09 Nov 2020

09 Nov 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESSD.

Southern Ocean Cloud and Aerosol data: a compilation of measurements from the 2018 Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystems and Environment voyage

Stefanie Kremser1, Mike Harvey2, Peter Kuma3,11, Sean Hartery3, Alexia Saint-Macary2,10, John McGregor2, Alex Schuddeboom3, Marc von Hobe5, Sinikka T. Lennartz6, Alex Geddes4, Richard Querel4, Adrian McDonald3, Maija Peltola7, Karine Sellegri7, Israel Silber9, Cliff S. Law2,10, Connor J. Flynn8, Andrew Marriner2, Thomas C. J. Hill12, Paul J. DeMott12, Carson C. Hume12, Graeme Plank3, Geoffrey Graham3, and Simon Parsons3 Stefanie Kremser et al.
  • 1Bodeker Scientific, Alexandra, New Zealand
  • 2National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
  • 3University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • 4National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
  • 5Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
  • 6Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
  • 7Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaMP, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 8School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA
  • 9Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
  • 10Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • 11Peter Kuma Software & Science, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • 12Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA

Abstract. Due to its remote location and extreme weather conditions, atmospheric in situ measurements are rare in the Southern Ocean. As a result, aerosol-cloud interactions in this region are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This, in turn, contributes substantially to persistent biases in climate model simulations, numerical weather prediction models and reanalyses. It has been shown in previous studies that in situ and ground-based remote sensing measurements across the Southern Ocean are critical for complementing satellite data sets due to the importance of boundary layer and low-level cloud processes. These processes are poorly sampled by satellite-based measurements which are typically obscured by near-continuous overlying cloud cover observed in this region. In this work we present a comprehensive set of ship-based aerosol and meteorological observations collected on the TAN1802 voyage of R/V Tangaroa across the Southern Ocean, from Wellington, New Zealand, to the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The voyage was carried out from 8 February to 21 March, 2018. Many distinct, but contemporaneous, data sets were collected throughout the voyage. The compiled data sets include measurements from a range of instruments, such as (i) meteorological conditions at the sea surface and profile measurements; (ii) the size and concentration of particles; (iii) trace gases dissolved in the ocean surface such as dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide; (iv) and remotely sensed observations of low clouds. Here, we describe the voyage, the instruments, data processing, and provide a brief overview of some of the data products available. We encourage the scientific community to use these measurements for further analysis and model evaluation studies, in particular, for studies of Southern Ocean clouds, aerosol and their interaction. The data sets presented in this study are publicly available at (Kremser et al. 2020).

Stefanie Kremser et al.

Status: open (until 14 Apr 2021)
Status: open (until 14 Apr 2021)
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Stefanie Kremser et al.

Data sets

Southern Ocean Cloud and Aerosol data set: a compilation of measurements from the 2018 Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystems and Environment voyage Kremser, Stefanie, Harvey, Mike, Kuma, Peter, Hartery, Sean, Saint-Macary, Alexia, McGregor, John, Schuddeboom, Alex, von Hobe, Marc, Lennartz, Sinikka T., Geddes, Alex, Querel, Richard, McDonald, Adrian, Peltola, Maija, Sellegri, Karine, Silber, Israel, Law, Cliff, Flynn, Connor J., Marriner, Andrew, Hill, Thomas C. J., DeMott, Paul J., Hume, Carson C., Plank, Graeme, Graham, Geoffrey, and Parsons, Simon

Stefanie Kremser et al.


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Short summary
Aerosol-cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements collected during a six-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.