used for shallow landslide prediction, however existing sites are often located in flat terrain. Here, we assessed the ability of monitoring sites at flat locations to detect critically saturated conditions, compared to if it was situated at a landslide-prone location. We found that differences exist, but that both sites could equally well distinguish critical from non-critical conditions for shallow landslide triggering if relative changes are considered.
Adrian Wicki, Per-Erik Jansson, Peter Lehmann, Christian Hauck, and Manfred Stähli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4585–4610,Short summary
Soil moisture information was shown to be valuable for landslide prediction. Soil moisture was simulated at 133 sites in Switzerland, and the temporal variability was compared to the regional occurrence of landslides. We found that simulated soil moisture is a good predictor for landslides, and that the forecast goodness is similar to using in situ measurements. This encourages the use of models for complementing existing soil moisture monitoring networks for regional landslide early warning.
Mengyuan Mu, Martin G. De Kauwe, Anna M. Ukkola, Andy J. Pitman, Teresa E. Gimeno, Belinda E. Medlyn, Dani Or, Jinyan Yang, and David S. Ellsworth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 447–471,Short summary
Land surface model (LSM) is a critical tool to study land responses to droughts and heatwaves, but lacking comprehensive observations limited past model evaluations. Here we use a novel dataset at a water-limited site, evaluate a typical LSM with a range of competing model hypotheses widely used in LSMs and identify marked uncertainty due to the differing process assumptions. We show the extensive observations constrain model processes and allow better simulated land responses to these extremes.
Milad Aminzadeh, Peter Lehmann, and Dani Or
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4015–4032,Short summary
Significant evaporative losses from local water reservoirs in arid regions exacerbate water shortages during dry spells. We propose a systematic approach for modeling energy balance and fluxes from covered water bodies using self-assembling floating elements, considering cover properties and local conditions. The study will provide a scientific and generalized basis for designing and implementing this important water conservation strategy to assist with its adaptation in various arid regions.
Minsu Kim and Dani Or
Biogeosciences, 14, 5403–5424,Short summary
We report a mechanistic model for linking biophysical and chemical processes in Cyanobacterial crusts comprised of trophically interacting photoautotrophs, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and nitrifiers. The biocrust model captures salient aspects of microbial activity and community organisation in response to diurnal cycles of light and temperature. The framework offers new mechanistic insights into a host of highly dynamic and spatially resolved processes shaping biogeochemical fluxes.
Stanislaus J. Schymanski, Daniel Breitenstein, and Dani Or
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3377–3400,Short summary
Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes at the small scale that have strong effects on the water cycle and climate at the large scale. In this technical note, we present a novel experimental set-up that enables detailed study of these coupled processes in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Results document the abilities of the experimental set-up to confirm or challenge our understanding of these processes.
Stanislaus J. Schymanski and Dani Or
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 685–706,Short summary
Most of the rain falling on land is returned to the atmosphere by plant leaves, which release water vapour (transpire) through tiny pores. To better understand this process, we used artificial leaves in a special wind tunnel and discovered major problems with an established approach (PM equation) widely used to quantify transpiration and its sensitivity to climate change. We present an improved set of equations, consistent with experiments and displaying more realistic climate sensitivity.
Niels H. Batjes, Eloi Ribeiro, Ad van Oostrum, Johan Leenaars, Tom Hengl, and Jorge Mendes de Jesus
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 1–14,Short summary
Soil is an important provider of ecosystem services. Yet this natural resource is being threatened. Professionals, scientists, and decision makers require quality-assessed soil data to address issues such as food security, land degradation, and climate change. Procedures for safeguarding, standardising, and subsequently serving of consistent soil data to underpin broad-scale mapping and modelling are described. The data are freely accessible at doi:10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20160003.
S. J. Schymanski and D. Or
Proc. IAHS, 371, 99–107,Short summary
The common use of "potential evaporation" to estimate actual evapotranspiration or to describe the suitability of a given climate for plant growth may lead to wrong conclusions about the consequences of climate change on plant growth and water relations. Wind speed in particular can have opposite effects on potential evaporation and transpiration from plant leaves. Therefore, we recommend to avoid using the concept of potential evaporation in relation to plants and transpiration from leaves.
M. Stähli, M. Sättele, C. Huggel, B. W. McArdell, P. Lehmann, A. Van Herwijnen, A. Berne, M. Schleiss, A. Ferrari, A. Kos, D. Or, and S. M. Springman
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 905–917,Short summary
This review paper describes the state of the art in monitoring and predicting rapid mass movements for early warning. It further presents recent innovations in observation technologies and modelling to be used in future early warning systems (EWS). Finally, the paper proposes avenues towards successful implementation of next-generation EWS.
