15 Jun 2023
 | 15 Jun 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ESSD.

Year-long Buoy-Based Observations of the Air–Sea Transition Zone off the U.S. West Coast

Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Gabriel García Medina, Brian Gaudet, William I. Gustafson Jr., Evgueni I. Kassianov, Jinliang Liu, Rob K. Newsom, Lindsay M. Sheridan, and Alicia M. Mahon

Abstract. Two buoys equipped with Doppler lidars owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) were deployed off the coast ofCalifornia in fall of 2020 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The buoys collected data for an entire annual cycle at twooffshore locations proposed for offshore wind development by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. One of the buoys was deployed approximately 50 km off the coast near Morro Bay in central California in 1100 m of water. The second buoywas deployed approximately 40 km off Humboldt County in northern California in 625 m of water. The buoys provided thefirst-ever continuous measurements of the air–sea transition zone off the coast of California. The atmospheric andoceanographic characteristics of the area and estimates of annual energy production at both the Morro Bay and HumboldtWind Energy Areas show that both locations have a high wind energy yield and are prime locations for future floating offshore wind turbines. This article provides a description and comprehensive analysis of the data collected by the buoys is conducted and a final post-processed dataset is uploaded to a data archive maintained by DOE. Additional analysis was conducted to show the value of the data collected by the DOE buoys. All post-processed data from this study are currently available on the Wind Data Hub website, Near-surface, wave, current, and cloud datasets for Humboldt andMorro Bay are provided at 10.21947/1783807 and 10.21947/1959715, respectively. Lidar datasets for Humboldt and Morro Bay are provided at 10.21947/1783809 and 10.21947/1959721, respectively.

Raghavendra Krishnamurthy et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2023-115', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Jul 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, 14 Sep 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2023-115', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Aug 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, 14 Sep 2023

Raghavendra Krishnamurthy et al.

Data sets

Humboldt Buoy Surface Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Lindsay Sheridan

Morro Bay Buoy Surface Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Lindsay Sheridan

Humboldt Buoy Lidar Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Lindsay Sheridan

Morro Bay Buoy Lidar Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Lindsay Sheridan

Raghavendra Krishnamurthy et al.


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Short summary
Our understanding, ability to observe and model air-sea processes has been identified as a principal limitation to our ability to predict future climate. Few observations exist offshore along the coast of California. To improve our understanding of the air-sea transition zone and support the wind energy industry, two buoys with state-of-the-art equipment were deployed for 1-year along the coast of California. In this article, we present details of the post-processing, algorithms and analysis.