Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-441
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-441
 
15 Feb 2022
15 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

International Monitoring System infrasound data products for atmospheric studies and civilian applications

Patrick Hupe1, Lars Ceranna1, Alexis Le Pichon2, Robin S. Matoza3, and Pierrick Mialle4 Patrick Hupe et al.
  • 1BGR, B4.3, D-30655 Hannover, Germany
  • 2CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France
  • 3Department of Earth Science and Earth Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
  • 4CTBTO, IDC, Vienna, Austria

Abstract. The International Monitoring System (IMS) has been established since the late 1990s for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The IMS is supposed to detect any explosion of at least 1 kt of TNT equivalent underground, underwater, and in the atmosphere. Upon completion, monitoring the Earth’s atmosphere for low-frequency pressure waves will be realized using up to 60 infrasound stations distributed over the globe. Acoustic waves in the infrasound range (between around 0.01 and 20 Hz) can efficiently propagate over long distances, subject to the winds near the stratopause at around 50 km. Therefore, infrasound observations of repeating or persistent sources have been suggested for probing the winds in the middle atmosphere, where numerical weather prediction models suffer from the lack of continuous observation technologies for data assimilation. One type of repetitive source is active volcanoes. In turn, this natural hazard for civil security can be monitored using infrasound, and first prototypes of applications for the release of early volcanic eruption warnings have been established. However, access to raw infrasound data or products of the IMS is limited to specific user groups, which might hinder the utilization of infrasound observations.

In this study, we present advanced infrasound data products for atmospheric studies and civilian applications. For this purpose, 18 years of raw infrasound data (2003–2020) were reprocessed using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation method. A one-third octave frequency band configuration between 0.01 and 4 Hz was chosen for running this array-processing algorithm, which detects coherent infrasound waves within the background noise. From the comprehensive detection lists, each four products for 53 IMS infrasound stations were derived. The four products cover different frequency ranges and are provided at different temporal resolutions: a very low frequency set (0.02–0.07 Hz, 30 min; https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_bblf-ifsd, Hupe et al., 2021a), two so-called microbarom frequency sets – covering both the lower (0.15–0.35 Hz, 15 min; https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_mblf-ifsd, Hupe et al., 2021b) and a higher (0.45–0.65 Hz, 15 min; https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_mbhf-ifsd, Hupe et al., 2021c) part – named after the dominant ambient noise of interacting ocean waves that is quasi-continuously detected at IMS stations, and observations with center frequencies of 1 to 3 Hz (5 min), called the high frequency product (https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_bbhf-ifsd, Hupe et al., 2021d). Within these frequency ranges and time windows, the signals from the most dominant directions in terms of number of arrivals are summarized. Along with several detection parameters, calculated quantities for assessing the relative quality of the products are provided. The validity of the data products is demonstrated by diving into examples of recent events that produced infrasound detected at IMS infrasound stations, as well as a global assessment.

Patrick Hupe et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2021-441', Catherine de Groot-Hedlin, 15 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Patrick Hupe, 14 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-441', Anonymous Referee #2, 11 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Patrick Hupe, 20 May 2022

Patrick Hupe et al.

Data sets

Higher frequency data products of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound stations Hupe, P., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A., Matoza, R. S., and Mialle, P. https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_bbhf-ifsd

Microbarom high-frequency data products of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound stations Hupe, P., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A., Matoza, R. S., and Mialle, P. https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_mbhf-ifsd

Microbarom low-frequency data products of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound stations Hupe, P., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A., Matoza, R. S., and Mialle, P. https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_mblf-ifsd

Very low frequency (maw) data products of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound stations Hupe, P., Ceranna, L., Le Pichon, A., Matoza, R. S., and Mialle, P. https://doi.org/10.25928/bgrseis_bblf-ifsd

Patrick Hupe et al.

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Short summary
Sound waves with frequencies below the human-hearing threshold can travel long distances through the atmosphere. A global network of sensors records such infrasound to detect clandestine nuclear tests in the atmosphere. These data are generally not public. This study provides four data products based on global infrasound signal detections to make infrasound data available to a broad community. This will advance the use of infrasound observations for scientific studies and civilian applications.