27 Oct 2022
27 Oct 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

Crowdsourced Doppler Measurements of Time Standard Stations Demonstrating Ionospheric Variability

Kristina Collins1, John Gibbons1, Nathaniel Frissell2,4, Aidan Montare3, David Kazdan1, Darren Kalmbach4, David Swartz4, Robert Benedict4, Veronica Romanek2, Rachel Boedicker1, William Liles4,6, William Engelke5, David G. McGaw7, James Farmer4, Gary Mikitin4, Joseph Hobart4, and George Kavanagh4 Kristina Collins et al.
  • 1Case Western Reserve University, Glennan Bldg 9A, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland Ohio 44106
  • 2Department of Physics and Engineering, University of Scranton, Scranton PA
  • 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder CO
  • 4HamSCI Community
  • 5University of Alabama, Huntsville AL
  • 6Liles Innovations LLC, Reston VA
  • 7Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH

Abstract. Ionospheric variability due to atmospheric coupling produces measurable effects in Doppler shift of HF (high frequency, 3–30 MHz) skywave signals. These effects are straightforward to measure with low-cost equipment and are conducive to citizen science campaigns. The Personal Space Weather Station network is a modular network of community-maintained, open-source receivers, which measure Doppler shift in the precise carrier signals of time standard stations WWV, WWVH and CHU. Here, data from the first prototype of the Low-Cost Personal Space Weather Station are presented for a period of time spanning late 2019 to early 2022. Software tools for the visualization and analysis of this living dataset are also discussed and provided. These tools are robust to data interruptions and to the addition, removal or modification of stations, allowing both short- and long-term visualization at higher density and faster cadence than other methods. These data are archived at (Collins, 2022).

Kristina Collins et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2022-303', Anonymous Referee #1, 30 Nov 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2022-303', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Dec 2022

Kristina Collins et al.

Data sets

Grape V1 Data: Frequency Estimation and Amplitudes of North American Time Standard Stations Collins, Kristina, et al.

Kristina Collins et al.


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Short summary
This paper summarizes radio data collected by citizen scientists, which can be used to analyze the charged part of Earth’s upper atmosphere. The data is collected from several independent stations. We show ways to look at the data from one station or multiple stations over different periods of time, and how it can be combined with data from other sources as well. The code provided to make these visualizations will still work if some data is missing, or when more data is added in the future.