Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-18
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2021-18

  28 Jan 2021

28 Jan 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

EUREC4A

Bjorn Stevens1, Sandrine Bony2, David Farrell3, Felix Ament4,1, Alan Blyth5, Christopher Fairall6, Johannes Karstensen7, Patricia K. Quinn8, Sabrina Speich9, Claudia Acquistapace10, Franziska Aemisegger11, Anna Lea Albright2, Hugo Bellenger2, Eberhard Bodenschatz12, Kathy-Ann Caesar3, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas3, Gijs de Boer13,6, Julien Delanoë14, Leif Denby15, Florian Ewald16, Benjamin Fildier9, Marvin Forde3, Geet George1, Silke Gross16, Martin Hagen16, Andrea Hausold16, Karen J. Heywood17, Lutz Hirsch1, Marek Jacob10, Friedhelm Jansen1, Stefan Kinne1, Daniel Klocke18, Tobias Kölling19,1, Heike Konow4, Marie Lothon20, Wiebke Mohr21, Ann Kristin Naumann1,22, Louise Nuijens23, Léa Olivier24, Robert Pincus13,6, Mira Pöhlker25, Gilles Reverdin24, Gregory Roberts26,27, Sabrina Schnitt10, Hauke Schulz1, A. Pier Siebesma23, Claudia Christine Stephan1, Peter Sullivan28, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer2, Jessica Vial2, Raphaela Vogel2, Paquita Zuidema29, Nicola Alexander3, Lyndon Alves30, Sophian Arixi26, Hamish Asmath31, Gholamhossein Bagheri12, Katharina Baier1, Adriana Bailey28, Dariusz Baranowski32, Alexandre Baron33, Sébastien Barrau26, Paul A. Barrett34, Frédéric Batier35, Andreas Behrendt36, Arne Bendinger7, Florent Beucher26, Sebastien Bigorre37, Edmund Blades38, Peter Blossey39, Olivier Bock40, Steven Böing15, Pierre Bosser41, Denis Bourras42, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot24, Keith Bower43, Pierre Branellec44, Hubert Branger45, Michal Brennek46, Alan Brewer47, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet20, Björn Brügmann1, Stefan A. Buehler4, Elmo Burke48, Ralph Burton5, Radiance Calmer13, Jean-Christophe Canonici49, Xavier Carton50, Gregory Cato Jr.51, Jude Andre Charles52, Patrick Chazette33, Yanxu Chen9, Michal T. Chilinski46, Thomas Choularton43, Patrick Chuang53, Shamal Clarke54, Hugh Coe43, Céline Cornet55, Pierre Coutris56, Fleur Couvreux26, Susanne Crewell10, Timothy Cronin57, Zhiqiang Cui15, Yannis Cuypers24, Alton Daley3, Gillian M. Damerell17, Thibaut Dauhut1, Hartwig Deneke58, Jean-Philippe Desbios49, Steffen Dörner25, Sebastian Donner25, Vincent Douet59, Kyla Drushka60, Marina Dütsch61,62, André Ehrlich63, Kerry Emanuel57, Alexandros Emmanouilidis63, Jean-Claude Etienne26, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc64, Ghislain Faure26, Graham Feingold47, Luca Ferrero65, Andreas Fix16, Cyrille Flamant66, Piotr Jacek Flatau27, Gregory R. Foltz67, Linda Forster19, Iulian Furtuna68, Alan Gadian15, Joseph Galewsky69, Martin Gallagher43, Peter Gallimore43, Cassandra Gaston29, Chelle Gentemann70, Nicolas Geyskens71, Andreas Giez16, John Gollop72, Isabelle Gouirand73, Christophe Gourbeyre56, Dörte de Graaf1, Geiske E. de Groot23, Robert Grosz46, Johannes Güttler12, Manuel Gutleben16, Kashawn Hall3, George Harris74, Kevin C. Helfer23, Dean Henze75, Calvert Herbert74, Bruna Holanda25, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta12, Janet Intrieri76, Suneil Iyer60, Fabrice Julien26, Heike Kalesse63, Jan Kazil13,47, Alexander Kellman72, Abiel T. Kidane21, Ulrike Kirchner1, Marcus Klingebiel1, Mareike Körner7, Leslie Ann Kremper25, Jan Kretzschmar63, Ovid Krüger25, Wojciech Kumala46, Armin Kurz16, Pierre L'Hégaret77, Matthieu Labaste24, Tom Lachlan-Cope78, Arlene Laing79, Peter Landschützer1, Theresa Lang22,1, Diego Lange36, Ingo Lange4, Clément Laplace80, Gauke Lavik21, Rémi Laxenaire81, Caroline Le Bihan44, Mason Leandro53, Nathalie Lefevre24, Marius Lena68, Donald Lenschow28, Qiang Li16, Gary Lloyd43, Sebastian Los69, Niccolò Losi82, Oscar Lovell83, Christopher Luneau84, Przemyslaw Makuch85, Szymon Malinowski46, Gaston Manta9, Eleni Marinou16,86, Nicholas Marsden43, Sebastien Masson24, Nicolas Maury26, Bernhard Mayer19, Margarette Mayers-Als3, Christophe Mazel87, Wayne McGeary88,3, James C. McWilliams89, Mario Mech10, Melina Mehlmann7, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni90, Theresa Mieslinger4,1, Andreas Minikin16, Peter Minnett29, Gregor Möller19, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos1, Caroline Muller9, Ionela Musat2, Anna Napoli90, Almuth Neuberger1, Christophe Noisel24, David Noone91, Freja Nordsiek12, Jakub L. Nowak46, Lothar Oswald16, Douglas J. Parker15, Carolyn Peck92, Renaud Person24,93, Miriam Philippi21, Albert Plueddemann37, Christopher Pöhlker25, Veronika Pörtge19, Ulrich Pöschl25, Lawrence Pologne3, Michał Posyniak32, Marc Prange4, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez75, Jule Radtke22,1, Karim