09 Aug 2023
 | 09 Aug 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ESSD.

High-resolution emission inventory of full-volatility organic compounds from cooking in China during 2015–2021

Zeqi Li, Shuxiao Wang, Shengyue Li, Xiaochun Wang, Guanghan Huang, Xing Chang, Lyuyin Huang, Chengrui Liang, Yun Zhu, Haotian Zheng, Qian Song, Qingru Wu, Fenfen Zhang, and Bin Zhao

Abstract. Quantifying the full-volatility organic emissions from cooking sources is important for understanding the causes of organic aerosol pollution. However, existing national cooking emission inventories in China fail to cover the full volatility organics and have large biases in estimating emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we develop the first emission inventory of full-volatility organics from cooking in China, which covers emissions from individual commercial restaurants as well as residential kitchens and canteens. In our emission estimates, we use cuisine-specific full-volatility emission factors and provincial policy-driven purification facility installation proportion, which allows us to consider the significant impact of diverse dietary preferences and policy changes on China's cooking emissions. The 2021 emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and organic compounds with even lower volatility (xLVOC) from cooking in China are 561 (317–891, 95 % confidence interval) kt/y, 241 (135–374) kt/yr, 176 (95.8–290) kt/yr, and 13.1 kt/yr, respectively. The IVOC and SVOC emissions from cooking account for 9–21 % and 31–62 % of the total emissions from all sources in the five most densely populated cities in China. Among all cooking types, commercial cooking dominates the emissions, contributing 54.5 %, 66.2 %, 68.5 % and 46.7 % to the VOC, IVOC, SVOC and xLVOC emissions, respectively. The Sichuan-Hunan cuisine contributes the most to total cooking emissions among all commercial cuisines. Residential cooking emissions are also vital, accounting for 22.2 %–47.1 % of cooking organic emissions across the four volatility ranges, whereas canteens make minor contributions to each volatility range (<10 %). In tearms of spatial distribution, emission hotspots mainly occur in densely populated areas and regions with oily and spicy dietary preferences. From 2015 to 2021, national organic emissions from cooking increased by 25.2 % because of the rapid growth of the catering industry, despite being partly offset by the increased installation of purification facilities. Future control measures need to further promote the purification facilities in commercial restaurants and improve their removal efficiency, as well as reduce emissions from residential cooking. Our dataset and generalizable methodology serve as valuable resources for evaluating the air quality, climate and health impacts of cooking sources, and help to formulate effective emission control policies. Our national, multi-year, high spatial resolution dataset can be accessed from (Li et al., 2023).

Zeqi Li et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2023-278', Anonymous Referee #1, 31 Aug 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Zeqi Li, 26 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2023-278', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Sep 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Zeqi Li, 26 Sep 2023

Zeqi Li et al.

Data sets

High-resolution emission inventory of full-volatility organic from cooking souce in China during 2015-2021 Zeqi Li, Shuxiao Wang, Shengyue Li, Xiaochun Wang, Guanghan Huang, Xing Chang, Lyuyin Huang, Chengrui Liang, Yun Zhu, Haotian Zheng, Qian Song, Qingru Wu, Fenfen Zhang, Bin Zhao

Zeqi Li et al.


Total article views: 459 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
337 103 19 459 28 8 12
  • HTML: 337
  • PDF: 103
  • XML: 19
  • Total: 459
  • Supplement: 28
  • BibTeX: 8
  • EndNote: 12
Views and downloads (calculated since 09 Aug 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 09 Aug 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 443 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 443 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 02 Oct 2023
Short summary
This study developed the first full-volatility organic emission inventory for cooking sources in China, presenting high-resolution cooking emissions during 2015–2021. It identified the key sub-sectors and hotspots of cooking emissions, analyzed emission trends and drivers, and proposed future control strategies. The dataset is valuable for accurately simulating organic aerosol formation and evolution and for understanding the impact of organic emissions on air pollution and climate change.