A high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data set from 14 open-ocean sites using a moored autonomous system
- 1Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
- 2Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
- 3Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, USA
- 4Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
Abstract. In an intensifying effort to track ocean change and distinguish between natural and anthropogenic drivers, sustained ocean time series measurements are becoming increasingly important. Advancements in the ocean carbon observation network over the last decade, such as the development and deployment of Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) systems, have dramatically improved our ability to characterize ocean climate, sea–air gas exchange, and biogeochemical processes. The MAPCO2 system provides high-resolution data that can measure interannual, seasonal, and sub-seasonal dynamics and constrain the impact of short-term biogeochemical variability on carbon dioxide (CO2) flux. Overall uncertainty of the MAPCO2 using in situ calibrations with certified gas standards and post-deployment standard operating procedures is < 2 μatm for seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and < 1 μatm for air pCO2. The MAPCO2 maintains this level of uncertainty for over 400 days of autonomous operation. MAPCO2 measurements are consistent with shipboard seawater pCO2 measurements and GLOBALVIEW-CO2 boundary layer atmospheric values. Here we provide an open-ocean MAPCO2 data set including over 100 000 individual atmospheric and seawater pCO2 measurements on 14 surface buoys from 2004 through 2011 and a description of the methods and data quality control involved. The climate-quality data provided by the MAPCO2 have allowed for the establishment of open-ocean observatories to track surface ocean pCO2 changes around the globe. Data are available at doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.TSM_NDP092 and http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/Moorings/ndp092.