Related subject area
HydrologyDownscaled hyper-resolution (400 m) gridded datasets of daily precipitation and temperature (2008–2019) for the East–Taylor subbasin (western United States)HRLT: a high-resolution (1 d, 1 km) and long-term (1961–2019) gridded dataset for surface temperature and precipitation across ChinaThe Surface Water Chemistry (SWatCh) database: a standardized global database of water chemistry to facilitate large-sample hydrological researchHydrography90m: a new high-resolution global hydrographic datasetGLOBMAP SWF: a global annual surface water cover frequency dataset during 2000–2020Streamflow data availability in Europe: a detailed dataset of interpolated flow-duration curvesHigh-resolution streamflow and weather data (2013–2019) for seven small coastal watersheds in the northeast Pacific coastal temperate rainforest, CanadaA 500-year annual runoff reconstruction for 14 selected European catchmentsA comprehensive geospatial database of nearly 100 000 reservoirs in ChinaStable water isotope monitoring network of different water bodies in Shiyang River basin, a typical arid river in ChinaA dataset of lake-catchment characteristics for the Tibetan PlateauQUADICA: water QUAlity, DIscharge and Catchment Attributes for large-sample studies in GermanyA global terrestrial evapotranspiration product based on the three-temperature model with fewer input parameters and no calibration requirementA new snow depth data set over northern China derived using GNSS interferometric reflectometry from a continuously operating network (GSnow-CHINA v1.0, 2013–2022)Microwave radiometry experiment for snow in Altay, China: time series of in situ data for electromagnetic and physical features of snowpackAn integrated dataset of daily lake surface water temperature over the Tibetan PlateauA dataset of 10-year regional-scale soil moisture and soil temperature measurements at multiple depths on the Tibetan PlateauMeteorological and hydrological data from the Alder Creek watershed, SW OntarioDaily soil moisture mapping at 1 km resolution based on SMAP data for desertification areas in northern ChinaOpenMRG: Open data from Microwave links, Radar, and Gauges for rainfall quantification in Gothenburg, SwedenHigh-temporal-resolution hydrometeorological data collected in the tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru (2004–2020)Escherichia coli concentration, multiscale monitoring over the decade 2011–2021 in the Mekong River basin, Lao PDRA 1 km daily surface soil moisture dataset of enhanced coverage under all-weather conditions over China in 2003–2019A 1-km daily soil moisture dataset of China based on in-situ measurement using machine learningSoil moisture observation in a forested headwater catchment: combining a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensor network with roving and hydrogravimetry at the TERENO site WüstebachConcentrations and fluxes of suspended particulate matter and associated contaminants in the Rhône River from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean SeaA global drought dataset of standardized moisture anomaly index incorporating snow dynamics (SZIsnow) and its application in identifying large-scale drought eventsRiver network and hydro-geomorphological parameters at 1∕12° resolution for global hydrological and climate studiesIntegrated hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical dataset of an alpine catchment in the northern Qinghai–Tibet PlateauGeoDAR: georeferenced global dams and reservoirs dataset for bridging attributes and geolocationsSpatial and seasonal patterns of water isotopes in northeastern German lakesA new dataset of river flood hazard maps for Europe and the Mediterranean BasinCOSMOS-Europe: a European network of cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture sensorsWaterBench: A Large-scale Benchmark Dataset for Data-Driven Streamflow ForecastingDistribution and characteristics of wastewater treatment plants within the global river networkCorrecting Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration using a global grid of local coefficients to support temperature-based estimations of reference evapotranspiration and aridity indicesCCAM: China Catchment Attributes and Meteorology datasetA high-accuracy rainfall dataset by merging multiple satellites and dense gauges over the southern Tibetan Plateau for 2014–2019 warm seasonsBaseline data for monitoring geomorphological effects of glacier lake outburst flood: a very-high-resolution image and GIS datasets of the distal part of the Zackenberg River, northeast GreenlandMineral, thermal and deep groundwater of Hesse, GermanyLamaH-CE: LArge-SaMple DAta for Hydrology and Environmental Sciences for Central EuropeDevelopment of observation-based global multilayer soil moisture products for 1970 to 2016A year of attenuation data from a commercial dual-polarized duplex microwave link with concurrent disdrometer, rain gauge, and weather observationsRosalia: an experimental research site to study hydrological processes in a forest catchmentLong time series of daily evapotranspiration in China based on the SEBAL model and multisource images and validationCAMELS-AUS: hydrometeorological time series and landscape attributes for 222 catchments in AustraliaA multi-source 120-year US flood database with a unified common format and public accessC-band radar data and in situ measurements for the monitoring of wheat crops in a semi-arid area (center of Morocco)The three-dimensional groundwater salinity distribution and fresh groundwater volumes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, inferred from geostatistical analysesA national topographic dataset for hydrological modeling over the contiguous United States
Utkarsh Mital, Dipankar Dwivedi, James B. Brown, and Carl I. Steefel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4949–4966,Short summary
We present a new dataset that estimates small-scale variations in precipitation and temperature in mountainous terrain. The dataset is generated using a new machine learning framework that extracts relationships between climate and topography from existing coarse-scale datasets. The generated dataset is shown to capture small-scale variations more reliably than existing datasets and constitutes a valuable resource to model the water cycle in the mountains of Colorado, western United States.
