Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-216
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-216

  07 Jul 2021

07 Jul 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

High resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors of Chile

Nicolás Álamos1,2, Nicolás Huneeus1,2, Mariel Opazo1,2, Mauricio Osses3,2, Sebastián Puja1, Nicolás Pantoja3,2, Hugo Denier van der Gon4, Alejandra Schueftan5,6, René Reyes5, and Rubén Calvo1,2 Nicolás Álamos et al.
  • 1Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • 2Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Santiago Chile
  • 3Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
  • 4TNO, dept. Climate, Air and Sustainability, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 5Instituto Forestal, Valdivia, Chile
  • 6Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile

Abstract. This study presents the first high-resolution national inventory of anthropogenic emissions for Chile (INEMA). Emissions for vehicular, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors are estimated for the period 2015–2017 and spatially distributed onto a high-resolution grid (1 × 1 km approximately). The pollutants included are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, VOCs, NH3, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) for all sectors. CH4 and Black Carbon are included for transport and residential sources, while Arsenic, Benzene, Mercury, Lead, Toluene, and Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Furan (PCDD / F) are estimated for energy, mining and industrial sources. New activity data and emissions factors are compiled to estimate emissions, which are subsequently spatially distributed using census data and Chile's road network information.

The estimated total annual national emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 are 191 and 173 kilotonnes (Kt) , respectively. The residential sector is responsible for over 90 % of these emissions. This sector also emits 81 % and 87 % of total CO and VOC, respectively. Additionally, the energy and industry sectors contribute significantly to NH3, SO2, CO2 emissions while the transport sector dominates NOx and CO2 emissions, and the Mining sector dominates SO2 emissions. In general, emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants and CO2 in northern Chile are dominated by mining activities as well as thermoelectric power plants while in central chile the dominant sources are transport and residential emissions. The latter also mostly dominates emissions in southern Chile which has a much colder climate. Preliminary analysis revealed the dominant role of the emission factors in the final emission uncertainty. Nevertheless, uncertainty in activity also contributes, as suggested by the difference in CO2 emissions between INEMA and EDGAR. A comparison between these two inventories also revealed considerable differences for all pollutants in terms of magnitude and sectoral contribution, especially for the residential sector. EDGAR presents larger emissions for most of the pollutants except for CH4 and PM2.5. The differences between both inventories can partly be explained by the use of different emission factors, in particular for the residential sector where emission factors incorporate information on firewood and local operation conditions. However, as mentioned above, differences in CO2 emissions between both inventories also points to biases in the quantification of the activity.

This inventory (available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4784286) (Alamos et al., 2021)) will support the design of policies that seek to mitigate climate change and improve air quality by providing policy makers, stakeholders and scientists with qualified scientific spatial explicit emission information.

Nicolás Álamos et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2021-216', Anonymous Referee #1, 12 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-216', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Sep 2021

Nicolás Álamos et al.

Data sets

NEMA: High resolution inventory of atmospheric emissions from transport, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors of Chile (Version 1.0) Nicolás Alamos, Nicolas Hunneus, Mauricio Osses, Mariel Opazo, Sebastián Puja, & Nicolas Pantoja https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4784286

Nicolás Álamos et al.

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Short summary
This study presents the first high-resolution national inventory of anthropogenic emissions for Chile (INEMA). Emissions for vehicular, industrial, energy, mining and residential sectors are estimated for the period 2015–2017 and spatially distributed onto a high-resolution grid (1 × 1 km approximately). This inventory will support the design of policies that seek to mitigate climate change and improve air quality by providing qualified scientific spatial emission information.