20 Oct 2021

20 Oct 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

COSMOS-Europe: A European Network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors

Heye Bogena1, Martin Schrön2, Jannis Jakobi1, Patrizia Ney1, Steffen Zacharias2, Mie Andreasen3, Roland Baatz1, David Boorman4, Berk M. Duygu5, Miguel A. Eguibar-Galán6, Benjamin Fersch7, Till Franke8, Josie Geris9, María González Sanchis10, Yann Kerr11, Tobias Korf1, Zalalem Mengistu12, Arnaud Mialon11, Paolo Nasta13, Jerzy Nitychoruk14, Vassilios Pisinaras15, Daniel Rasche16, Rafael Rosolem17, Hami Said18, Paul Schattan19, Marek Zreda20, Stefan Achleitner19, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández6, Zuhal Akyürek5, Theresa Blume16, Antonio del Campo10, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova9, John G. Evans4, Felix Frances6, Andreas Güntner16, Frank Herrmann1, Joost Iwema17, Karsten Høgh Jensen21, Harald Kunstmann7,22, Antonio Lidón10, Majken Caroline Looms21, Sascha Oswald8, Andreas Panagopoulos15, Amol Patil22, Daniel Power17, Corinna Rebmann2, Nunzio Romano13, Lena M. Scheiffele8, Sonia Seneviratne23, Georg Weltin18, and Harry Vereecken1 Heye Bogena et al.
  • 1Agrosphere Institute (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
  • 2Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
  • 3Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 4UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK
  • 5Water Resources Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
  • 6Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
  • 7Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Alpine (IMK-IFU), 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • 8Institute of Environmental Science and Geography, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
  • 9Northern Rivers Institute, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
  • 10Hydraulic and environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
  • 11CESBIO Université Toulouse 3 (CNES, CNRS, INRAE, IRD, UPS), 31401 Toulouse, France
  • 12Norwegian water resources and energy directorate, 0301 Oslo, Norway
  • 13Dep. of Agricultural Sciences, AFBE Division, University of Napoli Federico II, Portici (Napoli), Italy
  • 14Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education, 95/97, Biala Podlaska, Poland
  • 15Soil & Water Resources Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”, 57400 Sindos (Thessaloniki), Greece
  • 16GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section Hydrology, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
  • 17Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, BS8 1TH Bristol, UK
  • 18Soil and Water Management & Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria
  • 19University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
  • 20Dep. of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
  • 21Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 22Institute of Geography, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg, Germany
  • 23Dep. of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, CHN N 11, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland

Abstract. Human-caused climate change increases the occurrence and severity of droughts due to increasing temperatures, altered circulation patterns and reduced snow occurrence. For example, Europe has suffered from drought events in the last decade like never since the beginning of weather recording. Here we present soil moisture data from 65 Cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) in Europe (COSMOS-Europe for short) covering recent drought events. The CRNS sites are distributed across Europe and cover all major land use types and climate zones in Europe. The raw neutron count data from the CRNS stations were provided by 23 research institutions and processed using state-of-the-art methods. The harmonised processing included correction of the raw neutron counts, and a harmonised methodology for the conversion into soil moisture based on available in-situ information. In addition, information on the data uncertainty is provided with the dataset, information that is particularly useful for remote sensing and modelling applications. This paper presents the current spatiotemporal coverage of CRNS stations in Europe and describes the protocols for data processing from raw measurements to consistent soil moisture products as well as first results on how the recent drought events have been captured by the CRNS network. This harmonised European soil moisture dataset will help both hydrologists and climate scientists to study individual drought events, to understand their causes, to evaluate and improve their modelling, and to estimate the extremity of current events. The dataset, entitled “Dataset of COSMOS-Europe: A European network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors”, is shared via Forschungszentrum Jülich: (Bogena and Ney, 2021).

Heye Bogena et al.

Status: open (until 15 Dec 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2021-325', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Oct 2021 reply
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Heye Bogena, 22 Oct 2021 reply
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-325', Anonymous Referee #2, 10 Nov 2021 reply
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Heye Bogena, 10 Nov 2021 reply
  • RC3: 'Comment on essd-2021-325', Anonymous Referee #3, 24 Nov 2021 reply

Heye Bogena et al.

Data sets

Dataset of "COSMOS-Europe: A European network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors" Bogena, Heye; Ney, Patrizia

Heye Bogena et al.


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Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 65 Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) operated by 23 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.