Rongzhu Qin, Zeyu Zhao, Jia Xu, Jian-Sheng Ye, Feng-Min Li, and Feng Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4793–4810,Short summary
This work presents a new high-resolution daily gridded maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation dataset for China (HRLT) with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km for the period 1961 to 2019. This dataset is valuable for crop modelers and climate change studies. We created the HRLT dataset using comprehensive statistical analyses, which included machine learning, the generalized additive model, and thin-plate splines.
Lobke Rotteveel, Franz Heubach, and Shannon M. Sterling
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4667–4680,Short summary
Data are needed to detect environmental problems, find their solutions, and identify knowledge gaps. Existing datasets have limited availability, sample size and/or frequency, or geographic scope. Here, we begin to address these limitations by collecting, cleaning, standardizing, and compiling the Surface Water Chemistry (SWatCh) database. SWatCh contains global surface water chemistry data for seven continents, 24 variables, 33 722 sites, and > 5 million samples collected between 1960 and 2022.
Giuseppe Amatulli, Jaime Garcia Marquez, Tushar Sethi, Jens Kiesel, Afroditi Grigoropoulou, Maria M. Üblacker, Longzhu Q. Shen, and Sami Domisch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4525–4550,Short summary
Streams and rivers drive several processes in hydrology, geomorphology, geography, and ecology. A hydrographic network that accurately delineates streams and rivers, along with their topographic and topological properties, is needed for environmental applications. Using the MERIT Hydro Digital Elevation Model at 90 m resolution, we derived a globally seamless, standardised hydrographic network: Hydrography90m. The validation demonstrates improved accuracy compared to other datasets.
Yang Liu, Ronggao Liu, and Rong Shang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4505–4523,Short summary
Surface water has been changing significantly with high seasonal variation and abrupt change, making it hard to capture its interannual trend. Here we generated a global annual surface water cover frequency dataset during 2000–2020. The percentage of the time period when a pixel is covered by water in a year was estimated to describe the seasonal dynamics of surface water. This dataset can be used to analyze the interannual variation and change trend of highly dynamic inland water extent.
Simone Persiano, Alessio Pugliese, Alberto Aloe, Jon Olav Skøien, Attilio Castellarin, and Alberto Pistocchi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4435–4443,Short summary
For about 24000 river basins across Europe, this study provides a continuous representation of the streamflow regime in terms of empirical flow–duration curves (FDCs), which are key signatures of the hydrological behaviour of a catchment and are widely used for supporting decisions on water resource management as well as for assessing hydrologic change. FDCs at ungauged sites are estimated by means of a geostatistical procedure starting from data observed at about 3000 sites across Europe.
Maartje C. Korver, Emily Haughton, William C. Floyd, and Ian J. W. Giesbrecht
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4231–4250,Short summary
The central coastline of the northeast Pacific coastal temperate rainforest contains many small streams that are important for the ecology of the region but are sparsely monitored. Here we present the first 5 years (2013–2019) of streamflow and weather data from seven small streams, using novel automated methods with estimations of measurement uncertainties. These observations support regional climate change monitoring and provide a scientific basis for environmental management decisions.
Sadaf Nasreen, Markéta Součková, Mijael Rodrigo Vargas Godoy, Ujjwal Singh, Yannis Markonis, Rohini Kumar, Oldrich Rakovec, and Martin Hanel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4035–4056,Short summary
This article presents a 500-year reconstructed annual runoff dataset for several European catchments. Several data-driven and hydrological models were used to derive the runoff series using reconstructed precipitation and temperature and a set of proxy data. The simulated runoff was validated using independent observed runoff data and documentary evidence. The validation revealed a good fit between the observed and reconstructed series for 14 catchments, which are available for further analysis.
