Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-122
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-122
06 May 2024
 | 06 May 2024
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

AIGD-PFT: The first AI-driven Global Daily gap-free 4 km Phytoplankton Functional Type products from 1998 to 2023

Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun

Abstract. Long time series of spatiotemporally continuous phytoplankton functional type (PFT) products are essential for understanding marine ecosystems, global biogeochemical cycles, and effective marine management. In this study, by integrating artificial intelligence (AI) technology with multi-source marine big data, we have developed a Spatial–Temporal–Ecological Ensemble model based on Deep Learning (STEE-DL), and then generated the first AI-driven Global Daily gap-free 4 km PFTs product from 1998 to 2023 (AIGD-PFT), significantly enhancing the accuracy and spatiotemporal coverage of quantifying eight major PFTs (i.e., Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Haptophytes, Pelagophytes, Cryptophytes, Green Algae, Prokaryotes, and Prochlorococcus). The input data encompass physical oceanographic, biogeochemical, spatiotemporal information, and ocean color data (OC-CCI v6.0) that have been gap-filled using a Discrete Cosine Transform with a Penalized Least Square (DCT-PLS) approach. The STEE-DL model utilizes an ensemble strategy with 100 ResNet models, applying Monte Carlo and bootstrapping methods to estimate optimal PFT values and assess model uncertainty through ensemble means and standard deviations. The model's performance was validated using multiple cross-validation strategies—random, spatial-block, and temporal-block—combined with in-situ data, demonstrating STEE-DL's robustness and generalization capability. The daily updates and seamless nature of the AIGD-PFT product capture the complex dynamics of coastal regions effectively. Finally, through a comparative analysis using a triple-collocation (TC) approach, the competitive advantages of the AIGD-PFT product over existing products were validated. The AIGD-PFT product not only provides the foundation for detailed analyses of PFT trends, interannual variability, and the impacts of climate change on phytoplankton composition across various temporal and spatial scales, but also has the potential to facilitate precise quantification of marine carbon flux and enhances the accuracy of biogeochemical models. A video demonstration is available at https://doi.org/10.5446/67366 (Zhang and Shen, 2024a). The complete product dataset (1998–2023) can be freely downloaded at https://doi.org/10.11888/RemoteSen.tpdc.301164 (Zhang and Shen, 2024b).

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Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun

Status: open (until 03 Jul 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun

Data sets

AIGD-PFT: The first AI-driven Global Daily gap-free 4 km Phytoplankton Functional Type products from 1998 to 2023 Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun https://doi.org/10.11888/RemoteSen.tpdc.301164

Video supplement

AIGD-PFT: The first AI-driven Global Daily gap-free 4 km Phytoplankton Functional Type products from 1998 to 2023 Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun https://doi.org/10.5446/67366

Video abstract

AIGD-PFT: The first AI-driven Global Daily gap-free 4 km Phytoplankton Functional Type products from 1998 to 2023 Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun https://doi.org/10.5446/67366

Yuan Zhang, Fang Shen, Renhu Li, Mengyu Li, Zhaoxin Li, Songyu Chen, and Xuerong Sun

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Short summary
This work describes AIGD-PFT, the first AI-driven global daily gap-free 4 km Phytoplankton Functional Type products from 1998 to 2023, which enhance the accuracy and spatiotemporal coverage of quantifying eight major PFTs (i.e., Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Haptophytes, Pelagophytes, Cryptophytes, Green Algae, Prokaryotes, and Prochlorococcus).
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