Ramage59, Jens Reimann16, Lionel Renault94,89, Klaus Reus7, Ashford Reyes3, Joachim Ribbe95, Maximilian Ringel1, Markus Ritschel1, Cesar B. Rocha96, Nicolas Rochetin9, Johannes Röttenbacher63, Callum Rollo17, Haley Royer29, Pauline Sadoulet26, Leo Saffin15, Sanola Sandiford3, Irina Sandu97, Michael Schäfer63, Vera Schemann10, Imke Schirmacher4, Oliver Schlenczek12, Jerome Schmidt98, Marcel Schröder12, Alfons Schwarzenboeck56, Andrea Sealy3, Christoph J. Senff13,47, Ilya Serikov1, Samkeyat Shohan63, Elizabeth Siddle17, Alexander Smirnov99, Florian Späth36, Branden Spooner3, M. Katharina Stolla1, Wojciech Szkółka32, Simon P. de Szoeke75, Stéphane Tarot44, Eleni Tetoni16, Elizabeth Thompson6, Jim Thomson60, Lorenzo Tomassini34, Julien Totems33, Alma Anna Ubele25, Leonie Villiger11, Jan von Arx21, Thomas Wagner25, Andi Walther100, Ben Webber17, Manfred Wendisch63, Shanice Whitehall3, Anton Wiltshire83, Allison A. Wing101, Martin Wirth16, Jonathan Wiskandt7, Kevin Wolf63, Ludwig Worbes1, Ethan Wright81, Volker Wulfmeyer36, Shanea Young102, Chidong Zhang8, Dongxiao Zhang103,8, Florian Ziemen104, Tobias Zinner19, and Martin Zöger16 Bjorn Stevens et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2LMD/IPSL, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Paris, France
  • 3Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, Barbados
  • 4Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 5National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, UK
  • 6NOAA Physical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 7GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
  • 8NOAA PMEL, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 9LMD/IPSL, École Normale Supérieure, CNRS, Paris, France
  • 10Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
  • 11Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 12Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, Germany
  • 13Cooperative Institute for Research In Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 14LATMOS/IPSL, Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, Guyancourt, France
  • 15University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • 16Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 17Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
  • 18DWD Hans-Ertel-Zentrum für Wetterforschung, Offenbach, Germany
  • 19Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich, Munich, Germany
  • 20Laboratoire d’Aérologie, University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • 21Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
  • 22Meteorological Institute, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 23Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
  • 24Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IRD, MNHN, UMR7159 LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 25Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 26CNRM, University of Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • 27Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
  • 28National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 29University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
  • 30Hydrometeorological Service, Guyana
  • 31Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 32Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • 33LSCE/IPSL, CNRS-CEA-UVSQ, University Paris-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France
  • 34Met Office, Exeter, UK
  • 35Frédéric Batier Photography, Berlin, Germany
  • 36Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
  • 37Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA
  • 38Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barbados
  • 39Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 40IPGP, Paris, France
  • 41ENSTA Bretagne, Lab-STICC, CNRS, Brest, France
  • 42Aix Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, IRD, MIO UM 110, Marseille, France
  • 43University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 44Ifremer, Brest, France
  • 45Irphe, CNRS/Amu/Ecm, Marseille, France
  • 46University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • 47NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 48St. Christopher Air & Sea Ports Authority, Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis
  • 49SAFIRE, Météo-France, CNRS, CNES, Cugnaux, France
  • 50LOPS/IUEM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CNRS, Brest, France
  • 51Argyle Meteorological Services, St. Vincent & The Grenadines
  • 52Grenada Meteorological Services, Grenada
  • 53University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA
  • 54Cayman Islands National Weather Service, Cayman Islands
  • 55LOA, Univ. Lille, CNRS, Lille, France