Chunqiao Song, Chenyu Fan, Jingying Zhu, Jida Wang, Yongwei Sheng, Kai Liu, Tan Chen, Pengfei Zhan, Shuangxiao Luo, Chunyu Yuan, and Linghong Ke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4017–4034,Short summary
Over the last century, many dams/reservoirs have been built globally to meet various needs. The official statistics reported more than 98 000 dams/reservoirs in China. Despite the availability of several global-scale dam/reservoir databases, these databases have insufficient coverage in China. Therefore, we present the China Reservoir Dataset (CRD), which contains 97 435 reservoir polygons. The CRD reservoirs have a total area of 50 085.21 km2 and total storage of about 979.62 Gt.
Guofeng Zhu, Yuwei Liu, Peiji Shi, Wenxiong Jia, Junju Zhou, Yuanfeng Liu, Xinggang Ma, Hanxiong Pan, Yu Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Zhigang Sun, Leilei Yong, and Kailiang Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3773–3789,Short summary
From 2015 to 2020, we studied the Shiyang River basin, which has the highest utilization rate of water resources and the most prominent contradiction of water use, as a typical demonstration basin to establish and improve the isotope hydrology observation system, including river source region, oasis region, reservoir channel system region, oasis farmland region, ecological engineering construction region, and salinization process region.
Junzhi Liu, Pengcheng Fang, Yefeng Que, Liang-Jun Zhu, Zheng Duan, Guoan Tang, Pengfei Liu, Mukan Ji, and Yongqin Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3791–3805,Short summary
The management and conservation of lakes should be conducted in the context of catchments because lakes collect water and materials from their upstream catchments. This study constructed the first dataset of lake-catchment characteristics for 1525 lakes with an area from 0.2 to 4503 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which provides exciting opportunities for lake studies in a spatially explicit context and promotes the development of landscape limnology on the TP.
Pia Ebeling, Rohini Kumar, Stefanie R. Lutz, Tam Nguyen, Fanny Sarrazin, Michael Weber, Olaf Büttner, Sabine Attinger, and Andreas Musolff
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3715–3741,Short summary
Environmental data are critical for understanding and managing ecosystems, including the mitigation of water quality degradation. To increase data availability, we present the first large-sample water quality data set (QUADICA) of riverine macronutrient concentrations combined with water quantity, meteorological, and nutrient forcing data as well as catchment attributes. QUADICA covers 1386 German catchments to facilitate large-sample data-driven and modeling water quality assessments.
Leiyu Yu, Guo Yu Qiu, Chunhua Yan, Wenli Zhao, Zhendong Zou, Jinshan Ding, Longjun Qin, and Yujiu Xiong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3673–3693,Short summary
Accurate evapotranspiration (ET) estimation is essential to better understand Earth’s energy and water cycles. We estimate global terrestrial ET with a simple three-temperature model, without calibration and resistance parameterization requirements. Results show the ET estimates agree well with FLUXNET EC data, water balance ET, and other global ET products. The proposed daily and 0.25° ET product from 2001 to 2020 could provide large-scale information to support water-cycle-related studies.
Wei Wan, Jie Zhang, Liyun Dai, Hong Liang, Ting Yang, Baojian Liu, Zhizhou Guo, Heng Hu, and Limin Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3549–3571,Short summary
The GSnow-CHINA data set is a snow depth data set developed using the two Global Navigation Satellite System station networks in China. It includes snow depth of 24, 12, and 2/3/6 h records, if possible, for 80 sites from 2013–2022 over northern China (25–55° N, 70–140° E). The footprint of the data set is ~ 1000 m2, and it can be used as an independent data source for validation purposes. It is also useful for regional climate research and other meteorological and hydrological applications.
Liyun Dai, Tao Che, Yang Zhang, Zhiguo Ren, Junlei Tan, Meerzhan Akynbekkyzy, Lin Xiao, Shengnan Zhou, Yuna Yan, Yan Liu, Hongyi Li, and Lifu Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3509–3530,Short summary
An Integrated Microwave Radiometry Campaign for Snow (IMCS) was conducted to collect ground-based passive microwave and optical remote-sensing data, snow pit and underlying soil data, and meteorological parameters. The dataset is unique in continuously providing electromagnetic and physical features of snowpack and environment. The dataset is expected to serve the evaluation and development of microwave radiative transfer models and snow process models, along with land surface process models.
Linan Guo, Hongxing Zheng, Yanhong Wu, Lanxin Fan, Mengxuan Wen, Junsheng Li, Fangfang Zhang, Liping Zhu, and Bing Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3411–3422,Short summary
Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) is a critical physical property of the aquatic ecosystem and an indicator of climate change. By combining the strengths of satellites and models, we produced an integrated dataset on daily LSWT of 160 large lakes across the Tibetan Plateau (TP) for the period 1978–2017. LSWT increased significantly at a rate of 0.01–0.47° per 10 years. The dataset can contribute to research on water and heat balance changes and their ecological effects in the TP.
