02 Aug 2021

02 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021

Siv K. Lauvset1, Nico Lange2, Toste Tanhua2, Henry C. Bittig3, Are Olsen4, Alex Kozyr5, Marta Álvarez6, Susan Becker7, Peter J. Brown8, Brendan R. Carter9,10, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha11, Richard A. Feely10, Steven van Heuven12, Mario Hoppema13, Masao Ishii14, Emil Jeansson1, Sara Jutterström15, Steve D. Jones4, Maren K. Karlsen4, Claire Lo Monaco16, Patrick Michaelis2, Akihiko Murata17, Fiz F. Pérez18, Benjamin Pfeil15, Carsten Schirnick2, Reiner Steinfeldt19, Toru Suzuki20, Bronte Tilbrook21, Anton Velo18, Rik Wanninkhof22, Ryan J. Woosley23, and Robert M. Key24 Siv K. Lauvset et al.
  • 1NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 2GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
  • 3Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany
  • 4Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 5NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • 6Instituto Español de Oceanografía, IEO-CSIC, A Coruña, Spain
  • 7UC San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego CA 92093, USA
  • 8National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 9Cooperative Institute for Climate Ocean and Ecosystem Studies, University Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 10Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 11Faculdade de Oceanografia/PPG-Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil
  • 12Centre for Isotope Research, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 13Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 14Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 15IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 16LOCEAN, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
  • 17Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
  • 18Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, IIM – CSIC, Vigo, Spain
  • 19University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen, Germany
  • 20Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
  • 21CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere and Australian Antarctic Program Partnership, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
  • 22Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, USA
  • 23Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute for Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • 24Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA

Abstract. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical bottle data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2021 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2020. The major changes are: data from 43 new cruises were added, data coverage extended until 2020, removal of all data with missing temperatures, and the inclusion of a digital object identifier (doi) for each cruise in the product files. In addition, a number of minor corrections to GLODAPv2.2020 data were performed. GLODAPv2.2021 includes measurements from more than 1.3 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 989 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have undergone extensive quality control with a focus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. For this annual update, adjustments for the 43 new cruises were derived by comparing those data with the data from the 946 quality-controlled cruises in the GLODAPv2.2020 data product using crossover analysis. Comparisons to estimates of nutrients and ocean CO2 chemistry based on empirical algorithms provided additional context for adjustment decisions in this version. The adjustments are intended to remove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices without removing known or likely time trends or variations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in the compilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete CO2 fugacity (fCO2), were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments.

The original data, their documentation and doi codes are available at the Ocean Carbon Data System of NOAA NCEI (, last access: 07 July 2021). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under (Lauvset et al., 2021). These bias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data, and can be accessed via (last access: 29 June 2021). These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2021 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.

Siv K. Lauvset et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Review of 'An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021' by Lauvset et al. [essd-2021-234]', Matthew Humphreys, 03 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-234', Anonymous Referee #2, 05 Oct 2021

Siv K. Lauvset et al.

Data sets

Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2.2021 (GLODAPv2.2021) Siv K.; Lange, Nico; Tanhua, Toste; Bittig, Henry C.; Olsen, Are; Kozyr, Alex; Álvarez, Marta; Becker, Susan; Brown, Peter J.; Carter, Brendan R.; Cotrim da Cunha, Leticia; Feely, Richard A.; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Jeansson, Emil; Jutterström, Sara; Jones, Steve D.; Karlsen, Maren K.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Michaelis, Patrick; Murata, Akihiko; Pérez, Fiz F.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Schirnick, Carsten; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Suzuki, Toru; Tilbrook, Bronte; Velo, Antón; Wanninkhof, Rik; Woosley, Ryan J.; Key, Robert M.

Siv K. Lauvset et al.


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Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2021 is the third update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 989 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2020.