Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-213
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-213

  28 Jul 2021

28 Jul 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

Two decades of flask observations of atmospheric δO2/N2, CO2, and APO at stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands) and Mace Head (Ireland) plus 3 years from Halley station (Antarctica)

Linh N. T. Nguyen1, Harro A. J. Meijer1, Charlotte van Leeuwen1, Bert A. M. Kers1, Bert A. Scheeren1, Anna E. Jones2, Neil Brough2,a, Thomas Barningham2, Penelope A. Pickers3, Andrew C. Manning3, and Ingrid T. Luijkx4 Linh N. T. Nguyen et al.
  • 1Centre for Isotope Research, Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 2British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • 3Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • 4Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands
  • anow at: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand

Abstract. We present 20-year flask sample records of atmospheric CO2, δO2/N2 and APO from the stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands) and Mace Head (Ireland) and a 3-year record from Halley station (Antarctica), including details of the extensive calibration procedure and its stability over time. The results of our inter-comparison involving gas cylinders from various research laboratories worldwide also show that our calibration is of high quality and compatible with the internationally recognised Scripps scale. The measurement records from Lutjewad and Mace Head show similar long-term trends during the period 2002–2018 of 2.31 ± 0.07 ppm yr−1 for CO2 and −21.2 ± 0.8 per meg yr−1 for δO2/N2 at Lutjewad, and 2.22 ± 0.04 ppm yr−1 for CO2 and −21.3 ± 0.9 per meg yr−1 for δO2/N2 at Mace Head. They also show a similar δO2/N2 seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 54 ± 4 per meg at Lutjewad and 61 ± 5 per meg at Mace Head, while CO2 seasonal amplitude at Lutjewad (16.8 ± 0.5 ppm) is slightly higher than that at Mace Head (14.8 ± 0.3 ppm). We show that the observed trends and seasonal cycles are compatible with the measurements from various stations, especially the measurements from Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory (United Kingdom). However, there are remarkable differences in the progression of annual trends between the Mace Head and Lutjewad records for δO2/N2 and APO, which might in part be caused by sampling differences, but also by environmental effects, such as the North Atlantic Ocean oxygen ventilation changes to which Mace Head is more sensitive. The Halley record shows clear trends and seasonality in δO2/N2 and APO, where especially APO agrees well with the continuous measurements at Halley by the University of East Anglia, while CO2 and δO2/N2 present slight disagreements, most likely caused by small leakages during sampling. From our 2002–2018 records, we find good agreement for the global ocean sink: 2.0 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1 and 2.2 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, based on Lutjewad and Mace Head, respectively. The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/qq7d-t060 (Nguyen et al., 2021).

Linh N. T. Nguyen et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2021-213', Anonymous Referee #1, 06 Sep 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-213', Anonymous Referee #2, 07 Sep 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on essd-2021-213', Anonymous Referee #3, 08 Sep 2021

Linh N. T. Nguyen et al.

Data sets

Two decades of flask observations of atmospheric δO2/N2, CO2, and APO at stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands) and Mace Head (Ireland) plus 3 years from Halley station (Antarctica) Linh N. T. Nguyen, Harro A. J. Meijer, Ingrid T. Luijkx https://doi.org/10.18160/qq7d-t060

Linh N. T. Nguyen et al.

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Short summary
We present 20-year flask sample records of atmospheric CO2, O2, and APO from stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands), Mace Head (Ireland), and Halley (Antarctica). Data from Lutjewad and Mace Head show similar long-term trends and seasonal cycles agreeing with measurements from another station (Weybourne, UK). Measurements from Halley agree partly with those conducted by other institutes. From our 2002–2018 records at Lutjewad and Mace Head, we find good agreement for the global ocean carbon uptake.