Pei Zhang, Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Jun Wen, Yaoming Ma, Yijian Zeng, Xin Wang, Zuoliang Wang, Jiali Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Soil moisture and soil temperature are important state variables for quantifying exchange of heat and water between land and atmosphere. Yet, long-term regional-scale in-situ SMST measurements for multiple depths are scarce on the Tibetan Plateau, thus the presented dataset would be valuable for evaluation and improvement of long-term satellite- and model-based SMST products on the TP, enhancing the understanding of TP hydrometeorological processes and their response to climate change.
Andrew J. Wiebe and David L. Rudolph
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3229–3248,Short summary
Multiple well fields in Waterloo Region, ON, Canada, draw water that enters the groundwater system from rainfall and snowmelt within the Alder Creek watershed. The rates of recharge of the underground aquifers and human impacts on streamflow are important issues that are typically addressed using computer models. Field observations such as groundwater and stream levels were collected between 2013 and 2018 to provide data for models. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.20383/101.0178
Pinzeng Rao, Yicheng Wang, Fang Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaoya Wang, and Zhu Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3053–3073,Short summary
It is urgent to obtain accurate soil moisture (SM) with high temporal and spatial resolution for areas affected by desertification in northern China. A combination of multiple machine learning methods, including multiple linear regression, support vector regression, artificial neural networks, random forest and extreme gradient boosting, has been applied to downscale the 36 km SMAP SM products and produce higher-spatial-resolution SM data based on related surface variables.
Jafet C. M. Andersson, Jonas Olsson, Remco van de Beek, and Jonas Hansryd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This article presents data from three types of sensors for rain measurement: commercial microwave links (CMLs), gauges, and weather radar. Access to CML data is typically restricted, which limits research and applications. Here we openly share a large CML database (364 CMLs at 10 s resolution with true coordinates), along with 11 gauges and one radar composite. This opens up new opportunities to study CMLs, to benchmark algorithms, and to investigate how multiple sensors can best be combined.
Emilio I. Mateo, Bryan G. Mark, Robert Å. Hellström, Michel Baraer, Jeffrey M. McKenzie, Thomas Condom, Alejo Cochachín Rapre, Gilber Gonzales, Joe Quijano Gómez, and Rolando Cesai Crúz Encarnación
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2865–2882,Short summary
This article presents detailed and comprehensive hydrological and meteorological datasets collected over the past two decades throughout the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. With four weather stations and six streamflow gauges ranging from 3738 to 4750 m above sea level, this network displays a vertical breadth of data and enables detailed research of atmospheric and hydrological processes in a tropical high mountain region.
Laurie Boithias, Olivier Ribolzi, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Chanthanousone Thammahacksa, Paty Nakhle, Bounsamay Soulileuth, Anne Pando-Bahuon, Keooudone Latsachack, Norbert Silvera, Phabvilay Sounyafong, Khampaseuth Xayyathip, Rosalie Zimmermann, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Priscia Oliva, Thomas Pommier, Olivier Evrard, Sylvain Huon, Jean Causse, Thierry Henry-des-Tureaux, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Nivong Sipaseuth, and Alain Pierret
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2883–2894,Short summary
Fecal pathogens in surface waters may threaten human health, especially in developing countries. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) database is organized in three datasets and includes 1602 records from 31 sampling stations located within the Mekong River basin in Lao PDR. Data have been used to identify the drivers of E. coli dissemination across tropical catchments, including during floods. Data may be further used to interpret new variables or to map the health risk posed by fecal pathogens.
Peilin Song, Yongqiang Zhang, Jianping Guo, Jiancheng Shi, Tianjie Zhao, and Bing Tong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2613–2637,Short summary
Soil moisture information is crucial for understanding the earth surface, but currently available satellite-based soil moisture datasets are imperfect either in their spatiotemporal resolutions or in ensuring image completeness from cloudy weather. In this study, therefore, we developed one soil moisture data product over China that has tackled most of the above problems. This data product has the potential to promote the investigation of earth hydrology and be extended to the global scale.
Qingliang Li, Gaosong Shi, Wei Shangguan, Jianduo Li, Lu Li, Feini Huang, Ye Zhang, Chunyan Wang, Dagang Wang, Jianxiu Qiu, Xingjie Lu, and Yongjiu Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
SMCI1.0 is a 1 km resolution dataset of daily soil moisture for 2010–2020 derived through machine learning trained with in-situ measurements of 1,789 stations from China. It contains 10 layers with 10 cm intervals up to 100 cm deep at daily resolution over the period 2010–2020. Compared to ERA5-Land, SMAP-L4 and SoMo.ml, SIMI1.0 has higher accuracy over China.
