12 Sep 2022
12 Sep 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

GLODAPv2.2022: the latest version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product

Siv K. Lauvset1, Nico Lange2, Toste Tanhua2, Henry C. Bittig3, Are Olsen4, Alex Kozyr5, Simone R. Alin6, Marta Álvarez7, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott8, Leticia Barbero9,10, Susan Becker11, Peter J. Brown12, Brendan R. Carter13,6, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha14, Richard A. Feely6, Mario Hoppema15, Matthew P. Humphreys16, Masao Ishii17, Emil Jeansson1, Li-Qing Jiang18,19, Steve D. Jones4, Claire Lo Monaco20, Akihiko Murata21, Jens Daniel Müller22, Fiz F. Pérez23, Benjamin Pfeil4, Carsten Schirnick2, Reiner Steinfeldt24, Toru Suzuki25, Bronte Tilbrook26, Adam Ulfsbo27, Anton Velo23, Ryan J. Woosley28, and Robert M. Key29 Siv K. Lauvset et al.
  • 1NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 2GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
  • 3Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany
  • 4Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 5NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • 6Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 7Instituto Español de Oceanografía, IEO-CSIC, A Coruña, Spain
  • 8DFO, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
  • 9Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 10Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 11UC San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego CA 92093, USA
  • 12National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 13Cooperative Institute for Climate Ocean and Ecosystem Studies, University Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 14Faculdade de Oceanografia/PPG-Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil
  • 15Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 16NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems (OCS), Texel, the Netherlands
  • 17Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 18Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth System Studies, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States
  • 19NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, United States
  • 20LOCEAN, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
  • 21Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
  • 22Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • 23Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, IIM – CSIC, Vigo, Spain
  • 24University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen, Germany
  • 25Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
  • 26CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere and Australian Antarctic Program Partnership, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
  • 27Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 28Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute for Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • 29Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA

Abstract. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical bottle data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2022 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2021 (Lauvset et al., 2021). The major changes are as follows: data from 96 new cruises were added, data coverage was extended until 2021, and for the first time we performed secondary quality control on all sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) data. In addition, a number of changes were made to data included in GLODAPv2.2021. These changes affect specifically the SF6 data, which are now subjected to secondary quality control, and carbon data measured onboard the RV Knorr in the Indian Ocean in 1994–1995 which are now adjusted using CRM measurements made at the time. GLODAPv2.2022 includes measurements from almost 1.4 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 1085 cruises. The data for the now 13 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, and SF6) have undergone extensive quality control with a focus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but converted to World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. For the present annual update, adjustments for the 96 new cruises were derived by comparing those data with the data from the 989 quality controlled cruises in the GLODAPv2.2021 data product using crossover analysis. SF6 data from all cruises were evaluated by comparison with CFC-12 data measured on the same cruises. For nutrients and ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) chemistry comparisons to estimates based on empirical algorithms provided additional context for adjustment decisions. The adjustments that we applied are intended to remove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices without removing known or likely time trends or variations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 μmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 μmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in the compilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete CO2 fugacity (fCO2), were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments.

The original data, their documentation and DOI codes are available at the Ocean Carbon and Acidification Data System of NOAA NCEI (, last access: 15 August 2022). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under (Lauvset et al., 2022). These bias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data, which were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2022 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.

Siv K. Lauvset et al.

Status: open (until 07 Nov 2022)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Siv K. Lauvset et al.

Data sets

Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2.2022 (GLODAPv2.2022) (NCEI Accession 0257247) Lauvset, Siv K.; Lange, Nico; Tanhua, Toste; Bittig, Henry C.; Olsen, Are; Kozyr, Alex; Alin, Simone R.; Álvarez, Marta; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Susan; Brown, Peter J.; Carter, Brendan R.; Cotrim da Cunha, Leticia; Feely, Richard A.; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Ishii, Masao; Jeansson, Emil; Jiang, Li-Qing; Jones, Steve D.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Murata, Akihiko; Müller, Jens Daniel; Pérez, Fiz F.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Schirnick, Carsten; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Suzuki, Toru; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ulfsbo, Adam; Velo, Antón; Woosley, Ryan J.; Key, Robert M.

Siv K. Lauvset et al.


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Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by the chemical analysis of water bottle samples from scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2022 is the fourth update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 1085 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2021.