  • 56LAMP, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 57Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 58Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
  • 59IPSL, CNRS, Paris, France
  • 60Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 61Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 62Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 63Leipzig Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Germany
  • 64Meteorological Department St. Maarten
  • 65Gemma Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy
  • 66LATMOS/IPSL, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Paris, France
  • 67NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL, USA
  • 68Compania Fortuna, Sucy en Brie, France
  • 69Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM USA
  • 70Farallon Institute, USA
  • 71DT-INSU, CNRS, France
  • 72Barbados Coast Guard, Barbados
  • 73The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus Barbados, Barbados
  • 74Regional Security System, Barbados
  • 75College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
  • 76NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 77LOPS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France
  • 78British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
  • 79Caribbean Meteorological Organization, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 80IPSL, Paris, France
  • 81Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
  • 82Milano Bicocca University, Italy
  • 83Trinidad and Tobago Meteorological Services, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 84OSU Pytheas, Marseille, France
  • 85The Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
  • 86National Observatory of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 87Dronexsolution, Toulouse, France
  • 88Barbados Meteorological Services, Barbados
  • 89Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 90CIMA Research Foundation, Savona, Italy
  • 91University of Auckland, Auckland, NZ
  • 92Meteorological Service, Kingston, Jamaica
  • 93Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IRD, MNHN, INRAE, ENS, UMS 3455, OSU Ecce Terra, Paris, France
  • 94LEGOS, University of Toulouse, IRD, CNRS, CNES, UPS, Toulouse, France
  • 95University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
  • 96University of Connecticut Avery Point, Groton, CT, USA
  • 97European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK
  • 98Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, USA
  • 99Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, USA
  • 100University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
  • 101Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
  • 102National Meteorological Service of Belize, Belize
  • 103Cooperative Institute for Climate, Ocean, and Ecosystem Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 104Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum GmbH, Hamburg, Germany

Abstract. The science guiding the EUREC4A campaign and its measurements are presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly five weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and south-eastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC4A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or, or the life-cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly four hundred hours of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft, four global-ocean class research vessels, an advanced ground-based cloud observatory, a flotilla of autonomous or tethered measurement devices operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air-sea interface, a network of water stable isotopologue measurements, complemented by special programmes of satellite remote sensing and modeling with a new generation of weather/climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC4A explored – from Brazil Ring Current Eddies to turbulence induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview EUREC4A's outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice.

Bjorn Stevens et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2021-18', Anonymous Referee #1, 02 Mar 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Bjorn Stevens, 14 May 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-18', Anonymous Referee #2, 18 Mar 2021
  • AC2: 'Comment on essd-2021-18', Bjorn Stevens, 14 May 2021

Bjorn Stevens et al.

Bjorn Stevens et al.

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Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly five weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and south-eastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing tradewind clouds.