Maik Heistermann, Heye Bogena, Till Francke, Andreas Güntner, Jannis Jakobi, Daniel Rasche, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Benjamin Fersch, Jannis Groh, Amol Patil, Thomas Pütz, Marvin Reich, Steffen Zacharias, Carmen Zengerle, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2501–2519,Short summary
This paper presents a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) to measure spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns during a 2-month campaign in the Wüstebach headwater catchment in Germany. Stationary, mobile, and airborne CRNS technology monitored the root-zone water dynamics as well as spatial heterogeneity in the 0.4 km2 area. The 15 CRNS stations were supported by a hydrogravimeter, biomass sampling, and a wireless soil sensor network to facilitate holistic hydrological analysis.
Hugo Lepage, Alexandra Gruat, Fabien Thollet, Jérôme Le Coz, Marina Coquery, Matthieu Masson, Aymeric Dabrin, Olivier Radakovitch, Jérôme Labille, Jean-Paul Ambrosi, Doriane Delanghe, and Patrick Raimbault
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2369–2384,Short summary
The dataset contains concentrations and fluxes of suspended particle matter (SPM) and several particle-bound contaminants along the Rhône River downstream of Lake Geneva. These data allow us to understand the dynamics and origins. They show the impact of flood events which mainly contribute to a decrease in the contaminant concentrations while fluxes are significant. On the contrary, concentrations are higher during low flow periods probably due to the increase of organic matter.
Lei Tian, Baoqing Zhang, and Pute Wu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2259–2278,Short summary
We propose a global monthly drought dataset with a resolution of 0.25° from 1948 to 2010 based on a multitype and multiscalar drought index, the standardized moisture anomaly index adding snow processes (SZIsnow). The consideration of snow processes improved its capability, and the improvement is prominent over snow-covered high-latitude and high-altitude areas. This new dataset is well suited to monitoring, assessing, and characterizing drought and is a valuable resource for drought studies.
Simon Munier and Bertrand Decharme
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2239–2258,Short summary
This paper presents a new global-scale river network at 1/12°, generated automatically and assessed over the 69 largest basins of the world. A set of hydro-geomorphological parameters are derived at the same spatial resolution, including a description of river stretches (length, slope, width, roughness, bankfull depth), floodplains (roughness, sub-grid topography) and aquifers (transmissivity, porosity, sub-grid topography). The dataset may be useful for hydrology modelling or climate studies.
Zhao Pan, Rui Ma, Ziyong Sun, Yalu Hu, Qixin Chang, Mengyan Ge, Shuo Wang, Jianwei Bu, Xiang Long, Yanxi Pan, and Lusong Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2147–2165,Short summary
We drilled four sets of cluster wells and monitored groundwater level and temperature at different depths in an alpine catchment, northern Tibet plateau. The chemical and isotopic compositions of different waters, including stream water, glacier/snow meltwater, soil water, spring, and groundwater from boreholes, were measured for 6 years. The data can be used to study the impact of soil freeze-thaw process and permafrost degradation on the groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water.
Jida Wang, Blake A. Walter, Fangfang Yao, Chunqiao Song, Meng Ding, Abu Sayeed Maroof, Jingying Zhu, Chenyu Fan, Jordan M. McAlister, Safat Sikder, Yongwei Sheng, George H. Allen, Jean-François Crétaux, and Yoshihide Wada
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1869–1899,Short summary
Improved water infrastructure data on dams and reservoirs remain to be critical to hydrologic modeling, energy planning, and environmental conservation. We present a new global dataset, GeoDAR, that includes nearly 25 000 georeferenced dam points and their associated reservoir boundaries. A majority of these features can be linked to the register of the International Commission on Large Dams, extending the potential of registered attribute information for spatially explicit applications.
Bernhard Aichner, David Dubbert, Christine Kiel, Katrin Kohnert, Igor Ogashawara, Andreas Jechow, Sarah-Faye Harpenslager, Franz Hölker, Jens Christian Nejstgaard, Hans-Peter Grossart, Gabriel Singer, Sabine Wollrab, and Stella Angela Berger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1857–1867,Short summary
Water isotopes were measured along transects and in the form of time series in northeastern German lakes. The spatial patterns within the data and their seasonal variability are related to morphological and hydrological properties of the studied lake systems. They are further useful for the understanding of biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of these lakes.
