26 Jul 2022
26 Jul 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

Natural gas supply from Russia derived from daily pipeline flow data and potential solutions for filling a shortage of Russian supply in the European Union (EU)

Chuanlong Zhou1, Biqing Zhu1, Steven J. Davis2, Zhu Liu3, Antoine Halff4, Simon Ben Arous5, Hugo de Almeida Rodrigues5, and Philippe Ciais1 Chuanlong Zhou et al.
  • 1Le Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Saint-Aubin, 91190, France
  • 2Department of Earth System Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, United States
  • 3Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100190, China
  • 4SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, United States
  • 5Kayrros Inc., Paris, 75009, France

Abstract. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier to the EU. The invasion of Ukraine was followed by a cut-off of gas supplies from Russia to many EU countries, and the EU is planning to ban or dramatically reduce its dependence from Russia. We provide a dataset of daily gas consumption in five sectors (household and public buildings heating, power, industry, and other sectors) with supply source shares in the EU27 & UK from 2016 to 2022. The dataset separates the contributions of Russian gas imports, and other supply sources, and accounts for storage to estimate consumption. The dataset was developed with a gas network flow simulation model based on mass flow balance by combining data from multiple datasets including daily ENTSO-G pipelines gas transport and storage, ENTSO-E daily power production from gas, and Eurostat monthly gas consumption statistics per sector. The annual consumption data was validated against BP Statistical Review of World Energy and Eurostat datasets. We secondly analysed the share of gas supplied by Russia in each country to quantify the ‘gap’ that would result from a cessation of all Russian exports to Europe. Thirdly, we collected multiple data sources to assess how national gaps could be alleviated by 1) reducing the demand for heating in a plausible way using the lower envelope of gas empirical consumption – temperature functions, 2) increasing power generation from sources other than gas, 3) transferring gas savings from countries with surplus to those with deficits, and 4) increasing imports from other countries like Norway, the US, and Australia from either pipelines or LNG imports, accounting for existing capacities. Our results indicate that it should be theoretically possible for the EU to make up collectively for a sudden shortfall of Russian gas if combining the four solutions together, provided a perfect collaboration between EU countries and with the UK to redistribute gas from countries with surplus to those with deficits. Further analyses are required to investigate the implications for the costs including social, economic, and institutional dimensions, political barriers, and negative impacts on climate policies with inevitable increases of CO2 emissions if the use of coal is ramped up in the power sector.

Chuanlong Zhou et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2022-246', Anonymous Referee #1, 09 Sep 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', chuanlong zhou, 19 Sep 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2022-246', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Oct 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', chuanlong zhou, 26 Oct 2022

Chuanlong Zhou et al.

Data sets

EU27&UK gas supply-storage-consumption and potential solutions to fill Russian gap with daily resolutions Zhou, Chuanlong; Zhu, Biqing; Ciais, Philippe; Arous, Simon Ben; Davis, Steven J.; Liu, Zhu

Chuanlong Zhou et al.


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Short summary
Our paper and dataset aim to analyze daily the sectoral and country-based daily natural gas supply-storage-consumption based on ENTSO-G, Eurostat, and multiple datasets in the EU27&UK. We estimated the magnitude of the Russian gas gap if the Russian imports were to stop and the potential short-term solutions to fill those gaps. Our datasets can be important to various fields, such as gas/energy consumption and market, carbon emission, and climate change research, and policy decision-making.