17 Mar 2021

17 Mar 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

Long-term phenological data set of multi-taxonomic groups, agrarian activities and abiotic parameters from Latvia, northern Europe

Gunta Kalvāne1, Andis Kalvāns1, and Andris Ģērmanis2 Gunta Kalvāne et al.
  • 1University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, Riga, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1002, Latvia
  • 2Rīga State Gymnasuim No.2., Rīga, Krišjāņa Valdemāra street 1, LV-1010, Latvia

Abstract. A phenological data set collected by citizen-scientists from 1970 to 2018 in Latvia is presented, comprising almost 47,000 individual observations of eight taxonomical groups, in addition to agrarian activities and abiotic parameters, covering in total 159 different phenological phases. These original data published offline in annual issues of the Nature and History Calendar (in Latvian, Dabas un vēstures kalendārs) have been digitized, harmonized and geo-referenced.

Overall, the possible use of such data is extensive, as phenological data are excellent bioindicators for characterising climate change and can be used for the elaboration of adaptation strategies in agriculture, forestry, and environmental monitoring. The data also can be used in cultural–historical research; for example, the database includes data on sugar beet and maize, the cultivation of which was imposed on collective farms during the Soviet period. Thus, such data are not only important in the Earth sciences but can also be applied to the social sciences.

The data significantly complement current knowledge on European phenology, especially regarding northern regions and the temporal biome. The data here cover two climate reference periods (1971–2000; 1981–2010), in addition to more recent years, and are particularly important in monitoring the effects of climate change. The database can be considered the largest open phenological data set in the Baltics.

The data are freely available to all interested at (Kalvāne et al., 2020).

Gunta Kalvāne et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on essd-2020-347', José Antonio Oteros Moreno, 09 Apr 2021
  • EC1: 'Review on essd-2020-347', Dirk Fleischer, 14 May 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on essd-2020-347', Dirk Fleischer, 24 May 2021
  • AC1: 'Comment on essd-2020-347', Gunta Kalvane, 12 Jul 2021

Gunta Kalvāne et al.

Data sets

Phenology data set of plants and birds and other taxonomic groups, as well as agrarian activities and abiotic phenomena from Latvia, 1970-2018 Gunta Kalvāne, Andis Kalvans, and Andris Ģērmanis

Gunta Kalvāne et al.


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Short summary
Phenology is a study of seasonal occurrence in nature. We present a large data set of timing of phenological phases such as leaf unfolding, birds migration, leaf senescence and agrarian activities in Latvia from 1979 to 2018. It provides direct and compelling evidence of climate change like earlier spring blossom and delayed autumn phases of some migratory birds and plants in recent years.