Francesco Dottori, Lorenzo Alfieri, Alessandra Bianchi, Jon Skoien, and Peter Salamon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1549–1569,Short summary
We present a set of hazard maps for river flooding for Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The maps depict inundation extent and depth for flood probabilities for up to 1-in-500-year flood hazards and are based on hydrological and hydrodynamic models driven by observed climatology. The maps can identify two-thirds of the flood extent reported by official flood maps, with increasing skill for higher-magnitude floods. The maps are used for evaluating present and future impacts of river floods.
Heye Reemt Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Mustafa Berk Duygu, Miguel Angel Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Davide Canone, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Stefano Ferraris, Félix Frances, Davide Gisolo, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten H. Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) operated by 24 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Ibrahim Demir, Zhongrun Xiang, Bekir Demiray, and Muhammed Sit
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We provided a large benchmark dataset, WaterBench, with valuable features for the hydrological modeling. This dataset designed to support cutting-edge deep learning studies for a more accurate streamflow forecast model. We also proposed a modeling task for comparative model studies and provided sample models with codes and results as the benchmark for reference. This makes up for the lack of benchmarks in earth science research.
Heloisa Ehalt Macedo, Bernhard Lehner, Jim Nicell, Günther Grill, Jing Li, Antonio Limtong, and Ranish Shakya
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 559–577,Short summary
We introduce HydroWASTE, a spatially explicit global database of 58 502 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their characteristics to understand the impact of discharges from such facilities. HydroWASTE was developed by compiling regional datasets and using auxiliary information to complete missing characteristics. The location of the outfall of the WWTPs into the river system is also included, allowing for the identification of the waterbodies most likely affected.
Vassilis Aschonitis, Dimos Touloumidis, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Miriam Coenders-Gerrits
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 163–177,Short summary
This work provides a global database of correction coefficients for improving the performance of the temperature-based Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration formula and aridity indices (e.g., UNEP, Thornthwaite) that make use of this formula. The coefficients were produced using as a benchmark the ASCE-standardized reference evapotranspiration formula (formerly FAO-56) that requires temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity data.
Zhen Hao, Jin Jin, Runliang Xia, Shimin Tian, Wushuang Yang, Qixing Liu, Min Zhu, Tao Ma, Chengran Jing, and Yanning Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5591–5616,Short summary
CCAM is proposed to promote large-sample hydrological research in China. The first catchment attribute dataset and catchment-scale meteorological time series dataset in China are built. We also built HydroMLYR, a hydrological dataset with standardized streamflow observations supporting machine learning modeling. The open-source code producing CCAM supports the calculation of custom watersheds.
Kunbiao Li, Fuqiang Tian, Mohd Yawar Ali Khan, Ran Xu, Zhihua He, Long Yang, Hui Lu, and Yingzhao Ma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5455–5467,Short summary
Due to complex climate and topography, there is still a lack of a high-quality rainfall dataset for hydrological modeling over the Tibetan Plateau. This study aims to establish a high-accuracy daily rainfall product over the southern Tibetan Plateau through merging satellite rainfall estimates based on a high-density rainfall gauge network. Statistical and hydrological evaluation indicated that the new dataset outperforms the raw satellite estimates and several other products of similar types.
Aleksandra M. Tomczyk and Marek W. Ewertowski
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5293–5309,Short summary
We collected detailed (cm-scale) topographical data to illustrate how a single flood event can modify river landscape in the high-Arctic setting of Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland. The studied flood was a result of an outburst from a glacier-dammed lake. We used drones to capture images immediately before, during, and after the flood for the 2 km long section of the river. Data can be used for monitoring and modelling of flood events and assessment of geohazards for Zackenberg Research Station.
Rafael Schäffer, Kristian Bär, Sebastian Fischer, Johann-Gerhard Fritsche, and Ingo Sass
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4847–4860,Short summary
Knowledge of groundwater properties is relevant, e.g. for drinking-water supply, spas or geothermal energy. We compiled 1035 groundwater datasets from 560 springs or wells sampled since 1810, using mainly publications, supplemented by personal communication and our own measurements. The data can help address spatial–temporal variation in groundwater composition, uncertainties in groundwater property prediction, deep groundwater movement, or groundwater characteristics like temperature and age.
Christoph Klingler, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4529–4565,Short summary
LamaH-CE is a large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Central Europe. The dataset contains hydrometeorological time series (daily and hourly resolution) and various attributes for 859 gauged basins. Sticking closely to the CAMELS datasets, LamaH includes additional basin delineations and attributes for describing a large interconnected river network. LamaH further contains outputs of a conceptual hydrological baseline model for plausibility checking of the inputs and for benchmarking.
