20 Oct 2021

20 Oct 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

High resolution aerosol concentration data from the Greenland NorthGRIP and NEEM deep ice cores

Tobias Erhardt1,2, Matthias Bigler1, Urs Federer1, Gideo Gfeller1, Daiana Leuenberger1, Olivia Stowasser1, Regine Röthlisberger1, Simon Schüpbach1, Urs Ruth2,3, Birthe Twarloh2, Anna Wegner2, Kumiko Goto-Azuma4,5, Takayuki Kuramoto4,6, Helle A. Kjær7, Paul T. Vallelonga7, Marie-Louise Siggaard-Andersen8, Margaretha E. Hansson9, Ailsa K. Benton10,11, Louise G. Fleet10, Rob Mulvaney10, Elizabeth R. Thomas10, Nerilie Abram12, Thomas F. Stocker1, and Hubertus Fischer1 Tobias Erhardt et al.
  • 1Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Science, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 3Robert-Bosch-GmbH, Corporate Research, Stuttgart, Germany
  • 4National Institute of Polar Research, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Tokyo, Japan
  • 5Department of Polar Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Tokyo, Japan
  • 6Department of Human Development, School of Humanities and Culture, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan
  • 7Section for the Physics of Ice, Climate and Earth, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 8Section for Geogenetics, Globe Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 9Department of Physical Geography, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 10British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
  • 11Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, UK Government, UK
  • 12Research School of Earth Sciences and ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Abstract. Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through that, they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coreing location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination poses a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous Flow Analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de-facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid 90s.

Here we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3−1) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011. Both of the records have previously been used in a number of studies but have never been published in the full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system.

Tobias Erhardt et al.

Status: open (until 23 Dec 2021)

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Tobias Erhardt et al.

Data sets

High resolution aerosol concentration data from the Greenland NorthGRIP and NEEM deep ice cores Erhardt, Tobias; Bigler, Matthias; Federer, Urs; Gfeller, Gideon; Leuenberger, Daiana; Stowasser, Olivia; Röthlisberger, Regine; Schüpbach, Simon; Ruth, Urs; Twarloh, Birthe; Wegner, Anna; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Takayuki, Kuramoto; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul T; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Hansson, Margareta E; Benton, Ailsa K; Fleet, Louise G; Mulvaney, Rob; Thomas, Elizabeth R; Abram, Nerilie J; Stocker, Thomas F; Fischer, Hubertus

Tobias Erhardt et al.


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Short summary
The data sets presented alongside this manuscript contain high-resolution concentration measurements of chemical impurities in to deep ice cores, NGRIP and NEEM, from the Greenland ice sheet. The impurities originate from the deposition of aerosols to the surface of the ice sheet and are influenced by source, transport and deposition processes. Together these records contain detailed, multi-parameter records of past climate variability over the last glacial period.