Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145–153, 2013
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145–153, 2013

  04 Apr 2013

04 Apr 2013

Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

C. L. Sabine1, S. Hankin1, H. Koyuk1,2, D. C. E. Bakker3, B. Pfeil4,5,6, A. Olsen7,8, N. Metzl9, A. Kozyr10, A. Fassbender1,20, A. Manke1,2, J. Malczyk11, J. Akl12,13, S. R. Alin1, R. G. J. Bellerby4,14,*, A. Borges15, J. Boutin9, P. J. Brown3,16, W.-J. Cai17, F. P. Chavez18, A. Chen19, C. Cosca1, R. A. Feely1, M. González-Dávila21, C. Goyet22, N. Hardman-Mountford23,**, C. Heinze4,5,8,14, M. Hoppema24, C. W. Hunt25, D. Hydes26, M. Ishii27, T. Johannessen4,5, R. M. Key28, A. Körtzinger29, P. Landschützer3, S. K. Lauvset4,5, N. Lefèvre9, A. Lenton13, A. Lourantou9, L. Merlivat9, T. Midorikawa30, L. Mintrop31, C. Miyazaki32, A. Murata33, A. Nakadate34, Y. Nakano33, S. Nakaoka35, Y. Nojiri35, A. M. Omar8,14, X. A. Padin36, G.-H. Park37, K. Paterson12,13, F. F. Perez36, D. Pierrot37, A. Poisson22, A. F. Ríos36, J. Salisbury25, J. M. Santana-Casiano21, V. V. S. S. Sarma38, R. Schlitzer24, B. Schneider39, U. Schuster3, R. Sieger24, I. Skjelvan4,5,14, T. Steinhoff29, T. Suzuki40, T. Takahashi41, K. Tedesco42,***, M. Telszewski43,***, H. Thomas44, B. Tilbrook12,13,45, D. Vandemark25, T. Veness13, A. J. Watson3, R. Weiss46, C. S. Wong47, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue33 C. L. Sabine et al.
  • 1Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 2Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 3School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
  • 4Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • 5Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 6PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 7Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen, Norway
  • 8Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 9Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 10Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • 11Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • 12CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 13Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 14Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway
  • 15University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liège, Belgium
  • 16British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
  • 17Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
  • 18Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
  • 19Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, China
  • 20School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 21Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
  • 22Institut de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
  • 23CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 24Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 25Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
  • 26National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 27Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 28Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  • 29GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
  • 30Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 31MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany
  • 32Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 33Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
  • 34Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
  • 35National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 36Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
  • 37Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 38National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
  • 39Leibnitz Research Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany
  • 40Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
  • 41Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, USA
  • 42International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
  • 43International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
  • 44Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 45Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 46Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
  • 47Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
  • *formerly at: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway
  • **formerly at: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
  • ***formerly at: International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France

Abstract. As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).