Yaoping Wang, Jiafu Mao, Mingzhou Jin, Forrest M. Hoffman, Xiaoying Shi, Stan D. Wullschleger, and Yongjiu Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4385–4405,Short summary
We developed seven global soil moisture datasets (1970–2016, monthly, half-degree, and multilayer) by merging a wide range of data sources, including in situ and satellite observations, reanalysis, offline land surface model simulations, and Earth system model simulations. Given the great value of long-term, multilayer, gap-free soil moisture products to climate research and applications, we believe this paper and the presented datasets would be of interest to many different communities.
Anna Špačková, Vojtěch Bareš, Martin Fencl, Marc Schleiss, Joël Jaffrain, Alexis Berne, and Jörg Rieckermann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4219–4240,Short summary
An original dataset of microwave signal attenuation and rainfall variables was collected during 1-year-long field campaign. The monitored 38 GHz dual-polarized commercial microwave link with a short sampling resolution (4 s) was accompanied by five disdrometers and three rain gauges along its path. Antenna radomes were temporarily shielded for approximately half of the campaign period to investigate antenna wetting impacts.
Josef Fürst, Hans Peter Nachtnebel, Josef Gasch, Reinhard Nolz, Michael Paul Stockinger, Christine Stumpp, and Karsten Schulz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4019–4034,Short summary
Rosalia is a 222 ha forested research watershed in eastern Austria to study water, energy and solute transport processes. The paper describes the site, monitoring network, instrumentation and the datasets: high-resolution (10 min interval) time series starting in 2015 of four discharge gauging stations, seven rain gauges, and observations of air and water temperature, relative humidity, and conductivity, as well as soil water content and temperature, at different depths at four profiles.
Minghan Cheng, Xiyun Jiao, Binbin Li, Xun Yu, Mingchao Shao, and Xiuliang Jin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3995–4017,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key node linking surface water and energy balance. Satellite observations of ET have been widely used for water resources management in China. In this study, an ET product with high spatiotemporal resolution was generated using a surface energy balance algorithm and multisource remote sensing data. The generated ET product can be used for geoscience studies, especially global change, water resources management, and agricultural drought monitoring, for example.
Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Suwash Chandra Acharya, Nans Addor, Chihchung Chou, and Murray C. Peel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3847–3867,Short summary
This paper presents the Australian edition of the Catchment Attributes and Meteorology for Large-sample Studies (CAMELS) series of datasets. CAMELS-AUS comprises data for 222 unregulated catchments with long-term monitoring, combining hydrometeorological time series (streamflow and 18 climatic variables) with 134 attributes related to geology, soil, topography, land cover, anthropogenic influence and hydroclimatology. It is freely downloadable from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.921850.
Zhi Li, Mengye Chen, Shang Gao, Jonathan J. Gourley, Tiantian Yang, Xinyi Shen, Randall Kolar, and Yang Hong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3755–3766,Short summary
This dataset is a compilation of multi-sourced flood records, retrieved from official reports, instruments, and crowdsourcing data since 1900. This study utilizes the flood database to analyze flood seasonality within major basins and socioeconomic impacts over time. It is anticipated that this dataset can support a variety of flood-related research, such as validation resources for hydrologic models, hydroclimatic studies, and flood vulnerability analysis across the United States.
Nadia Ouaadi, Jamal Ezzahar, Saïd Khabba, Salah Er-Raki, Adnane Chakir, Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Valérie Le Dantec, Zoubair Rafi, Antoine Beaumont, Mohamed Kasbani, and Lionel Jarlan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3707–3731,Short summary
In this paper, a radar remote sensing database composed of processed Sentinel-1 products and field measurements of soil and vegetation characteristics, weather data, and irrigation water inputs is described. The data set was collected over 3 years (2016–2019) in three drip-irrigated wheat fields in the center of Morocco. It is dedicated to radar data analysis over vegetated surface including the retrieval of soil and vegetation characteristics.
Jan L. Gunnink, Hung Van Pham, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3297–3319,Short summary
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) groundwater is important for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Increased pumping of groundwater has caused land subsidence and increased the risk of salinization, thereby endangering the livelihood of the population in the delta. We made a model of the salinity of the groundwater by integrating different sources of information and determined fresh groundwater volumes. The resulting model can be used by researchers and policymakers.
Jun Zhang, Laura E. Condon, Hoang Tran, and Reed M. Maxwell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3263–3279,Short summary
Existing national topographic datasets for the US may not be compatible with gridded hydrologic models. A national topographic dataset developed to support physically based hydrologic models at 1 km and 250 m over the contiguous US is provided. We used a Priority Flood algorithm to ensure hydrologically consistent drainage networks and evaluated the performance with an integrated hydrologic model. Datasets and scripts are available for direct data usage or modification of processing as desired.
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